Indicate whether the statement is true or false. ____ 1. Candidates Nixon and Kennedy had very different approaches to dealing with communism.
____ 2. The outcome of the 1960 election between Nixon and Kennedy was one of the closest in American history.
____ 3. Lyndon Johnson launched the first government program to fund research on mental retardation.
____ 4. The Peace Corps is still active today.
____ 5. The Bay of Pigs action successfully pressured the Soviets into removing their missiles from Cuba.
____ 6. The Warren Commission concluded that Kennedy's assassin acted alone.
____ 7. Lyndon Johnson's leadership style could be described as often overpowering and intimidating.
____ 8. With Cold War tensions continuing to rise, the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in a space race—vying for dominance of the heavens to enhance their competitive positions on Earth.
____ 9. Khrushchev built a wall through Berlin that blocked movement between the Soviet sector and the rest of the city in order to keep West Germany from using Berlin as a base from which to flood East Germany.
____ 10. The Cuban missile crisis brought the world closer to nuclear war than at any time since World War II.
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 11. During the 1960 election campaign, television aired its first
results of the election.
____ 12. Kennedy’s legislative agenda was called the
____ 13. Kennedy convinced Congress to invest more funds in
defense and space exploration.
health insurance for the elderly.
____ 14. During the space race, Kennedy’s goal for America was to be the first to
put a man into space.
land a man on the moon.
put a man into orbit.
build a space station.
____ 15. The purpose of the Warren Commission was to investigate
who was responsible for the Bay of Pigs.
the result of the Cuban Missile Crisis.
the relationship between Cuba and the Soviet Union.
allegations of a conspiracy in Kennedy’s assassination.
____ 16. Kennedy was unable to pass many of his domestic programs because
the Democrats held only a small majority in the Senate.
the Republicans held a large majority in the House of Representatives.
Republicans controlled the most influential committees in Congress.
many Democrats in Congress believed the New Frontier was too expensive.
____ 24. Which event contributed to Nikita Khrushchev’s fall from power in 1964?
the Bay of Pigs invasion
the building of the Berlin Wall
the Cuban Missile Crisis
President Kennedy’s assassination
____ 25. Although Congress blocked many of Kennedy’s legislative initiatives, they did agree to
pass a tax cut.
raise the minimum wage.
help senior citizens obtain health insurance.
provide more aid for education.
____ 26. In Gideon v. Wainwright, the Supreme Court ruled that, regardless of the ability to pay, a defendant in a state court had the right to
a telephone call.
a speedy trial.
____ 27. The man accused of killing President Kennedy appeared to be a confused and embittered Marxist named
Lee Harvey Oswald.
____ 28. What was President Johnson’s vision of the more perfect and equitable society the United States could and should become called?
Complete each statement. 29. Michael Harrington's book The Other America inspired Lyndon Johnson to make the elimination of ____________________ a major policy goal.
30. The _________________________ was Lyndon Johnson's vision of the more perfect and equitable society the United States could and should become.
31. In decisions such as Engel v. Vitale, the Supreme Court handed down decisions that reaffirmed the separation of ____________________ and state.
32. Two significant programs of Johnson's administration, ____________________ for senior citizens and Medicaid for welfare recipients, have survived to the present.
Short Answer (#33-36): Select any three questions. Your answers should be at least one paragraph in length. “I believe in an America where the separation of the church and state is absolute, where no Catholic prelate would tell the president, should he be a Catholic, how to act.”
––John F. Kennedy
33. In this quotation above, Kennedy reacts to what major issue that he had to confront? Why did he need to confront this issue?
Major Decisions of the Warren Court
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional
Baker v. Carr (1962)
Established that federal courts can hear lawsuits seeking to force state authorities to redraw electoral districts
Reynolds v. Sims (1964)
Mandated that state legislative districts be approximately equal in population
Ruled that unlawfully seized evidence cannot be used in a trial
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Established suspects’ right to a court-appointed attorney if suspects were unable to afford one
Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)
Affirmed right of the accused to an attorney during police questioning
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Required police to inform suspects of their rights during the arrest process
Freedom of Speech and Religion
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
Banned state-mandated prayer in public schools
Abington School District v. Schempp (1963)
Banned state-mandated Bible reading in public schools
New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
Restricted circumstances in which celebrities could sue the media
34. Using the chart above, summarize the result of the Warren Court’s decisions on due process. How do you think this affected the legal system in the United States?
“For the first time, thanks to the wonders of television, two presidential candidates were coming right into the nation’s living rooms to debate. Americans were enthralled: ‘You hear each man directly,’ observed one. ‘There’s nothing between you and what he says,’ added another. ‘You can see which man gets rattled easily.’
The man who seemed to get rattled easily was Nixon. Kennedy, the Democratic nominee, looked healthy, strong, and confident. Nixon, the Republicans’ choice, came across as tired and frazzled. . . . As one observer noted, ‘Nixon’s eyes darted around, perspiration was clearly noticeable on his chin, and with the tight shots . . . these things were more obvious.’”
–––from The Great Debate 35. Read the passage above describing the televised 1960 presidential debate. John F. Kennedy seemed to “win” the debate. Why?
Major Great Society Programs
Health and Welfare
The War on Poverty
Consumer and Environmental Protection
Medicare (1965) established a comprehensive health insurance program for all senior citizens; financed through the Social Security system.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act(1965) targeted aid to students and funded related activities such as adult education and education counseling.
Office of Economic Opportunity (1964) oversaw many programs to improve life in inner cities, including Job Corps, an education and job training program for at-risk youth.
Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (1966) required all consumer products to have true and informative labels.
36. Using the chart above and prior knowledge for support, which healthcare program provided insurance for the elderly? Why did this program have strong public support?
Essay (#37-40): Select any three questions. Your response should be at least 2 paragraphs in length. 37. Compare presidential candidates Kennedy and Nixon.
38. Describe Lyndon Johnson’s leadership style.
39. Explain why the Bay of Pigs was a failure for the Kennedy administration.
40. Explain the Cuban Missile Crisis and evaluate the decisions made by both Kennedy and Khrushchev.