Jacksonian democracy



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JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY

I. Overview - organizing principles - Jacksonian democracy is sometimes viewed as different than Jeffersonian democracy in that it favored rule by the uneducated common man

A. five broad themes characterize the change over time in the period

1. rise in the power and prestige of the common man

2. democratization of the political process - encouraging participation of even the uneducated

a. understand the theory behind the rise of the common man

b. see whether, in fact, the common man had more influence over the selection and control of the leaders

c. James Russell Lowell - “Democracy gives every man the right to be his own oppressor"

3. rise in the power and prestige of the presidency

a. how much is the result of crisis situations

b. how much is sheer weight of personality

c. once expanded does it ever completely contract to its prior level

d. the effect of wars and personalities

4. decline in nationalism and a corresponding rise in sectionalism

a. how might the Panic of 1819 contributed to this

b. in hard economic times sections may seek scapegoats

c. those who are prosperous fearfully try to hang on

5. crosscurrents of optimism

B. the election of 1824

1. candidates includes Adams, Jackson, Crawford, Clay, Calhoun

2. Calhoun agrees to settle for the Vice Presidency

3. review the sectional support for each candidate

4. no major policy differences, though Adams had been elected to the Senate as a Federalist

5. depending on who you believe, either a calm campaign or a lot of beneath the surface back- stabbing

6. results - electoral vote / popular vote

a. Jackson - 99 154,000

b. Adams - 84 109,000

c. Crawford - 41 47,000

d. Clay - 37 47,000

7. top three go to the House

8. Crawford suffers strokes which put him out of the running

9. House vote

a. Jackson had 11 and needed 2 to win

b. Adams had 7 and needed 6 to win

c. Clay controls 3-he is the Speaker of the House -his legislature has ordered him to support Jackson

d. three others are conciliated in discussions with Adams

e. final vote Adams - 13 / Jackson - 7 / Crawford - 4

C. the corrupt bargain

1. Clay was named Secretary of State by Adams - why that post

2. there was some bargaining - probably not corrupt

3. Buchanan had tried to make the same offer to Clay from Jackson

4. why did Clay support Adams

a. close philosophically - both ardent nationalists

b. politics - Clay didn’t wish to aid the career of a western rival

c. belief in the greater capacity of Adams

d. designs on the presidency - thought Adams would be too unpopular to run in 1828

D. Adams the man

1. a chip off the old family glacier

2. sharp, cold, harsh, and honest - similar to his dad

3. even in New England he was respected rather than loved

4. extremely well trained for the presidency - right man at the wrong time - see if anyone can identify how Adams is out of sync with the mood of the times

E. program is ambitious and intensely nationalistic

1. increase the size of the navy

2. establish a naval academy

3. undertake massive federally funded internal improvements

4. fund lighthouses in the sky

5. establish Washington as an artistic and cultural center

F. these programs alienate all sections to one degree or another

G. why Adams fails as President

1. fails to comprehend that his nationalism is outdated

2. he refused to build a political machine built on patronage

a. replaces only twelve men during his presidency

b. replaces them with Jackson men to overcome corrupt bargain charge

3. Indian policy - believed in treating the Indians fairly

a. refuses to seek honor of the Treaty of Indian Springs because it was fraudulently negotiated

b. concludes a more magnanimous policy in Treaty of Washington 1827

4. land policy was designed to rein in wild land speculation and curb abuses

5. in truth, he was more a victim of his own personality than any other factor

H. foreign affairs

1. Panama Congress - designed to upstage Adams by Great Britain

2. Bolivar is reluctant to invite the U.S.

3. Adams is reluctant to participate - fearing an alliance

4. Congress attempts to embarrass Adams by delaying appropriation of money

5. two representatives are finally sent - one dies enroute and the other arrives after the conference has adjourned

6. only four countries eventually show up anyway

7. nevertheless, lowers the esteem of the U.S. in the eyes of Latin America

8. Adams also fails to open up West Indian trade to the U.S.

II. Election of 1828 - “The first Presidential election that really smelled”

A. some contend that Adams began losing the election of 1828 as soon as he won in 1824

B. certainly Jackson began campaigning early

C. Republican party splits into the National Republicans and the Democrats (Republicans will be the forerunner of the Whig party)

1. this resulted in the rise of the professional politician

2. made up largely of local politicians who aspired to power and greater patronage capacity

D. the election lacks national issues - or at least no one plays them up because they couldn't afford to lose the support of any group

E. thus the election degenerates into personally discrediting the opponent

F. accusations against Adams by Jackson’s men

1. billiard tables and chess set bought with personal funds became spending government money on gambling devices in the White House

2. accused of living with his wife before his marriage

3. accused of supplying an American virgin for the Russian Emperor - “a pimp for the Russian Czar”

G. Adams remains clean - but his supporters do not

1. coffin handbills of six Jackson shot without trials

2. charges of bigamy and adultery - review the importance of Rachel Jackson affair including the bitterness it left Jackson with

3. accused his mother of being a prostitute

H. outcome of the election - Jackson 647,000 - 178 - 56%

Adams 508,000 - 83 - 44%

I. play up the common man angle of this

J. what did the outcome mean?

1. more a result of personality than issues

2. Southern and Western alliance in support of Jackson - see how long this alliance lasts during the Jackson presidency

3. voters responded more to emotion than to intellect

III. Jacksonian Democracy - the rise of the common man

A. more than anything it was a reflection of the changing times

1. most innovations began at the state level and worked their way up to the national scene

