Jeffersonian america through the 1840’S

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The Revolution of 1800Jefferson won the election because of the sly Aaron Burr. Burr actually tied Jefferson in electoral votes but was beaten in a tie breaking vote cast by the EC. Jefferson claimed that the Election of 1800 was comparable to the ’76 Revolution. However, it was a peaceful transfer of power and amazingly both parties accepted the election results, but JA was very bitter and left D.C before the inauguration.
Jefferson’s AdministrationJefferson was determined to undo everything the Federalists put in place. He pardoned the “martyrs” that were arrest under the Alien and Sedition Act and abolished the excise tax. One action that hurt TJ’s reform movement was that JA had appointed many Supreme Court Justices the night before he left D.C.
Jefferson immediately downsized the military. Republicans distrusted large standing armies because that invites dictatorship.
However, this hurt because USA started getting jacked by the Barbary Pirates. The Barbary Pirates were from Tripoli, Libya.

Jefferson had to use small merchant ships as gunboats to fight the pirates. He eventually brokered a peace treaty for $60,000. This was cheaper than the lost goods and ransom of kidnapped merchants. (It also avoided a Christian/Muslim war!)

The Louisiana Godsend: Napoleon had induced the King of Spain to sign over the Louisiana Territory to France. Suddenly, France decided to sell the Territory for several reasons. One, France was extremely strapped for cash—Two,

Toussaint L’Ouverture had put up huge resistance in the French colony of Haiti and overthrown the French gov’tThree, Napoleon was trying to conquer Europe and lost interest in America especially after the loss of Haiti. (Napoleon-Damn sugar, Damn coffee, and Damn the colonies!!!) Jefferson was able to purchase the Louisiana Territory of $15 million, but he did so without the permission of Congress—now who’s the tyrant?
In the Spring of 1804, Jefferson sent out Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the newly purchased land.
The Duel—On the morning of July 11, 1804, Burr and Hamilton crossed the Hudson River to land at Weehawken, NJ. There in accord with code duello, Hamilton was mortally struck in his right side and died the following day. Burr was not hurt but politically his wound was fatal. (The reason was code duello, was a gentle was grieved and an apology couldn’t reach reached it resulted in a duel.)
The Madison Administration—After two terms in office, TJ passed the office to James Madison. Madison took office as the war in Europe was at its peak. Napoleon was able to entice Madison to trade with him. This was significant because Madison thought that by doing this Britain would stop hurting American merchant ships.
Meanwhile, Britain was aiding and supplying American Indians with guns, ammo, and other supplies to attack Americans. Many “War Hawks” supported (proponents) war with Britain.
The most significant Indian was Tecumseh the Prophet. Tecumseh thought it was time to make a stand and fight the white Americans. He went and garnered support from many different tribes. When many others refused to take a stand against the Americans he said he would stomp his fight and wipe them out. Coincidentally, a great earthquake occurred and many Indians thought that Tecumseh’s prophecy had come true. This ignited the Indian aspect of War of 1812.
Mr. Madison’s War—The thought was that there was only one way to get rid of the Indian and British threat and that was WAR!!
War with Britain was extremely tough! In 1814, a British force of 4,000 landed in the Chesapeake area. The panicky militia bolted, and the British sacked (burned) Washington D.C burning the Capitol and the White House.
Fortunately, Andrew Jackson was able to win the Battle of Horseshoe Bend and the Battle of New Orleans to give America some morale. New Orleans was the biggest military victory in the nation’s history up to that point. William Henry Harrison also defeated an Indian named Tippecanoe.
Finally after 2 ½ years of fighting, the War ended with the Treaty of Ghent.
The War of 1812, the Second War for Independence, was significant because it showed it would resist wrong doing with a sword in hand and earned respect from the world.
The American System/Nationalism—A huge patriotic surge swept through America after the war. Nationalism was further escalated when Henry Clay helped create a huge economic plan that swept the country. The American system had three main parts-1) strong banking 2) high tariffs 3) good infrastructure (canals, roads) especially in the OH River Valley. This high times led to:
The Era of Good Feelings—James Monroe became the next president in 1816. Postwar victory happiness fills the country.

The Panic of 1819 and Hard Times: America’s bubble burst in 1819. A paralyzing economic panic struck. Bankruptcies, unemployment, soup kitchens, and debtors’ prisons were rampant. This is significant because it was the first economic catastrophe in US History. Wild, speculative markets and investments were the cause. (For many the Bank of the United States (BUS) was the enemy.

Growing Pains out West—nine frontier states had been added to the Union by 1819. The Ohio River Valley consisted of unsettled, cheap land. Then slavery and sectional balance became a paramount political issue. Sectional tensions between the slave South and free North over control of the West increased the vitriol between these two alliances. When Missouri petitioned Congress to enter as a slave state, all forms of political chaos broke loose. Henry Clay of Kentucky, the gifted conciliator, played a leading role in quelling the feud.
The Missouri Compromise made both sides quiet when Maine was entered as a free state and Missouri entered as a slave state. Also, no slavery could existence above the 36-30 longitude/latitude line in the U.S.

