Japan: physical setting, racial origins, mythology, societal formation, historical overview physical setting



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EAST 333 WINTER 2014 LECTURE OUTLINES

UNIT ONE

JAPAN: PHYSICAL SETTING, RACIAL ORIGINS, MYTHOLOGY, SOCIETAL FORMATION, HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

PHYSICAL SETTING

1. Features

a. Archipelago

b. Inland Sea, Sea of Japan

c. Korea (210 km. by sea), China ( 850 km. by sea).

d. Kyoto, Osaka, Edo (Tokyo), Yamato Plain, Kanto Plains

e. Mostly mountainous

2. Climate

a. Temperature:

b. Precipitation

JAPAN: RACIAL ORIGINS

1. Micronesia or Southeast Asia: Jōmon culture.

2. ManchuKorean: Yayoi culture.

3. Ainu

KOREAN INFLUENCE



1. Racial contribution

2. Japanese aristocracy: "horserider" theory

3. Language

4. Religious and skilled migrants

5. Later significance

MYTHOLOGY

1. Content

2. Historical role: link to power

SOCIETAL FORMATION

1. Primitive pre300 C.E.:

1.1 Yayoi 3rd cent. B.C.E. replaces Jōmon culture

1.2 Formation of clans (uji)



1.3 Two population centres during the Yayoi period (250 B.C.E. – 250 C.E.) near Nara and northern Kyushu (13).

1.4 Unification by ruling family

1.5 Guild like associations

LATER HISTORY

1. Two main periods: monarchial and feudal

1.1 Monarchial 3001185 (Yamato, Nara, Heian)

a. Yamato

b. Emperor's position as facade

c. Influence of Buddhism

d. Power of style

1.2 Feudal 11851868 (Kamakura, Ashikaga, Tokugawa)

1.2.1 What is feudalism?

1.2.2 Japanese feudalism

1.2.3 Tokugawa (1600-1868)

a. Leadership: Tokugawa Ieyasu

b. Government: centralized feudalism

c. Structure of power

Shogun


Daimyo (local chieftains)

Vassals (retainers)

d. Influence of Confucianism and Zen

d.1 Confucianism

d.2 Zen

e. Commerce and merchants



f. Foreigners

EAST 331 UNIT TWO

JAPAN: CHINESE INFLUENCE, STATE FORMATION,

ROLE OF EMPEROR, JAPANESE LANGUAGE

CHINESE INFLUENCE

1. First contact

1.1 Indirect

1.2. Direct

2. Writing system

3. Confucian values

4. Buddhism

4.1 Sanctioning authority

4.2 Spread to commoners

5. Differences from China

STATE FORMATION


1. Role of Chinese thinking in developing and unifying the country

1.1 Emperor

1.2 Permanent capital city

1.3 Bureaucracy

1.4 Regulations and laws

1.5. Taxation

1.6 Army

2. Promotion of aristocracy

3. Heian (Kyoto) court

3.1 Cultivation as legitimization


ROLE OF EMPEROR

1. Formation of role

1.1 Political development

1.2 Mythology

1.3 Religious duties

2. Figurehead position

3. Evolution during Tokugawa

3.1 Figurehead

3.2 Increased status with "National Learning"

3.3 Alternative to Shogunate

JAPANESE LANGUAGE

1. Difficulty

2. Written Language:

2.1. Kana (phonetic script):

2.1.1 Hiragana

2.1.2 Katakana

2.2 Kanji: Chinese characters

3. Inflection

3.1 Inflectional forms on verbs and adjectives:

3.1.1 verb

3.1.2 adjectives:

3.2 Use of inflection and phrase endings

4. Honorifics

5. Early literary works:

5.1 Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters) 712 C.E.

5.2 Nihon shoki (Nihonji) (Chronicles of Japan) 720

5.3 Man'yōshū (Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) 759

6. Power of literacy

EDUCATION

1. Monarchial period (3001185)

2. Feudal period (11851868)

2.1 Pre-Tokugawa (1185-1600)

2.2 Tokugawa (1600-1868)

UNIT THREE

RELIGION: INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS (JAPANESE SHINTO, KOREAN SHAMANS, VIETNAMESE POPULAR GODS); BUDDHISM

INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS  JAPANESE SHINTO

1. What is Shinto

2. Characteristics

3. History of Shinto:

3.1 Mythology

3.2 Synthesis with Buddhism

3.3 School of National Learning

4. Contribution to Japanese identity

4.1 Pre-Tokugawa

4.2 School of National Learning

5. Folk festivals

6. Deeper religious significance

INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS -- KOREAN SHAMANS

1. Basic principles and means

2. Link between ritual and political power

3. Myth of Tan'gun

4. Challenge of Buddhism

5. Specific rituals

INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS -- VIETNAM

1. Triple Religion

1. 1 Confucianism

1.2 Buddhism

1.3 Daoism

2. Popular gods

3. Ancestor worship

BUDDHISM

1. Religious principles

1.1 Goals

1.2 Precepts

1.2.1 Four Noble Truths

1.2.2 Noble Eightfold Path

1.3 Methods

2. Buddhism in Korea

2.1 Synthesis

2.2 Government regulation

3. Buddhism in Japan

3.1 Early Japanese Buddhism

3.2 Zen

3.2.1 History



3.2.2 Philosophy

3.2.3 Two schools: Sōtō and Rinzai

3.2.4 Adoption by Samurai

3.3 Pure Land

3.4 State control

UNIT FOUR

JAPAN: SAMURAI

ORIGINS


1. Power devolving to hinterland

1.1 Economic

1.2 Talent

2. Need for rule of force

EARLY DEVELOPMENT

1. Leadership roles to those with force

2. Expediency over ideal of greater good

3. Loyalty to one's band

4. History of conflict

-Warring States Period (1467-1573)

REFINEMENT IN TOKUGAWA

1. Confucian thinking

1.1 Literacy

1.2 Morality

2. Influence of Zen

3. Creation of bushido: the way of the warrior

4. Seppuku: Ideal or obsession?

UNIT FIVE

JAPANESE AESTHETICS

STATUS OF AESTHETICS

HISTORY OF AESTHETICS

1. Heian Period (794-1185)

1.1 Classical period

1.2 Role of taste

2. Rise of the Samurai (1185-1600)

2.1 Zen


3. Tokugawa (1600-1868): two major cultural trends

3.1 Samurai: Zen art forms

a. Nō

b. Flower arrangement



c. Rock garden

d. Tea ceremony

e. Screen painting

3.2 Townspeople (ukiyo 浮世, "floating world)

POPULAR ART FORMS OF THE TOKUGAWA

1. Prose fiction: Ihara Saikaku Life of an Amorous Woman

2. Kabuki

3. Puppet theatre (bunraku)

4. Woodblock prints (ukiyo-e or pictures of the floating world)

5. Haiku poetry

THE BEAUTY OF HAIKU

1. Simplicity of haiku is deceptive.

2. Highly evocative

3. Series of images often taken from nature

4. Qualities of haiku

a. images are from nature, therefore, universal

b. there is a lack of detail, which is a quality of minimalism

c. compression of beauty

d. there is association with the images, which evokes and stimulates the imagination

e. focus on the moment

f. sensual, experiential, non-intellectual

g. there is a twist, unexpected, which creates insight

CHARACTERISTICS OF JAPANESE AESTHETICS

1 Mono no aware (物の哀れ): pathos (sensitivity to things)

2. Wabi-sabi (侘錆)

3. Yūgen (幽玄) : "mystery, profundity"


4. kashi (可笑しい): something which produces a smile or amusement, sometimes with a touch of sadness or irony.


5. Iro (色), colour of life, sensual pleasure.

TEA CEREMONY



UNIT SIX

JAPAN: INTELLECTUAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE TOKUGAWA (1600-1868)