2. Jackson was not the initiator of changes - he contributed virtually no ideas to it - and some say he didn’t really believe in it himself - nevertheless he harnesses the energy of the times

B. Jacksonian politics will dominate the U.S. political scene from 1828-1860

C. various aspects of the animal (Jacksonian Democracy)

1. the rise of the common man - nebulous concept in the belief of the ability of man to rise above his station - and in the worth of all individuals (egalitarianism?)

a. Jackson was no common man himself - rather, reflected the potential of the American dream - any man can grow up to be President

b. born of lowly circumstances and poorly educated

c. traits of military heroism, duels - a mystique

d. an admirer of “good horseflesh and beautiful women”

e. frontier preacher captures what the common man sees in Jackson - “Jesus was just another Andrew Jackson”

f. part of his appeal is that every man can see part of himself in Jackson

2. anti-intellectualism - as are all democratic and egalitarian movements

a. major difference between Jacksonian and Jeffersonian democracy

b. the common man need not be educated to be of worth

c. leadership is not by the wealthy elite

d. Democrats adopt the symbol of the ass (originally used by Whigs to poke fun at the common nature of most Democrats and their anti-intellectualism)

3. movement toward universal, white male suffrage

a. began in the west and spread to the east

b. why did the east have to adopt it?

c. elimination or reduction of most property qualifications for voting and holding office

4. democratization of politics

a. rise of nominating conventions and the death of “King Caucus” (define)

b. voters rather than legislature chose presidential electors

c. 1800 - 10 of 16 legislatures chose electors - 1828 - 2 - 1832 - 1

d. rise in the number of elected offices - including state court judges

1. leads to the long ballot

2. District Soil and Water Conservation Supervisor

5. change in the character of campaigning

a. lowering it to the level of emotionalism

b. does that appeal to the common man? - today?

c. effect on voter turnout 1824 - 27%, 1828 - 55%, 1840 - 78% WM

6. did these changes truly give the common man more control over politics or simply necessitate the rise of new political strategies to sucker the common man into thinking they were making the decision?

IV. Jacksonian program in general terms - “The Federal Constitution must be obeyed, states rights preserved, our national debt must be paid, direct taxes and loans avoided, and the federal union preserved. These are the objectives I have in view, and regardless of all consequences, will carry into effect.”

A. review the factors this portrays about Jackson

1. mandate from the people elevates the office of President above the other branches

2. belief in presidential leadership - actively sought to have bills enacted which he favored

3. relatively extensive use of the veto power - preceding six presidents had vetoed a total of nine bills - Jackson vetoes 12

4. believed that the President must defend the constitution “as he understands it, not as it is understood by others” - presidential judicial review?

5. “he might sometimes be wrong, but he was always a leader”

B. the spoils system - appointment to office is based on political loyalty rather than qualifications - phrase comes from William Marcy’s “to the victor belong the spoils of the enemy”

1. disagreement over whether or not Jackson began it - certainly escalated it

2. replaced between 25-40% of the office holders

3. the Jacksonian view of government positions - “The duties of all public offices are so plain and simple that men of intelligence may readily qualify themselves for their performance.”

4. Jackson concerned about 60 year olds - “drawing breath and salary but doing little else”

5. believed in rotation in office to prevent corruption - moving people from one position to another frequently

6. Washington inundated with office seekers - “I am ashamed of myself. I feel as if every man I met knew what I came for.” “Don’t distress yourself, for every man is here on the same business.”

7. benefits of the spoils system

a. builds a base of political support - a political machine

b. infiltrates new blood into the system - perhaps new ideas

8. disadvantages of the spoils system

a. corrupting influence - because you know you won’t be there long

b. discourages efficiency because you’re not accountable for long

c. places the operation of government in the hands of the marginally qualified

9. Samuel Swartwout - stole $1M dollars from the customs office in New York - fled to England - had been a participant in the Burr conspiracy

10. Jackson’s cabinet is undistinguished except for Van Buren

a. relies more heavily on the “kitchen cabinet”

b. group of informal friends and advisors that never held formal meetings

C. “For two years the simple political issue of the Jackson administration was, who would be the next president.”- Jackson planned to only serve one term

1. it was assumed that the Vice President, John C. Calhoun would take over

2. Peggy Eaton affair clouds the issue

3. Peggy O’Neale was the daughter of a Washington boarding house owner “..she was a luscious brunette with a perfect figure and a come hither look that drove the young men of Washington wild, and some of the older ones too.”

4. all of Washington, except for Jackson was convinced she was having an affair with Senator Eaton who was a boarder

5. Peggy’s father went broke - Senator Eaton bought the boarding house and persuaded the War Department to give Peggy’s husband lots of sea time

6. around election time Peggy’s husband (purser) was caught short in his books and either died or committed suicide (nobody knew which)

7. Senator Eaton marries Peggy - all in the cabinet, except Jackson, are opposed

8. Jackson appoints Eaton Secretary of War - cabinet ladies snub Mrs. Eaton at social gatherings, particularly Mrs. Calhoun

9. Van Buren, a widower, pays her a great deal of attention

10. special cabinet meeting held on the Eaton affair in which Jackson pronounces Peggy as “chaste as a virgin” - Henry Clay remarks sarcastically - “Age cannot wither or time stale her infinite virginity”

11. why did Jackson care - revisit Rachel episode

12. increasingly Van Buren accompanies Jackson on morning rides - and cleverly points the finger at Calhoun as the source of the snubbing

13. Crawford letter reveals that Calhoun had sought Jackson’s courtmartial in the Florida affair - Calhoun had always indicated he’d supported Jackson’s actions

14. what were the results of this

a. Calhoun is no longer seen as the logical successor to Jackson - Van Buren is elevated to that role - where is Van Buren from?

b. Calhoun moves from a dominate nationalist to a sectionalist because that is the only political arena opened to him - becomes a leading advocate of states rights and a supporter of nullification

c. what difference might it have made if Calhoun had become a nationalistic president?

