Jamestown, 1607: First Permanent English Settlement



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P2 |APUSH | Ms. Wiley | Overview Notes, D___ Name:


England in the Chesapeake: pp. 1-3
New England: pp. 3-5
Middle Colonies, Carolinas, Georgia, & Caribbean: p. 6
Enlightenment & Pietism: pp. 6-8
British Imperial Policy & Colonial Identity: pp. 8-9
Background: England was eager to duplicate the success of the Spanish in the New World. The British looked across the Atlantic for opportunities of their own in the 1580s but had failed (the “Lost Colony” of Roanoke). But England emerged as the most powerful nation on the global stage after defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588. England then set its sights once again on North America, eventually building permanent and successful settlements along the Atlantic Coast and in the Caribbean.

ENGLAND IN THE CHESAPEAKE

Jamestown, 1607: First Permanent English Settlement

  • Rulers of England, unlike the __________________, decided not to fund the risky venture of colonizing the Americas

  • Instead, King James I granted a charter to the VA Company (a ________________________ company)

    • Investors pool wealth to finance trip

    • Lure financial supporters with chance of reaping wealth in form of gold/silver

    • King’s charter guaranteed that monarch would receive a quarter of all gold/silver found

The Jamestown: A Disastrous Start

  • Colonists were not prepared to establish a community, grow crops, or sustain themselves

    • They were mostly _______________________ who had been motivated by gold and silver

  • Those that survived received assistance from nearby Powhatan Confederacy

    • Powhatan hoped an alliance with the settlers would bring access to tools/weapons that would assist in the extension of their rule

The Economy of Jamestown

  • At first, colonists ______________________ to find a commodity to export

  • By the late 1620s, Jamestown was handsomely rewarded for its “_______________________” (tobacco cultivation), which was hugely popular in Europe

  • Key ingredient missing from the colony was field laborers—those who would do the difficult work of tobacco cultivation and processing


  • ____ Company instituted headright grants:

    • Awards of large plantations to wealthy colonists on condition they transport workers (__________________________) at their own cost

    • Granted more land depending on # of servants

    • Servants worked for a number of years in exchange for _________________ passage

    • Cheaper than buying slaves

  • Tens of thousands of impoverished English men and women migrated

Jamestown & Native Americans (see document 9 for more details)

  • The Chesapeake was home to 12,000-14,000 natives in the Powhatan Confederacy who were eager to forge an alliance with the colonists

  • Desire for more land led to warfare (1610-1614 and 1622-1645), with natives accepting defeat in 1645

  • By 1670, the Indian population had fallen to just 2,000 while the English population grew to 40,000

  • Conflict with natives was one of several reasons the Crown ___________________the VA Company’s charter in 1624, making VA a _____________ colony—one under direct control of the king (via a governor appointed by the king)

Virginia Politics

  • VA Company organized the first representative legislative body in North America, 1619—________________________________

    • Included two citizens (“burgesses”) from each of VA’s 11 districts

  • House claimed authority to raise ____________ and make _______________

  • Company council in England had the right to veto any legislation the House passed

  • Over time, the HOB restricted its voting constituency (only white male landowners with significant land could vote) aggravating class tensions in the region

  • In 1624, VA became a __________________ colony

    • England was concerned with the level of violence with natives and the high mortality rate

    • King would appoint a colonial governor and small advisory council

  • The king/advisors would now ratify/reject all legislation from the HOB

  • Residents were forced to pay __________________ to support the Church of England

Conflict in VA—Bacon’s Rebellion, 1675

  • “________________” broke out in VA over:

Land

Politics

Defense

  • Small circle of men, through headright grants, controlled most of the land in VA

  • Freed indentured servants found it harder _______________________

  • Lived on western outskirts of VA and faced ______________ with Indians

  • Political corruption among elite

  • ___________________ caused ruin for the poor

  • Landless were excluded from _______________ for burgesses




  • Poor whites wanted to settle in Indian land

  • Conflict with Indians continued

  • Wanted natives expelled or exterminated

  • Demands were ignored; elite relied on trade with Indians




  • Rebels attacked ___________________ in ‘75

  • Indians responded by attacking plantations

  • Nathanial Bacon emerged as leader

    • Mobilized an army

    • Issued a manifesto demanding removal of Indians and end to the rule of the “wealthy parasites”

    • Burned ______________________ to the ground

  • Governor put down the rebellion and hung many of the leaders (not Bacon—he died of disease in ‘76)



  • Significance/Impact:

    • Revealed tensions between colony’s ___________________________________________________

    • Demonstrated how ordinary colonists could challenge the “right” of the planter elite to rule over them

