Jonathan Pacheco and Melisa Gonzales History ib outline #5



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Jonathan Pacheco and Melisa Gonzales History IB Outline #5


Thesis: The Mexican Revolution kicked off in 1910 and was led by either revolutionaries, those who called for political revolution, or reformers, those who called for political and social reform. Due to their charisma and boldness, challenging all aspects of Mexican life, Madero, Huerta, Carranza, Obregon, Calles and Cardenas can be considered reformers. On the other hand, Zapata and Villa are both revolutionaries because although they pushed the issue of land reform, their means of reaching those reforms was by overthrowing political systems that denied them the rights they fought for.
Reformers:

Madero

Huerta

Carranza

Obregon

Calles

Cardenas

.“Democracy”

.Capitalism

.Stress on education.


.Restore old Diaz system

.Conservative



.Overthrow dictatorship and restore .constituional gov’t


.Idegenismo

.Labor laws

.Moderate .land reform

.Jose Vasconcelos



.Eliminate Catholicism from Mex.

.Tried to impose Fascims.

National capitalism


. land reform

.Modernization of Mexican life and society

.ejido

.nationalism



. plan of San Luis Potosi

.Treaty of Ciudad Juarez

.Casa del Obrero Mundial


.Closed down Casa del obrero mundial

.Victory over peasant revolutionaries in south



.Plan of Guadalupe

.1st chief of constitutional gov’t.

.Raised revolt vs. Huerta

.1917 Constitution



.Led anti-huerta forces

.army got all federal troops out of Sonora.



Cristero war (1926-29)

.Calles Law

.Ford Motors

.Bank of Mexico



.progress for education

.revitalized labor movements.

.women’s rights


Positive attitude towards American interests and gains U.S support

.Couldn’t provide stable political environment for U.S

.US didn’t recognize his regime.



.Told USA that Mex. would solve problems on its own!

Oil issues with USA 1926, almost war.

.Oil issues with USA – 1926


.Oil nationalization for Mexico!


Revolutionary

Zapata

Villa

.land reform as #1 priority

.Land reform- work for land

.reduction in prices + building of schools.

. Asked troops to restore normal life.


.Plan of Ayala, return land to owners.

.Spread in central + south Mex.



.Took over Chihuahua.

Leader of constitutionalists.

.Commander of northern division





.Cattle sold in USA to secure arms + ammo for his army.

Perishing expedition.



Historiography



  1. Meyer, Michael C.: Unique war!

Claims that the “rebel army combined with masses of people angry at the revolution itself, makes the revolution unique. (Mention with Villa or Zapata)


  1. Mclynn, Frank: Villa and Zapata

Argues that capitalism took a strong hold Mexico because of the revolution.

1. Improvement of hacendado and progressive capitalist spearheading the rise of an emerging industrial bourgeoisie (Madero, Carranza, and Obregon)

2. Revolutionary: Villa movement of free peasants in communal pueblos demanding the return of land to ancestral land (Zapata as well)

3. Alliance of cowboys, miners, and other people (include Villa)




  1. Eisenhower, John S.D: Intervention!

Reformer: Invasion by the US at Veracruz and other events affecting relationship between U.S and Mexico (Mention with Huerta and Villa)


  1. Agrarian’ side of the revolution

1. Rural social movements during the revolution

2. Revisionist view argues that agrarian side wasn’t really important (Villa and Zapata)




  1. Neither “revolutionaries” or “reformers”

1. Historians argue that the Mexican revolution wasn’t a revolution at all because of the nature of the social system that emerged in the post-revolutionary period.

2. No significant social chance took place as a result of the Mexican Revolution (system, of Agrarian exploitation was eventually abolished)





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