V. Issues of the Jackson administration

A. Maysville Road veto - 1830

1. Adams had greatly expanded the role of the federal government in internal improvements

2. Jackson favored spending on clearly national projects

3. the Maysville project was located entirely within the Kentucky - Henry Clay’s state at that

4. as such Maysville may be more a personal vendetta rather than policy disagreement

5. prevailing view was that federally funded internal improvements kept the price of western land high

B. land policy - west continues to thirst for land

1. graduation - the gradual reduction in the price of unsold land by .25 per acre per year

2. preemption - squatters rights to purchase land on which they had made improvements for the minimum price before the land is offered for sale

3. donation - the federal government would give unsold federal lands back to the state in which they were located after graduation had been attempted for a set number of years

4. distribution - Henry Clay’s scheme for keeping the tariff high by distributing the revenues from land sales back to the states in which they were located in the form of federally funded internal improvements

a. 1/8 distributed to state in which the land was located

b. rest distributed on the basis of representation

c. analyze who would benefit

C. sectionalism

1. in the northeast commercial interests had been supplanted by manufacturing interests whose primary concern was a high protective tariff

2. south - primarily a one crop economy - high tariffs hurt sales of raw materials and made manufactured goods more expensive

3. west - primary interest was in free or cheap land and internal improvements

4. the north and the south court the west on political issues to gain their support for their position tariff issue

D. the Foote Resolution - 1830

1. suspend sales of land not already offered for sale

2. reflects north’s fear of draining off population

3. south jumps at the opportunity to court the west on this issue

a. south doesn’t favor cheap land

b. it was preferable to a high tariff

4. this was the occasion of the Webster-Haynes debates

5. quickly they move from western lands to nullification

VI. Nullification

A. tariff policy beginning in 1816

1. 1816 - 25%

2. 1824 - 37%

3. 1828 - 45%

B. Tariff of Abominations - 1828

1. proposed by Jackson men with the idea that high duties on raw materials would cause enough New Englanders to vote against it

2. Jackson’s men could claim credit in New England for proposing it, and in the south and west for defeating it

3. New Englanders swallow the high duties on raw materials to establish the principle of protectionism - thus it passes

C. South Carolina’s response is the South Carolina Exposition

1. protection from the tyranny of the majority

2. interposition, nullification, secession

3. Calhoun, who pens it, believed the only way to save the union was to allow each section to protect its vital interests fro the will of the majority

4. South Carolina expected strong support for their position but it did not materialize

D. reasons for South Carolina’s dissatisfaction

1. economic deterioration

a. 1820 - 160 M pounds of cotton exported - $27.2M

b. 1830 - 350 M pounds of cotton exported - $35M

c. movement of the prime cotton growing land to the southwest - black belt

d. New Orleans replaces Charleston as the chief port of the south

2. slave rebellions

a. 1822 - Denmark Vesey - Charleston

b. 1831 - Nat Turner - Virginia

c. South Carolina had a black majority and was sensitive to these rebellions

3. emergence of the forty bales theory

a. declining purchases of cotton by foreigners because of their inability to sell manufactured goods in the protected American market

b. coupled with the higher prices they had to pay for northern manufactured goods this cost 40 out of every100 bales of cotton

4. greater unity - Charleston was a central gathering place - dissatisfaction was more known and more acted upon there

5. scapegoatism - most historians seem to zero in on this one - (pride, poverty, and resentment)

E. Webster-Hayne Debate

1. “Godlike Daniel” - “A steam engine in trousers” - “no man was ever so great as Daniel Webster looked”

2. arguments - see Morison 175-176

3. Webster as a force in the Civil War - the reprinting and memorization of his speeches by school kids left them committed to the defense of the union

F. Jefferson Day Dinner toasts

1. Jackson - “Our federal union, it must be preserved.”

2. Calhoun - “The union, next to our liberty most dear.”

3. thus a breech develops between the south and west because of the personal conflict involving Calhoun and Jackson

4. Calhoun resigns and Van Buren becomes Vice President - this provides northern influence on Jackson - where is Van Buren from?

VII. Nullification attempted - Tariff of 1832

A. Tariff of 1832 sought to lower the Tariff of Abominations

1. Treasury coffers were full and even Adams favored downward revision

2. proposal was to reduce tariff to 35% - 1824 level

3. the south opposed this because it had an air of permanence about it

B. Tariff bill passes and South Carolina nullifies it on 11-19 or 11-24 effective 2-1-33

1. SC expected other states to follow suit - but they didn’t

2. Jackson - “Tell the nullifiers from me that they can talk and write resolutions and threats to their hearts content. But if one drop of blood be shred in defiance of the laws of the United States, I will hang the first man of them I can get my hands on from the first tree I can find.”