The Marshall CourtJohn Marshall was the first Supreme Court Justice and molder of the Constitution. Under his leadership, the Court presided over several landmark/watershed case:
The most significant case was Marbury vs. Madison-prior to these cases, Marbury vs. Madison set up precedent for judicial review.
The Marshall Court argued that it acted for the benefit of the people and that the Constitution was intended to endure for the ages; consequently, it could be adapted to human affairs.
The Monroe Doctrinethis was America’s main foreign policy agenda. It stated that all European powers could not interfere with the politics of the Americas. For instance, several revolutions had broken out in Central and South America to expel their colonial authorities. In one instance, Andrew Jackson went into Florida, hanged two British agents supplying guns to Indians, and captured a Spanish fort. Congress wanted to censure him for this, but did not.
The Monroe Doctrine was a profound example of American nationalism in the early to mid 19th century.
The Corrupt Bargain of 1824The Election of 1824 was vied by John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William Crawford, and Andrew JacksonJohn C. Calhoun was on the VP ticket for both the Adams and Jackson tickets. Jackson clearly won the popular vote, but the Electoral College votes very so divided that there was no clear-cut winner. Henry Clay, agreed to cast his Electoral College votes in the Adams camp; consequently, giving Adams the election by a plurality but not a majority. When Adams became president, Clay became Secretary of State. The Sec. of State was the “stepping stone” to the presidency. Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Adams were all Sec. of States.
Clay being appointed to the cabinet was know as the Corrupt Bargain.
John Quincy Adams Administration—The Adams’ Administration was a considered a lame duck because he did not have any public support from the public.
Election of 1828This was the ugliest election in American history. Mud-slinging was common practice. Nothing was sacred. Masses of Jacksonians roared against the Corrupt Bargain. Adams men called Jackson’s mother a prostitute and his wife a bigamist. Jackson men said that Adams purchased women for the Czar of Russia. The Mudsling got/became so intense that Rachael Jackson died from the vicious attacks against her morality. Jackson won the election in a popular and electoral landslide.
The Spoils SystemRewarding political supporters with public office—to the victor goes the spoils. Jackson argued that it is better to bring in new blood with new ideas. That is not wrong; it is common sense. The significant question to ask is “Is the appointee qualified?”
Nullification Movement—Jackson imposed many economic policies that many Americans protested. In 1832, South Carolina was preparing to nullify Jackson’s tariffs/abominations and secede from the Union. Old Hickory was not the man to stare down. He vowed to send in federal troops and hang the nullies. They shut up.
The Trail of TearsIndian Removal was the most controversial policy of his administration. It haunts his legacy with posterity. The Trail of Tears was the route that Indians took when they were forced to relocate west of the Mississippi River. Why did he do this?
He knew the Indians had three options 1) stay and fight 2) assimilate 3) relocate—this was the lesser of the evils. However, the implementation was a debacle.
The Bank WarAndrew Jackson wanted to abolish the BUS. This pitted him against Daniel Webster and Henry Clay. Webster and Clay wanted a four-year renewal charter and they wanted it to come up in 1832 so that it could be a campaign issue. The charted passed Congress but Jackson vetoed it. “The BUS has tried to kill me, but I will kill it!!!!”
The Birth of the Whigs—Political parties were changing and emerging in the 1830s. Democratic-Republicans (Republicans) changed to the Democrats and backed Jackson. Jackson’s opponents formed the Whig party.
Martin Van Buren—was president during this era. He developed the name Martin Van Ruin.
Texas Mexico and Texas: Stephen F. Austin established a colony in Texas. By 1835, they exceeded 30,000 in population. Mexico wanted to stop the American presence and General Santa Anna stripped TX of its rights. The Texans fought back with William Travis, James Bowie, Davy Crockett all led by Sam Houston. Santa attacked the Alamo, killed everyone there, and Sam Houston eventually captured Santa Anna. Sam Houston became the first president of the Lone Star State.
The Two Party System—Define.

I'm an Indian outlaw
Half Cherokee and Choctaw
My baby she's a Chippewa
She's one of a kind

All my friends call me Bear Claw

The Village Cheaftin' is my paw-paw
He gets his orders from my maw-maw
She makes him walk the line

You can find me in my wigwam

I'll be beatin' on my tom-tom
Pull out the pipe and smoke you some
Hey and pass it around

'Cause I'm an Indian outlaw

Half Cherokee and Choctaw
My baby she's a Chippewa
She's one of a kind

I ain't lookin' for trouble

We can ride my pony double
Make your little heart bubble
Lord like a glass of wine

I remember the medicine man

He caught runnin' water in my hands
Drug me around by my headband
Said I wasn't her kind

'Cause I'm an Indian outlaw

Half Cherokee and Choctaw
My baby she's a Chippewa
She's one of a kind

I can kill a deer or buffalo

With just my arrow and my hickory bow
From a hundred yards don't you know
I do it all the time

They all gather 'round my teepee

Late at night tryin' to catch a peek at me
In nothin' but my buffalo briefs
I got 'em standin' in line

'Cause I'm an Indian outlaw

Half Cherokee and Choctaw
My baby she's a Chippewa
She's one of a kind

Cherokee people

Cherokee tribe
So proud to live
So proud to die

Ever since the days of old,
Men would search for wealth untold.
They'd dig for silver and for gold,
And leave the empty holes.
And way down south in the Everglades,
Where the black water rolls and the saw grass waves.
The eagles fly and the otters play,
In the land of the Seminole.

So blow, blow Seminole wind,

Blow like you're never gonna blow again.
I'm calling to you like a long lost friend,
But I know who you are.
And blow, blow from the Okeechobee,
All the way up to Micanopy.
Blow across the home of the Seminole,
The alligators and the garr.

Progress came and took its toll,

And in the name of flood control,
They made their plans and they drained the land,
Now the glades are going dry.
And the last time I walked in the swamp,
I sat upon a Cypress stump,
I listened close and I heard the ghost,
Of Osceola cry.

So blow, blow Seminole wind,

Blow like you're never gonna blow again.
I'm calling to you like a long lost friend
But I know who you are.
And blow, blow from the Okeechobee,
All the way up to Micanopy.
Blow across the home of the Seminole,
The alligators and the garr.

  1. What were the two enemies that America fought during the War of 1812?

  1. Who was the main American military leader during War of 1812?

  1. Proponents of the War of 1812 were called: War ____________?

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