Jacksonian Democracy



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Jacksonian Democracy

Directions: Complete the following using your notes from class and p. 395-401 in you book.


1. Using your notes, what part of the country supported each candidate? Does the map show that to be true?http://voteview.com/images/election_of_1824.jpg

South – supported Jackson and Crawford

West – Supported Clay

Northeast – John Quincy Adams

*Jackson also received some support in some Northern States

2. Which candidate had the most electoral votes? Why did he not win the election?

Jackson – with 99

He did not win because he did not receive 51% of the electoral votes

3. What is the corrupt bargain? Why did it lend to the creation of Jacksonian Democracy?

Corrupt bargain is when Henry Clay convinced the House of Representatives to choose John Quincy Adams in exchange for becoming Secretary of State. Jackson vowed to win in 1828 and expanded the right to vote to all white males in order to increase his chance of winning.

http://www.homeofheroes.com/talkingpoints/images/jackson_handbill.jpg

4. Above is an attack on Andrew Jackson by President John Q. Adams during the Election of 1828. Who won the election of 1828 and what did attacks like the one above play in its outcome?

Andrew Jackson won the election of 1828. Attacks like the one above caused the death of Rachel Jackson and led to the precedent that political campaigns would focus on personal attacks and not political attacks.

5. The Election of 1828 ushered in Jacksonian Democracy in American. Define Jacksonian Democracy and Jackson’s reforms listed below.



Jacksonian Democracy

Define: the idea of widening political power to more of the people

Voting Rights: the right to vote and choose political leaders; Jackson expanded it to all white males.

Spoils System: the practice of giving government jobs to political backers

How did Jacksonian Democracy differ from Jeffersonian Democracy? How were they similar?

Different:

Jackson: Strong executive, all common men to vote

Jefferson: Weak executive; farmers and property owners vote

Similar:

Both wanted to expand democracy and both wanted a weak government

6. Create a political attack ad about Jackson or Adams. Remember, it should be a personal attack.

7. Complete the following map of Sectional Interests.




-Opposed federal spending on internal improvements

- Opposed rising tariffs



-Want expensive western land

-Support federal spending on internal improvements

-Support high tariffs

-Want cheap land in West

-Supported federal spending on internal improvements


8. What is a Tariff? Why did Southerners dislike them?



Tariff: tax on imports

Southerners disliked them because they made imported goods more expensive and hurt their economy.

9. What are “states’ rights”? Explain how this relates to the power of the federal government.

States’ Rights: rights of the states to make decisions without interference from the federal government.

The more rights a state has, the less power the federal government has.

10. What was the “Tariff of Abominations”?

Tariff of Abominations: 1828 law that significantly raised tariffs on raw materials and manufactured goods

11. What is the doctrine of nullification? Who brought it up as a possible plan? Why did the South want to use it?



Doctrine of Nullification: idea that a state had the right to nullify or reject a federal law that it considers unconstitutional. John C. Calhoun is the author and thought it was a possible plan. Southerners wanted to use it to get rid of the Tariff of Abominations.

12. Read the following passages from the Webster-Hayne debate and answer the questions that follow.

“Thus it will be seen, Mr. President, that the South Carolina doctrine [of nullification] is the [Jeffersonian] Republican doctrine of 1798; that it was first promulgated by the Fathers of the Faith; that it was maintained by Virginia and Kentucky in the worst of times[Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions]; that it constituted the very pivot on which the political revolution of that day turned; that it embraces the very principles, the triumph of which, at that time, saved the constitution at its last gasp,”

Senator Robert Hayne, South Carolina

“[I hope,]When my eyes shall be turned to behold for the last time the sun in heaven, may I not see it shining on the broken and dishonored fragments of a once glorious Union…[Let us not speak the words] "What is all this worth?"…[Let words be spoken to] that other sentiment, dear to every true American heart-Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!”

Senator Daniel Webster, Massachusetts



  1. What previous experience in US history is Senator Hayne relating the doctrine of nullification to? How are they similar?

He is comparing it to the Kentucky and Virginia resolution where Kentucky and Virginia stated they would not enforce the Alien and Sedition Acts in their states. This is similar because with the Doctrine of Nullification, states could also choose not to enforce something.

  1. What is Senator Webster afraid will happen to the country before he dies? What does he argue at the end of his quote?

Webster is afraid that the United States will become “dishonored fragments” and argues that Liberty and the Union are inseparable – you cannot have freedom guaranteed without a strong Union.

13. What is Jackson’s position on the idea of states’ rights and the doctrine of nullification? How do these beliefs conflict with each other?

Jackson supported states’ rights but is opposed to the Doctrine of Nullification. These beliefs conflict with one another because the Doctrine of Nullification strengthens states’ rights yet Jackson actually weakens states’ rights by insisting states cannot use the Doctrine of Nullification.

14. What does South Carolina threaten to do because of the high tariffs? Who was able to stop this from happening?



South Carolina threatens to secede. Henry Clay was able to stop this from happening by coming up with a compromise tariff in 1833.


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