3. Jackson readies an army of 20,000

4. Clay seeks a compromise tariff - why?

a. didn’t want to see Jackson glorified by military conquest

b. truly wished to preserve the union

c. was able to enact it a;long with distribution

5. 3-1-33 Compromise tariff and Force Act enacted

a. the Force Act empowered Jackson to take necessary steps to enforce federal law

b. South Carolina repeals nullification of the tariff

c. South Carolina nullifies the Force Act - what is this similar to?

6. what effect does the nullification crisis have on the sectional alignment of the west? - why?

VIII. Nullification considered

A. basis for nullification

1. social compact theory of government

2. undivided sovereignty

3. principle and agent

4. interposition and nullification

5. this allows the to alter the constitution by amendment in order to preserve the union

6. failing this - secession is what is left for a minority state whose interests are threatened

B. opponents of nullification argued

1. intent was an everlasting and perpetual union

2. New States are created by the national government - not the states

3. constitution was ratified by the people of the United States not by the people of the states united
4. common sense and the ability to function as the supreme law of the land

5. where do states get their authority to govern - if it is from the people, do they retain undivided sovereignty and can they nullify individual state laws?

IX. The war on the Bank of the United States

A. positive influences of the bank

1. check on speculation - wildcat banks

2. reduced the number of bank failures

3. provided for a sound currency - by presenting state bank notes for payment

4. expanded credit to the west - though the northeast as well

5. served as a depository for federal funds

B. opposition to the bank

1. state banks - particularly unsound state banks - it checked their lending practices and restricted the amount that could be loaned to speculators

2. hard money men who opposed all banknotes

3. small businessmen and farmers who had no collateral

4. other reasons for opposition to the bank

a. dividends went mostly to the northeast and foreign countries

b. political nature of the bank - loans to congressmen

c. still questions of the constitutionality of the bank

d. its monopolistic nature

C. Nicholas Biddle (very capable) seeks early recharter instead of waiting for expiration in 1836

1. recharter was designed to help Clay get elected in 1832

2. non-veto would lose Jackson the support of the south and the west

3. veto would cost support in the northeast

4. scheme fails because Jackson is able to personalize the bank issue - issue becomes support for the common man v support for rule by the elite businessman - thus the rationality of the bank is no longer of concern

5. the bank was made a political animal by Biddle

a. habit of loaning congressmen their salaries before appropriation approvals - interest free

b. 1829 - 34 congressmen borrow - $192,000

1830 - 52 - 322,199

1831 - 59 - 478,069

c. numerous loans to newspaper editors

d. Webster at once - director of the bank, stock owner in the bank, borrower to the tune of several thousand dollars, chief counsel of the bank, and U.S. Senator leading the recharter fight

e. stock - foreign (84,000) - NY (31,000) - PA (51,000) - MD (34,00) - New England (15,000) - SC (40,000) - west (3,000)

D. Jackson’s view of the bank (common man’s view) - “I do not dislike your bank any more than I dislike all banks.” -“The bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill it.”

1. Jackson believed the bank unconstitutional because it favored one interest over another

2. he believed the president had an equal right with other branches to judge the constitutionality of laws

3. Jackson’s plan - a quick kill

4. not only does Jackson veto the recharter, but determines to remove deposits

a. remove deposits to state banks - $10-$4m in three months

b. pay expenditures from the bank

c. deposit revenue in state (pet) banks

E. Biddle fights back - “This worthy president thinks that because he has scalped Indians and imprisoned judges he is to have his way with me. He is mistaken.”

1. Biddle calls in loans to apply political pressure

2. presents all state bank notes for specie payment - forces state banks to call in credit

3. thus it becomes a battle of wills - Jackson respond to political pressure by saying - “Go to Biddle. He has the money.”

4. Jackson would rather - “Undergo ten Spanish Inquisitions and cut off my right arm rather than restore deposits.”

5. by 1834, the bank war is effectively won by Jackson

F. results of the bank war

1. rapid inflation of U.S. currency

a. January 1835 - $82m

b. December 1836 - $120m

2. inflation in the economy - 15% in the first six months

3. rapid increase in the extension of credit and number of banks

a. 1829 - 329 - $137m

b. 1834 - 506 - 324m

c. 1836 - 718 - 457m

d. 1837 - 788 - 525m

4. rapid increase in land speculation

a. 1832 - 2.6m acres

b. 1834 - 7.4m

c. 1835 - 14.8m

d. 1836 - 24.9m

e. New York City has a population of 250,000 - lots for 2.5m already laid out and sold

f. Chicago (3000) land for 25 miles around it was sold

G. why this tremendous boom time?

1. death of the bank took the only restraining mechanism off speculation - pet bank deposits were loaned with less regard for security

2. infinite optimism - always encourages speculation

3. by 1836 the government had paid off its debt and had a $20 m surplus which was deposited in pet banks - what did they do with it?

4. both the tariff and land sales were bringing in sufficient money to run the government

5. in 1836 the government was ready to redistributed between 20-36m dollars to the states (initial payment of $5m) - this caused increased bank notes to be issued

6. massive state debt for internal improvements - $170m

H. Specie Circular - 1836 - called for the payment for government lands to be in specie (hard currency) - it was in short supply

1. it was a signal that the federal government had lost faith in state bank notes

2. this halted speculation and decreased the value of property

3. forced banks to call in loans - foreclosures didn’t cover the amount banks had loaned

4. bank runs became common, causing banks to fail as depositors demanded specie

5. bank failures stimulated serious economic depression - Panic of 1837

I. causes of the Panic of 1837

1. bank war - demise of the second B.U.S.