    • Planter elite would increasingly choose ___________________________________________ to indentured labor

Maryland, 1632

  • Monarchy granted land to the Calvert family (Lord Baltimore), important supporters of the English monarchy, as a __________________________ colony

  • Calverts were sole owners of the land

  • Monarchy hoped the _________________________ (owner) of a colony would be more accountable to the monarch than a joint-stock


  • Calverts hoped to create a Catholic refuge in MD but Protestants soon outnumbered Catholics

  • In 1649, Maryland passed the Act of Religious Toleration, granting all ________________________ right to follow their beliefs and hold church services

  • MD quickly assumed the character of neighboring _________with a tobacco plantation economy and indentured servitude

Life in the Chesapeake

  • Family size and kinship bonds were _______________

  • Growth of institutions (churches, schools, etc.) was slow

  • A strong emotional connection to ________________________ endured

  • By 1700, more than 100,000 English migrants had come to Chesapeake

    • Vast majority were indentured servants

    • Prospect of owning ____________________ continued to lure settlers despite hardships (death and mistreatment remained pervasive)

Slavery in the Chesapeake http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/images/slaveshipdiagramth_tcm4-401534.jpg

  • First Africans arrived in VA in 1619

  • By late 1600s, several factors spurred the importation of slaves in large #s:

    • Decline in the ________________________________ population

    • Increase in ___________________

    • Abundance of land

    • Growing European demand for colonial goods

  • ____________ consciousness and legislation quickly emerged

Virginia Laws Relating to Slavery

  • 1627: ________________ baptism may not alter conditions of servitude.

  • 1669: The death of a slave during punishment shall not be accounted __________________.

  • 1691: Interracial sexual conduct shall be prohibited.

PURITAN NEW ENGLAND

New England vs. Chesapeake, General

  • Both in climate and geography, the northern coast of North America was far different than the Chesapeake

  • Tobacco not easily produced there

  • Less favored for investment and settlement

  • Became haven for Protestant dissenters from England

  • Driven more by religious reasons than _____________________ gain

  • Roots of Puritanism can be found in the ___________________________ Reformation

Background on the Reformation, 1517-1600

  • The spread of Renaissance ideas and corruption among the Catholic clergy undermined the church’s authority

    • Catholic leaders often gambled, drank, and procreated

    • Indulgences (pardons) were being sold by the Church, signaling that one could “buy” their way into heaven

  • __________________________, a German monk, published formal statements condemning the Church

    • Thus began the Reformation, a movement for religious reform


  • Luther taught that _____________________ was the key to salvation

    • The Church had preached that salvation was earned through performing good works

  • Luther taught that all Church teachings should be clearly based on the words of the Bible; the pope and church traditions were ____________________________

  • His ideas led to the creation of separate religious groups; a splintering of the Church

  • The phrase Protestant is derived from Latin Protestari that refers to bravely standing and revolting against wrongs publically

Puritans vs. Pilgrims

  • King Henry VIII (1491-1547) brought the Reformation to England in the 1530s by breaking with Roman Catholicism to form a separate church, the Church of England. Although it was free of Catholic control…

PURITANS

PILGRIMS

…felt it had kept _____________________ of the Catholic ritual and tradition and wanted to purify it (hence, Puritans) by eliminating all traces of Catholicism.


…did not think reform was possible; they desired complete separation from the Church of England (hence, Separatists). The word pilgrim often refers to spiritual wanderer.


Both were _____________________ by the monarchy





Eventually, Puritans populated much of New England.


Pilgrims fled to ___________________ and eventually Plymouth, Mass., which would be absorbed into the larger Puritan society.

Pilgrims and the Plymouth Colony, 1620

  • Like the Jamestown colonists, the Pilgrims were funded by the VA Company and many _______________ early on, only to be rescued by the Indians

  • Though never a financial success, the Pilgrims did establish self-sufficient communities and were eventually absorbed by the larger/more economically successful ________________________ Colony

  • Crafted the Mayflower Compact: first document of self-government in North America (see excerpt below)

Pilgrims & Politics

  • Pilgrims had landed far north of their intended destination

    • Some argued that since they were outside the jurisdiction of the VA Company, its rules/regulations no longer applied

    • Leaders realized they needed a temporary government authority, which led to the signing of the Mayflower Compact

  • All adult males (except _______________________________) met each year to elect a governor and small number of assistants; deputies were sent to represent each town

Mayflower Compact excerpt:

IN THE name of God, Amen.  We whose names are underwritten, the loyal subjects of our…sovereign Lord, King James, by the grace of God, of Great Britain…having undertaken, for the glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith, and honor of our king and country…do by these presents solemnly and mutually in the presence of God, and one of another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body politic, for our better ordering and preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame such just and equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions, and offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general good of the colony, unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In witness whereof we have hereunder subscribed our names…in the year of the reign of our sovereign lord, King James, of England…1620.