UNIQUENESS OF TOKUGAWA ERA

1. Military elite but 265 years of peace in relative isolation

2. Dynamic economic changes

3. Rich cultural development

UNIFICATION

1. Pre-Tokugawa

1.1 Disunity

1.2. Destruction preceding unification

1.3 "The Three Unifiers": Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu

POLITICAL STRUCTURE

1. Centralized feudalism

1.1 Early feudalism

1.2 Tokugawa

1.3 Structure of power

a. Shogunate

b. Daimyō

c. Tokugawa retainers

1.4 Registration of population

2. Class Structure

a. Samurai-bureaucrats

b. Farmers

c. Artisans

d. Merchants

2.1 Samurai

2.2 Emperor

2.3 Farmers

3. Two contradictory trends

3.1 Absolutism

3.2 Democratic (dissemination of power)

4. Ideology: Neo-Confucianism

4.1 Name "Neo-Confucianism"

4.2. Attractions

ECONOMY


1. Growth of a consumer economy

2. Early emphasis on agriculture

2.1 Importance of rice production

2.2 Redistribution of land

2.3 Organization of the village

2.3.1 Socialization

3. Urbanization

3.1 Three metropolises:

a. Kyoto

b. Osaka


c. Edo

4. Manufacturing

4.1 Artisans

4.2 Farmers

4.3 Samurai and merchant houses

5. Commercial development

5.1 General situation

5.2 Increasing demand and diversification

5.3 Low taxation

5.4 Development of merchant houses

5.5 Social change

STATUS OF WOMEN

1. Early matriarchal society

2. Tokugawa

2.1 Confucian values

2.2 Actual situation

2.3 Gradual decline

FOREIGN CONTACT

1. Christian Missionaries

2. Early Western influence

3. Reaction to Christian Missionaries

4. Isolation

5. Later interest in Western science

6. Outcome of isolation

UNIT SEVEN

JAPAN: TOKUGAWA DECLINE, INTELLECTUAL FOMENT, LARGE SCALE WESTERN CONTACT, AND JAPANESE RESPONSE

TOKUGAWA DECLINE

1. Domestic Political Decline

2. Economy

3. Intellectual Foment

JAPANESE AWARENESS OF FOREIGN ACTIVITIES OUTSIDE ITS BORDERS

LARGE SCALE WESTERN CONTACT: EVENTS LEADING TO THE OPENING OF JAPAN'S BORDERS

1. Foreign Intervention

2. Japanese Response

2.1 Tolerance while strengthening defenses

2.2 Continued isolation combined with strong nationalism

2.3 Advocates for greater contact with West

2.4 Search for consensus

3. Arrival of Commodore Perry

4. Increase of foreign involvement

FALL OF THE TOKUGAWA

CHARACTERISTICS IN DEFINING JAPAN'S RESPONSE TO THE WEST

1. Positive

1.1 Feudalism

1.2 Commerce

1.3 Education

1.4 Historical background of having learned from China and Korea

1.5 Attraction of knowledge having direct economic value

1.6 Religious status of emperor helped to unify the country.

1.7 Military ideology.

1.8 Isolation led to the quick rise of nationalism.

2. Negative

2.1 Static social hierarchy

2.2 Gender relations

2.3 Degree of decentralization

2.4 Exposed to foreign sea power.

2.5 Choice to engage West when militarism was the West's strong point

JAPAN'S RESPONSE COMPARED TO CHINA'S

1. Initial appearance of Japan's weakness

2. Response actually stronger

3. Attitude

4. Diversity of response provided better choice

5. National integration

6. Political system less stable

UNIT EIGHT

KOREA: THE LAND, THE PEOPLE, EARLY HISTORY, RELATIONS WITH CHINA, CLAN CONSCIOUSNESS

THE LAND

1. Name “Korea

2. Geography

3. Farming

4. Two rivers as boundaries

5. Climate

THE PEOPLE

EARLY HISTORY

RELATIONS WITH CHINA

CLAN CONSCIOUSNESS

1. Influence of geography

2. Restrictions on clan membership

EAST 333 UNIT NINE

KOREA: LANGUAGE, CONFUCIAN THINKING, SOCIAL IMPACT OF CONFUCIAN THINKING, PATRIARCHISM, CLASS STRUCTURE, BUREAUCRATIC FACTIONALISM, EARLY ECONOMY, EARLY CONTACT WITH WESTERN THINKING

LANGUAGE

1. Written

2. Spoken

3. Grammar

CONFUCIAN THINKING

1. Yi dynasty

2. Differences from China

2.1 Balance versus stagnation

2.2 Originators versus adopters

SOCIAL IMPACT OF CONFUCIAN THINKING

1. Widely accepted

2. Village codes

3. Education

4. Importance of ritual

5. Support for patriarchial authority

PATRIARCHISM

1. Relative strength

2. Derived from importance of clans

3. 1982 family

CLASS STRUCTURE

1. Yangban

2. Artisans or chungin (middle class)

3. Commoners or sangmin

4. Low class or ch'onmin

5. Restricted social mobility

BUREAUCRATIC FACTIONALISM

1. Overall presence

2. Link to Confucianism

3. Departure from Confucianism

4. Result

EARLY ECONOMY

1. Agriculture

2. Industry

2.1 Traditional skilled trades

3. Commercial activity

4. Transportation

EARLY CONTACT WITH WESTERN THINKING

1. Jesuits in Beijing

2. Later isolation

3. Japanese domination

EAST 331 UNIT TEN

VIETNAM


LAND, PEOPLE, LANGUAGE, HISTORY, EARLY ECONOMY, EARLY CONTACT WITH THE WEST

LAND


1. Geography

2. Climate

PEOPLE

LANGUAGE


1. Origin

2. Spoken

3. Written

4. Grammar

HISTORY

1. Chinese Influence

1.1 Chinese colonization

1.2 Later influence

1.3 Vietnam as an East Asian civilization

1.3.1 Chinese language

1.3.2 Confucian values

a. Importance of the family

b. Ancestor worship

c. Education

1.3.3 Scholar-officials

1.3.4 Religious beliefs

a. Triple religion

b. Mahayana Buddhism

2. Internal division

3. The last dynasty: Nguyen

EARLY ECONOMY

EARLY CONTACT WITH THE WEST




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