2. Specie Circular

3. western crop failures - required the importing of high priced European wheat which resulted in an unfavorable balance of trade

4. European economic problems caused banks there to call in U.S. loans

5. decreased demand for cotton

J. Jackson and the bank

1. shortsighted and lacked financial expertise

2. example of a strong willed president misusing his power

X. Indian removal

A. review of U.S. Indian policy

1. initially acculturation

2. changed to a policy of removal to one large reservation during the Monroe Administration with the emergence of the concept of the Great American Desert

3. Jackson adopts removal as the most humane way to deal with the problem

4. Indian Removal Act passed in 1830

B. northwestern removals

1. Black Hawk’s War - 1832 Black Hawk (Sac and Fox) agreed not to return east of the Mississippi from a hunting trip

2. ran out of food - threatened by hostile Sioux - they return to Illinois (Rock River) hoping to find land on which to plant crops

3. Governor of Illinois viewed this as a hostile act - militia pursues them up the Rock River

4. women and children were sent downstream on rafts to recross the Mississippi - militia pick them off

5. Black Hawk was captured and taken east - displayed as the “noble savage”

C. southeastern removals had gone on piecemeal for sometime

1. five civilized tribes developed agricultural interests -some even owned slaves - were probably more civilized than the backwoods hicks who tried to displace them

2. Creeks, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Seminoles

3. most treaties were made in a fraudulent way - signing away of tribal lands by a minority segment who favored removal - applied to the whole tribe

D. Cherokee are the most famous (but by no means the only) instance

1. very civilized - George Gist (Sequoia) developed a written language - they published a newspaper - patterned their government after the U.S. Constitution - John Ross (1/32 Cherokee) opposed removal, as did most of the tribe

2. after gold is discovered, Georgia appropriates their land - Cherokee bring suit before the U.S. Supreme Court

3. Cherokee Nation v Georgia - thrown out because Cherokee lack standing - they are considered a “dependent foreign nation”

4. suit rebrought under Worcester v Georgia - ruling - 1832

a. a state cannot invalidate a federal treaty

b. therefore, Cherokee cannot be forced to leave

c. Jackson’s response - “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.”

5. in 1838 General Winfield Scott and the army force removal of the Cherokee along the Trail of Tears - 1/4 die on the way west

6. some escape to the Carolina mountains and subsequently are granted a reservation

E. Seminole War

1. 1832-1840 - Seminoles actively battle removal

2. finally subdued at a cost of $20m - 1500 soldiers killed

3. most forced west - others escape into the Everglades

F. Indian guarantees of land were typically for “as long as the grass shall grow and the waters shall flow”

1. concept of Oklahoma as Indian Territory (one large reservation)

2. were the Indians treated fairly - by colonizing standards - yes

XI. Jacksonian diplomacy - what would one expect, given his personality?

A. excellent relations with Great Britain result in the opening of the West Indies trade

B. problems with French spoilation claims

1. France agrees to pay $5m of $23m owed in claims stemming from the Napoleonic Wars

2. first installment is due in 1833 - draft bounces - Biddle charges the U.S. government $170,000 on the bounced installment

3. Jackson recommends reprisals against French property

4. ministers recalled (French minister’s son is named Andrew Jackson - Jackson is his Godfather)

5. British mediate the dispute - France accepts Jackson’s apology, though he contends he never gave one

XII. Texas

A. both Adams and Jackson attempted to purchase Texas from Mexico

B. Mexico held on to it primarily as a buffer to U.S. expansion

C. 1823- Mexican grant to Moses Austin to bring settlers to Texas is exercised by his son, Stephen Austin

1. 300 American families settle in Texas

a. 177 acres of “rich tillage”

b. 13,000 acres of pastureland

c. Austin receives a bonus of 65,000 acres

2. by 1834 Americans outnumber Mexicans in Texas by 4-1 (20,000)

a. they have with them 2000 slaves

b. slavery outlawed in Mexico in 1829 (or 1831)

3. 1830s settler types are replaced by swashbucklers - Bowie, Crockett, Houston (Jackson man - governor of Tennessee - wife problems - referred to by the Indians as “the big drunk”)

D. Santa Anna rises to power in 1835 and revokes states rights (Texans had been allowed to live in violation of certain Mexican laws)

E. Texas secedes from Mexico and Santa Anna invades with an army of 6000 - Alamo, Goliad, San Jacinto

1. Mexicans are caught napping - Santa Anna caught cowering in a field - he is forced to sign two treaties

2. they grant Texas independence and establish the southern boundary as the Rio Grande

3. Santa Anna repudiates both after his release

F. Jackson is slow to recognize Texas independence - why?

1. perhaps fearful of reviving the slavery issue directly before the election of 1836

2. annexation involves certain war with Mexico

3. recognizes Texas independence on the last day of his term

XIII. Jackson wrapup

A. review five organizing principles and look at Jackson’s impact on them

B. should he be ranked as a great president or not?

XIV. Election of 1836

A. Van Buren is Jackson’s hand chosen successor

1. clever politician - review his supplanting of Calhoun

2. Bailey describes him as a first-class second-rate man

B. Whigs go the favorite son route hoping to send the election to the House

1. Van Buren elected

2. Richard Johnson (Kentucky) Vice President - chosen by the Senate

3. “Rumpsey dumpsey, Rumpsey dumpsey, Colonel Johnson killed Tecumseh”