Massachusetts Bay Colony, 1629

  • Mass. Bay Company funded a group of Puritans as they escaped religious persecution in England and attempted to establish a model community (“City upon a Hill”)

  • 1629-43: 20,000 Puritans relocated to Massachusetts (“The ________________________”)

    • By 1670s, Massachusetts's population had swelled to 40,000

  • Most arrived in groups from long-established communities and were economically prosperous from the start

  • Variety of crops, pure drinking water, and cool climate led to long life and economic success

Puritan Religiosity

  • Taught that individual salvation was subject to a divine plan rather than the actions of individuals (_______________________)

  • To lessen the sense of anxiety, Puritans lived lives of strict piety, framed by prayer, righteous living, and ___________________

  • Stressed the importance of well-ordered, theocratic communities (see Winthrop’s sermon)

  • The entire community might be _________________ if Puritans did not carry out their duty

  • Puritan approach to humanity and to God was markedly dour in these early years

  • Emphasis on pious introspection

Puritan Culture

  • Puritan family was well-ordered and hierarchical, with the subordination of women to men

  • Cultural __________________ of women came to the surface in periodic witchcraft scares

  • Emphasized the importance of ___________________

    • Required towns to support a public school

    • Literacy was higher in New England than much of Europe

    • Though not as well educated as men, many families also sent their daughters to school

  • Puritan culture spread across all of New England

Religious Dissent

  • Puritans were not _________________ of other religious points of view and often banished dissenters and their followers

  • Religious disagreement among the New England colonists provoked the founding of new colonies

Thomas Hooker

Roger Williams

Anne Hutchinson

  • led his followers to what would become Connecticut after a disagreement over church membership with Winthrop

  • led his followers to _____________ after he argued for separation of church and state and better treatment of natives

  • led her followers to Williams’s settlement after criticizing Boston ministers for their lack of ________ and challenging gender norms


Puritan Politics

  • _________________ governments (minus Rhode Island)

  • Each Puritan town had its own church and town meeting, a form of government where all the male church members made decisions about the running of the town

  • Law mandated that religious devotion was enforced

  • Anyone who practiced witchcraft or worshipped a god other than the one acknowledged by the Puritans was subject to _______________

Respect for Authority

  • Many citizens were exiled for criticizing the _________________________

  • Respect for authority inculcated at very young:

    • 1648 law: Any child “of competent understanding” would be put to death if they were to “curse or smite (hit) their natural Father or Mother” unless “it can be sufficiently verified that the parents have been very unchristianly negligent in the education of such children”

    • Taken from the Bible in Exodus 21:15 which holds that “he that smitheth his father or his mother shall surely be put to death”



New England Economy

  • _____________________________________________________________

  • Had looked to natives as potential labor force (like the Spanish) but local Indians proved too dangerous and unreliable

  • Thanks to immigration and a balanced sex ratio, towns mushroomed across the landscape, all based on an English village model, which meant that slavery had little future in the region

    • Some Puritans did, however, own slaves

    • By 1750, there were over 13,000 slaves in Massachusetts



Puritans and Indians (see document 9 for more details)

  • __________________ the violent clashes that occurred in Virginia

  • Puritan-Pequot War (1636-7)

    • Puritans _____________ with other Indian groups to avenge the death of an English trader by a Pequot Indian

    • Massacred hundreds of men, women, and children

    • Divided Pequot land

    • Record notes from video clip:



  • Metacom’s War/King Philip’s War (1675-78)

  • Faced with death, disease, and cultural disintegration (as a result of missionary work, impact of trade, etc.) Chief Metacom (nicknamed King Philip), organized a military ________________ and attack on New England towns

  • Natives were initially successful but ended up losing approximately ____% of their population due to warfare

ENGLAND’S MIDDLE COLONIES, CAROLINA, GEORGIA & the CARIBBEAN

Carolina & Georgia

  • 1663: Crown authorized settlement of Carolina

    • North and South formed in 1691

      • Coastal plantations developed; slaves sometimes outnumbered whites

      • Trade with Indian peoples; lots of poor whites and runaway servants

      • Rice cultivation

      • Lack of community institutions

  • 1733: Crown authorized settlement of Georgia to serve as a haven for the poor and barrier between the Carolinas and Spanish Florida

