John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) Utilitarianism (1863)



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Hedonism

  • ‘By happiness is intended pleasure and the absence of pain; by unhappiness , pain and the privation of pleasure.’

  • The presence and absence of pleasure and pain determines how good a state of affairs is.

  • Utilitarianism and Consequentialism

The Four Objections We Consider

The Worthy-of-Swine Objection

  • ‘It is better to be a human being dissatisfied, then a pig satisfied.’

  • ‘It is better to be Socrates dissatisfied, then a fool satisfied.’

  • Against Bentham, who says, ‘Prejudice apart, the game of push-pin is of equal value with the arts and sciences of music and poetry.’

Higher and Lower Pleasures

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