4. Morison - “This slogan has never been surpassed for electioneering imbecility”

C. Van Buren’s problems

1. Jackson’s shoes are too big to fill

2. Panic of 1837 colors his presidency

a. philosophy of the time was that panics were normal economic occurrences which should be allowed to run their course without government intervention

b. distribution is repealed

c. authorized the issuing of treasury bills to meet obligations

3. independent treasury system established - (Divorce Bill) - designed to eliminate government revenue from political considerations

a. amounted to little more than locking the government’s money in a vault

b. Van Buren was convinced that this would depolitize the issue

c. Loco-foco support for the bill

d. state repudiation of debt

XV. Election of 1840 - “the jolliest and most idiotic presidential contest in our history” - Emerson -“The Democrats had the best principles and the Whigs had the best men.”

A. Democrats unenthusiastically renominate Van Buren

B. the Whigs ignored the best men and nominated the most electable - review the idea that the best men have often made too many political enemies (Clay and Webster)

1. William Henry Harrison is nominated

2. well-to-do farmer living in Ohio - 16 room mansion - 3000 acres

3. Whigs adopt the Democratic strategy - review that the Whig part was made up of anyone who was not a Democrat

a. Whigs nominate a military hero

b. they adopt no platform

c. they ignore all issues - Nicholas Biddle - “If General Harrison is taken up as the candidate it will be on account of the past. Let him say not one single word about his principles, or his creed - let him say nothing - promise nothing. Let no committee, no convention, no town meeting ever extract from him a single word about what he thinks now or will do hereafter. Let the use of pen and ink be wholly forbidden.”

d. appeal to emotion rather than reason

e. adopt a clever slogan - “Tippiecanoe and Tyler too”

1. Tyler was a ticket balancer

2. fell out of favor with Democrats after introducing a bill to censure Jackson

4. campaign stressed Harrison as a common man - even built a log cabin on his property in Ohio - became such a rage that Daniel Webster apologized for not h aving been born in a log cabin

5. campaign centered on portraying Van Buren as an aristocrat

a. accused of using cologne on his whiskers

b. slept in a Louis XV bedstead

c. sipped soup with a golden spoon

d. ate pate from a silver plate

“No ruffled shirt, no silken hose, no airs does Tip display, but like the pith of worth he goes in homespun hodden-grey - upon his board there ne’er appeared the costly sparkling wine, but lain hard cider such as cheered in Days of Old Aung Syne.” -- “Let Van from his coolers of silver drink wine, and lounge on his cushioned settee; our man on his buckeye bench can recline, content with hard cider is he. Then a shout from each freedman - a shout from each state, to the plain honest husbandman true, and this be our motto - the motto of fate - hurrah for old Tippiecanoe.”

6. the Baltimore blunder - Democratic newspaper said that if given a pension of $2000 and a barrel of hard cider, Harrison would prefer his log cabin to the White House.

7. Whigs seized upon this and ran the “log cabin and hard cider” campaign

C. Harrison elected, though relatively close

1. coldest inauguration day in history

2. Harrison spoke for one hour and forty minutes without a top hat or overcoat

3. in the cold damp White House a cold developed into pneumonia

4. doctors tried to save him - “After blistering and cupping him (another term for bleeding), they administered violent emetics (induced vomiting), and cathartics (designed to clean out the bowels); then switched to opium, camphor, and brandy; finally in desperation, they administered Indian medicineman’s remedies such as crude petroleum and snakeweed. These finished him - Tecumseh’s revenge perhaps.”

5. died on April 4, 1841, one month after taking office

6. thus he had the longest inaugural address and the shortest presidency

7. 138 published sermons on his death - everyone knew it was divine displeasure, but disagreed over what it was with - immorality and sabbath breaking were the most popular - also - a warning to free the slaves - in the south, a warning against the growing abolitionist movement

D. Tyler as president is anti-Whig

1. opposes chartering a new bank, higher tariff, internal improvements

2. favors the annexation of Texas

3. after veto of bank bill, the entire cabinet resigns (except Webster who stays long enough to conclude the Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842- resigns in 1843)

4. Tyler is thus driven to the Democrats - Whigs refer to him as “his accidency,” “the executive ass”

5. Princeton explosion of the “Peacemaker” kill two cabinet members and gives Tyler a chance to restructure the cabinet

a. Calhoun becomes Secretary of State

b. cabinet in entirely southern

c. this tends to make the Whig party a sectional one - strength is based entirely in the north

d. Calhoun is brought on board for two reasons - to get Texas and to get Tyler elected

E. the annexation of Texas - why the U.S. is interested

1. Britain and France began looking more seriously at Texas after independence

a. they saw it as a wedge to U.S. expansion

b. independent source of cotton

c. means of avoiding high tariffs on manufactured goods

2. Texas adopts an expansionistic policy under Lamar (Mirabeau Bonaparte) who tries to take Santa Fe from Mexico

3. return of Houston to power increases foreign intrigue

4. two treaties are introduced into the Senate to annex Texas but both fail to get the required two- thirds vote - some in north opposed because of slavery issue