    • Over time, took on character of Carolinas


The Middle Colonies

  • 1664: Acquired New Netherland; renamed New York; cordoned off New Jersey

  • 1681: Crown bestowed PA (which included DE) to William Penn (see case study)

  • Export economy flourished due to demands for cereal crops (grains) and fertile land was abundant

  • Mass immigration led to the fraudulent taking of land from natives

  • Diverse cultures and religions proliferated

    • Most European migrants held tightly to their traditions, creating mosaic of ethnically/religiously diverse communities


Caribbean / West Indies

  • Produced sugar, tobacco, rice, and other tropical products for an international market

  • Slave labor was integral to the success of sugar cultivation

    • Slaves often constituted the majority of population

  • By 1750, Jamaica was Britain’s most profitable colony


THE ENLIGHTENMENT & PIETISM


Enlightenment & Pietism

  • European and colonial print revolution, c. 1700:

    • Print from Europe and Britain came across the Atlantic; had dramatic cultural and religious ramifications in the colonies

    • Colonial ________________ proliferated

  • As a result of the print revolution and improved transportation networks (both on land and at sea), two great European cultural movements, the Enlightenment and Pietism, reached America circa 1700

    • Movements were radically different and at odds with one another, but ended up producing similar _______________


The Enlightenment, 1650-1800

  • Scientific Revolution (1543-1730) did more than remove the earth from the center of the universe: it permanently changed the way Europeans thought/looked at the world around them

    • Impressed upon them the importance of __________________everything, asking questions, observing, and experimenting

    • The power of the ______________ was eroded, having been “proved wrong” (geocentric vs. heliocentric theory)




  • Thinkers declared their movement to be the “Enlightenment,” their purpose being to enlighten Europe, to shed light on its intellectual darkness

  • Enlightenment philosophers ________________________ government, religion, economics, and education to create a better society

    • Freedom of religion; separation of church and state; freedom of expression; _____________________________________________________________


  • Enlightenment spirit of order, logic, rationality, and science contrasted sharply with strict _______________ theology

  • Support for _____________ grew: a “rational religion,” free of mysteries, miracles, and superstitions

    • God was like a ____________________, who set the universe in motion according to scientific principles; he was a distant God, uninvolved in the daily life of man

  • Optimism of the Enlightenment led many to believe that God was a loving, rather than punishing, father who looked over rational beings possessing __________________


Declining Colonial Piety, early 1700s

  • _____________________ philosophy contributed to religious decline

  • New England Puritans strayed from their religiosity

  • Economic prosperity in British North America had fostered a cosmopolitan culture and led colonists to live a “______________” life

  • By 1720, only ___ in five New Englanders were members of the church


Pietism / The Great Awakening, 1720s-40s

  • Not all colonists accepted Enlightenment rationalism; instead, some endorsed Pietism, a Christian movement originating in Germany in 1700 that emphasized pious behavior and __________________ worship

  • German migrants carried Pietism to America sparking a religious revival (renewal of religious enthusiasm) known as the Great Awakening, which spread throughout the British colonies

  • Many American ministers opposed the Age of Reason and spirit of over-indulgence and wanted to _________________ the doctrines of their Puritan ancestors



  • Powerful, emotional preaching gave listeners a sense of deep ___________________ revelation

  • High emotionalism—fury, conviction, sorrow, convulsions, fainting, etc.

  • Commoners questioned authority of church leaders and rebelled against their ministers

  • Lower classes found revivalism appealing

  • Followers felt a “new light” within them and were eager to spread the message of the Great Awakening

  • More ____________________ “old lights” were opposed to the radical changes


Revivalism Disputes: New vs. Old Lights

New Lights

Old Lights

  • New ministry of evangelicals

  • Challenged authority of established ministers

  • Allowed __________________ to speak in church

  • Opposed to Enlightenment ideas and rationalism




  • ___________________ revivalism and emotional enthusiasm in the church

  • Challenged authority of new ministers who were not properly trained or ordained

  • Opposed women speaking in the church because the Bible forbade it

  • Opposed Enlightenment ideas and rationalism


Effects of the Great Awakening

  • The “unchurched” were brought back to the church

  • Led to an increase in higher education, as new denominations founded colleges to train ministers

  • Led to an increase in new ________________________________

  • Splits during revivalism prevented uniformity in religion from becoming a reality

  • Bold confrontation of religious authority helped foster a national attitude towards authority in general that would be essential during the War for Independence

  • Introduced Christianity to many _________________

  • Fostered a national consciousness: first event that all colonists shared in common


Great Awakening & the Enlightenment

  • Movements opposed one another (emotionalism vs. reason), yet had similar consequences

