Joel Chapter 1 The word of the lord that came to Joel son of Pethuel

:13 your God. See note on v. 7. The phrase occurs eight times in Joel (here; v. 14; 2:13; 2:14; 2:23; 2:26; 2:27; 3:17). (CSB) 1:14

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1:13 your God. See note on v. 7. The phrase occurs eight times in Joel (here; v. 14; 2:13; 2:14; 2:23; 2:26; 2:27; 3:17). (CSB)
1:14 fast … assembly. See 2:15. Fasting, required on the Day of Atonement (see note and NIV text note on Lev 16:29) and also practiced in times of calamity (see Jdg 20:26; 2Sa 12:16; Jer 14:12; Jnh 3:4–5; Zec 7:3), was a sign of penitence and humility. The Bible speaks against outward signs that do not reflect a corresponding inward belief or attitude (see Mt 6:1–8; 23:1–36). (CSB)
The priests are to assemble the people and lead them in making a public confession of sin. Fasting was part of penitential observance. All the people suspended their activities for the national observance. Sincerely begging for forgiveness was the central part of such national days of repentance and prayer. (TLSB)
1:15 day of the Lord. This phrase occurs five times in Joel and is the dominant theme (here; 2:1; 2:11; 2:31; 3:14). Six other prophets also use it: Isaiah (13:6, 9), Ezekiel (13:5; 30:3), Amos (5:18, 20), Obadiah (15), Zephaniah (1:7, 14) and Malachi (4:5); and an equivalent expression occurs in Zec 14:1. Sometimes abbreviated as “that day,” the term often refers to the decisive intervention of God in history, such as through the invasion of locusts in Joel or at the battle of Carchemish, 605 b.c. (see Jer 46:2, 10). It can also refer to Christ’s coming to consummate history (see Mal 4:5; Mt 11:24; 1Co 5:5; 2Co 1:14; 1Th 5:2; 2Pe 3:10). When the term is not used for divine judgments in the midst of history, it refers to the final day of the Lord, which generally has two aspects: (1) God’s triumph over and punishment of his enemies and (2) his granting of rest (security) and blessing to his people. (CSB)
destruction … Almighty. The Hebrew for each of these two words is a pun on the other (as in Isa 13:6). (CSB)
1:17 SEEDS ARE SHRIVELED – With no moisture, planted seeds dry up instead of germinating. (TLSB)
STOREHOUSES…GRANARIES – These were useless in a famine. Grain reserves for lean times and for planting will run out, guaranteeing long term starvation. (TLSB)
1:18 Cf. the description of a drought in Jer 14:5–6. (CSB)
moan. The Hebrew for this word is used for the groaning of Israel in Egypt (Ex 2:23) and of others in distress (Pr 29:2; Isa 24:7; La 1:4, 8, 11, 21; Eze 9:4; 21:12). (CSB)
Lowing and bleating for their owners to feed them. Sheep feed closer to the ground and can scrounge grass too short to be grazed by cattle. Because the locusts will leave virtually no grass, however, the sheep will suffer along with cattle. (TLSB)
mill about. The Hebrew for this verb is used to describe Israel’s confused movements in the desert (Ex 14:3). (CSB)
They are looking everywhere, and wandering about to find some grass, and know not which way to run. (ACC)
even … sheep. Sheep are the last to suffer, because they can even grub the grass roots out of the soil. (CSB)
1:19–20 fire. Although the destruction caused by the locusts is elsewhere compared to that of a fire (see 2:3), here the prophet likely is describing the effects of a drought. In both cases he evokes the fire of God’s judgment (see, e.g., Jer 4:4; 15:14; 17:27; Eze 5:4; 15:6–7; 20:47; 21:32; Hos 8:14; Am 1:4, 7, 10, 12, 14; 2:2, 5). (CSB)
This may either refer to a drought, or to the effects of the locusts; as the ground, after they have passed over it, everywhere appears as if a sheet of flame had not only scorched, but consumed every thing. (ACC)

1:20 WILD ANIMALS – This depicts the depth of the coming misery. Even hardy will animals desperately search for any sign of water. (TLSB)

PANT FOR YOU – The animals’ desperation mimics the prayers of the people. (TLSB)

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