5. joint resolution is proposed but Tyler opposes as questionably constitutional

6. Tyler hopes to avoid Texas outlawing of slavery

7. South Carolina threatens to secede if Texas is not admitted as a slave state

8. 12-29-45 Texas is admitted by joint resolution

9. slavery not as important as later because of shortened trade route to the Pacific

II. Religion - briefly review turn of the century emotionalism

A. Deism - the idea that God was a clockmaker who set the world in motion according to natural laws but no longer

controlled its operation

1. was a product of the Age of Reason (Enlightenment)

2. Jefferson and Franklin toyed with Deism

3. generally lost its appeal by the 1830s

B. Unitarianism

1. gains popularity in the 1820s and 1830s

2. rejected the idea of the trinity

3. emphasizes free will

C. Second Great Awakening - years vary depending on who you read (1790s - 1830s)

1. begins in the “burned over region” of upstate New York (along the Erie Canal)

2. fits well with Jacksonian Democracy

a. emotional appeal to the common man

b. emphasis on free will - man can save himself through good works (don’tover-emphasize this)

c. reflects the optimistic view that man is perfectible

d. this emphasis on good works stimulates the reform movements of the 1830s and 1840s

3. Charles Finney, Theodore Parker, Frelingheusan bring it to eastern urban churches

4. still characterized by camp meetings - James McGready draws 20,000 from 150 miles at the Cane Ridge meeting in 1800

5. results

a. stimulates reform movements

b. reflects the democratic trend of the period - the common man is in control of his own destiny

c. increases the number of religious sects

d. further separates church and state

e. contributes to Utopian communitarianism

D. Transcendentalism

1. arose as a reaction to the coldness and materialism of Unitarianism and reflects romanticism - Unitarian beliefs

a. believed that man was capable of goodness - good works reflected this

b. rejected Puritan values of predestination, trinity, and the evilness of man

c. the character of God was seen as loving and merciful

2. Transcendentalism is a philosophy rather than a religion - thus it seeks truth

a. rejects the role of experience and pure reason

b. elevates the role of intuition

c. urges conscience following

d. stressed individualism and self-reliance - is it in sync with the times

e. believe in the oversoul - the nebulous believe that God (or goodness) is present within all things

f. truth was beyond the realm of human understanding - thus man could not understand or comprehend truth

g. sought therefore to “apprehend” truth - recognize its presence without seeking to understand it - to feel truth

h. the transparent eyeball - sees all and is seen by all

3. characterized by certain words - idealism, optimism, liberalism, individualism, reform

4. thus it is tied to other reform movement and to the broader theme of Jacksonian Democracy

5. never gained a great following though it greatly influenced the intellectuals of the time and is therefore present in American literature

6. Emerson, Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, Walt Whitman

II. Utopian communitariansm

A. attempted to establish ideal communities (microcosms)

1. they reflect idealism, religious, and economic socialist beliefs

2. all believed that man was more perfectible in a closed environment than in society generally – though all believed their ideas had transfer value to society generally

B. causes

1. a reflection of changing religion and groping experimentation

2. increased belief in the perfectibility of man

3. outgrowth of European socialist and economic thought

4. reaction against predominate American individualism (unless you view it as group individualism)

5. they serve as reflections of optimism

6. they are part of the larger reform movement sweeping the country during the period

C. individual groups

1. George Rapp and the Rappites - Western Pennsylvania

a. renounced marriage and sex and interpreted the Bible literally

b. believed the Second Coming was at hand and thus there was no need to perpetuate humanity

2. Ann Lee Stanley and the Shakers - established in 1787 but rapid growth during this time period

a. community building period during the 1820s

b. practiced celibacy believing that the millennium was at hand

c. communal ownership of property

d. God was a dual person - male and female - Lee was the female Christ

e. so named because they shook sin out of their fingers during meetings

f. relied on conversion to continue the sect

g. some restored Shaker communities exist today

3. William Miller and the Millerites

a. believed that the end of the world was at hand

b. marched followers up a hill to wait 10-22-44

c. did the same the following year

d. Seventh Day Adventist Church

4. Oneida Community (The Perfectionists) - John Noyes - 1848

a. believed in the idea of “complex marriage” where every individual of the community was married to every other

b. thus free love between consenting adults

c. procreation could occur only with “spiritually advanced” males - originally only Noyes was a spiritually advanced male

d. survives for 30 years because of a solid economic foundation

1. made quality steel traps originally

2. later, quality silver - after 1851

e. Noyes is eventually forced to flee to Canada

f. Oneida then forms a joint stock company with its members as stockholders - what is Oneida today?

5. Brook farm - designed as an intellectual community in which each member would work as much as they liked - paid the most for the worst jobs

a. attracted, for a time, quality writers and intellectuals

b. seen as creating a creative, intellectually stimulating environment

c. fails as successful people don’t wish to share

6. New Harmony Indiana - founded by Robert Owen (1824-5)

a. Scottish socialist who sought cooperative effort in industrial society

b. communal ownership of property

7. Charles Fournier - Utopian Socialist - formed phalanxes

a. composed of a preestablished set number of people who labored together

b. more than forty formed in the U.S.