  • Both movements caused people to ____________________ traditional authority, stressed importance of the individual, and ___________________ the circulation of ideas through print culture

BRITISH IMPERIAL POLICY & COLONIAL IDENTITY
Theory of Mercantilism

  • England _____________________ to enforce mercantilist policy in the colonies

  • Colonies existed solely for ____________________________ country

  • Colonies supply raw materials to mother country and markets for manufactured goods

  • Political control of the economy by the _________________

  • Essence of competition between states is the struggle to acquire and hoard the fixed amount of wealth that exists in the world

  • Seek more exports and fewer imports (favorable balance of trade)

  • Nation that accumulated the largest treasure of gold and silver specie and most valuable colonies would be the most powerful



The Navigation Acts, 1651-1751

  • Colonies fulfilled their mercantilist role for the most part, but some colonial trade made its way to Spain, France, and Holland

  • As a result, Britain passed a series of Navigation Acts to ______________________ of colonial trade

  • Many colonial merchants resented the restrictions and continued trading __________________ with other countries

Examples of Navigation Act Restrictions:

  • Merchants from other nations were expressly forbidden to trade in the colonies

  • Commodities from the colonies had to be shipped in vessels built in England or the British colonies themselves

  • Could export certain products only to England

    • Sugar, molasses, rum, tobacco, rice, indigo, fur, etc.

    • Many of these products were not destined for English consumption; at great profit they were re-exported elsewhere

  • Most trade had to be unloaded at an English port first

  • Limitations on colonial enterprises that might compete with those at home

    • Wool Act 1699, Hat Act 1732, Iron Act 1750: forbade production of these goods in the colonies

  • Assemblies were forbidden to impose tariffs (a tax on) English imports as a way of protecting colonial industries

  • Could not make own money

Salutary Neglect (Economics)

  • For the most part, England did little to stop such violations of the Navigation Acts

  • Felt as though it made little sense to tamper with a prosperous system (enforcement was ________________)

  • Colonists complained ______________________ about British mercantilist policies before 1760s

  • As long as raw materials kept flowing into the homeland and colonists continued to buy from England, Parliament didn’t think it necessary to supervise the colonies closely

The Dominion of New England, 1686-89

  • At times, the Crown pursued stricter control over the colonies: in 1686, the Crown merged CT, RI, MA, and later, NJ and NY to form a ____________________, the Dominion of New England

    • Sir ________________________, as governor, ruled in an authoritarian fashion, abolishing existing assemblies and town meetings

    • When conflict in England led to a coup, Puritan leaders and militiamen seized Andros and shipped him back to England

  • New monarchs in England broke up the Dominion but also asserted more power over MA which became a royal colony

    • Gave vote to all male property owners (not just church members); eliminated restrictions on the Church of England

Salutary Neglect (Politics)

  • The ______________________ was created in 1696 to oversee colonial affairs, but European warfare, along with the growth and success of Atlantic trade, allowed the colonies substantial autonomy in political affairs

  • Colonial assemblies initiated and passed laws, as well as raised money through taxes

    • The governor could veto any law but did so at the risk of going hungry – because the colonial assembly, ____________________, paid the governor’s salary

    • Using the power of the purse liberally, the colonists influenced the governor in a variety of ways, from the approval of laws to the appointment of judges

Colonial Identity

  • By the end of this period, the British colonies were still regionally distinct, yet some of that distinctiveness started diminishing:

    Economics

    Culture

    Politics









  • Under England’s less-than-watchful eye, the colonies were developing a taste for self-government that would ultimately create the conditions for rebellion down the road

  • Yet they were still _______________ British subjects and had, in many cases, been ______________________________

fig_04_02_euro_migration


Directory: cms -> lib010 -> PA01916442 -> Centricity -> Domain -> 2100
2100 -> Soc ∙ Ms. Wiley ∙ Culture Resources & Analysis, d name
2100 -> Edge fall Quarter 2003
2100 -> Actively read both secondary sources and respond to corresponding prompts
2100 -> At the turn of the century, the United States pursued a more vigorous and aggressive foreign policy than it had in the past, securing the country a place as a new world power. During this period, U. S
2100 -> In Aaron Huey’s Ted Talk he made mention of the word "genocide" when describing the formation and expansion of the U. S. at the expense of its indigenous people
2100 -> Document Number Document Name
2100 -> Case, the experiment helped to persuade the U. S
2100 -> In this exercise, you will look at a sample dbq, investigate the documents, build an outline that responds to the question, and evaluate a sample response
2100 -> John Ross Major Ridge
2100 -> The way Columbus's story used to be told

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