D. these groups are remarkably unsuccessful in attracting a large following - why?

1. availability of free or cheap land

2. lack of economic success led many to abandon commitment

3. economic success caused dissolution in a few cases - each wanting to take their money and run

4. out of step with American individualism and American values

a. something unholy about needing the help of others to make it

b. American dream was alive and the complete individual should be able to make it on his own through the Protestant work ethic

5. utopian optimism served no need since America was already optimistic

E. communitarianism may be a reflection of the urgent spirit of reform more than anything else

F. Mormons - the communitarian success story

1. background - founded in the “burned over” region of New York

a. Palmyra, New York - golden tablets discovered

b. spectacles allow translation into the Book of the Mormon (1830)

2. move from NY to Kirkland, OH, to Independence, MO, to Nauvoo, IL - reasons

a. economic success engendered jealousy

b. militaristic nature - plots to form a country within a country

c. polygamy

d. fear of plans to take over the Northwest

3. Smith announces for the Presidency in 1844

a. Smith charged with treason in IL

b. shot in 1844

4. Brigham Young leads them west to Mexican territory along the Mormon Trail - 1847

5. successfully establish Salt Lake City and prosper off of western migrants

6. relate the Mark Twain story of Brigham Young

III. Reform movements

A. reasons for development

1. Second Great Awakening - good works

2. increased belief in the perfectibility of man - optimism

3. rising political power of the common man focused greater attention on common problems

4. increasing industrialization caused concentrations of people which both created problems and made them more visible

a. 100 drunks spread throughout the country made little impact

b. 100 drunks in a community cause a more visible problem

B. reform in criminal codes and prison system

1. imprisonment for debt eliminated (at one time for as little as a dollar) - why?

2. capital crimes are reduced - public hangings reduced (because of pickpockets)

3. treatment is improved - Newgate prison - beatings - lumping together of all types of criminals - punishments are softened - whippings and brandings decline

4. “Auburn System” - had all prisoners work together but separated them at night

C. treatment of the insane

1. Dorothea Dix of Massachusetts is the primary crusader

2. typically they were placed with common criminals - “chained, naked, beaten with rods, and lashed into obedience”

3. movement to provide separate asylums for the insane - conditions were not greatly improved, but the stirrings of reform were there

D. temperance - difference between temperance and prohibition

1. excess drink was blamed for many societal ills - in fact it was a problem

a. drunken brawls at weddings

b. people falling into graves at funerals

c. pallbearers losing their way on the way to the cemetery

2. two lines of attack - personal persuasion - legislation

3. United States Temperance Union formed 1833 - Washington Temperance Societies also established

4. “Maine Laws” (1848) reflect the movement from temperance to prohibition - though they are relatively shortlived

5. little lasting result - still eighty years until national prohibition

E. women’s rights

1. generally viewed as being better treated in the U.S. than in Europe - largely due to their scarcity

2. still had very few rights

a. when married they did not retain ownership of their property in most cases

b. when divorced, male frequently got custody

c. discouraged from speaking in public lest they “unisex” themselves

d. major concern was the lack of suffrage because it provided the toll by which other problems could be corrected

3. women are active very early in the abolition movement

4. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott denied admission to the London anti-slavery conference in 1840

5. determined to increase awareness about restrictions on women and to agitate for change

6. establish the Seneca Falls Convention (Women’s Rights) 1848

7. declaration of principles - “We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men and women are created equal”

8. Amelia Bloomer, Susan B. Anthony also active

9. scorned by most men Gibbey, gibbey gab

The women held a confab

They demanded their rights

To wear their tights

Gibbey, gibbey gab

10. the early women’s suffrage movement blends into the abolition movement - feeling that if slaves were granted freedom and the vote, women would as well

F. public education

1. reasons for the demand for free public education

a. universal white male suffrage demanded an educated population

b. workingman’s desire for upward social mobility

c. fear of illiterate immigrants

d. keep kids from competing for jobs with heads of households

2. opposition from childless couples and the wealthy - why? - “Damn foolishness to be taxed for educatin’ other folkes brats.” - one grave marker - “Herein lies an enemy of public education”

3. nevertheless expansion of education flourishes during the 1840 and 50s - primary grades - surge in high schools will be a post-civil war occurrence

4. primary gains

a. state control of education is established

b. normal schools founded - provided formal teacher training

c. state educational appropriations are increased

d. school year is lengthened

5. Horace Mann the primary mover in Massachusetts - Father of American Education - particularly encouraged the founding of normal schools

6. unifying forces in public education

a. Noah Webster - the schoolmaster of the republic

1. 80m readers and spellers sold

2. emphasized nationalistic (patriotic) themes

3. royalties allowed time to work on dictionary

b. William McGuffey

1. published grade school readers

2. 122m copiers sold

3. again emphasis on patriotic themes

c. Samuel Goodrich - published Peter Parley series on history and geography

d. these created a standardization of educational material and exposed all kids to similar philosophy

7. there were, however, significant sectional difference in primary education

a. by 1850, free public education was the established principle in the northeast and northwest

b. this created a philosophical link between these two section and left the South more isolated

8. secondary education takes off after the Civil War though it expands during this period

9. higher education expands during the period

a. more than 80 colleges founded 1830-50

b. increased educational opportunities for women

1. Mt. Holyoke

2. Oberlin

10. adult education expands during the period as well

a. Lyceum movement

b. Parson Weems books peddled door to door

G. these reform movements are predominantly northern and western movement and largely exclude the south

1. they provide a philosophical and psychological link which complements physical and commercial links

2. isolate the south intellectually

3. abolition movement grows during the period as well





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