Jacksonian Democracy 1824-1844



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Jacksonian Democracy 1824-1844

01. Andrew Jackson failed to support the annexation of Texas because (A) he feared war with Mexico would be the result (B) there was considerable opposition in New England to another slave state (C) 1836 was an election year and he did not want to injure Martin Van Buren’s chances for the Presidency (D) all of these.


02. Which of the following would not be considered part of Jacksonian Democracy? (A) establishment of labor unions and their recognition by the courts (B) the growth of railroad monopolies (C) spread of free public schools (D) extension of male suffrage.
03. Jackson won the Election of 1828 because of the (A) support of many Americans who had recently gained the right to vote (B) support of wealthy businessmen (C) support of the Whigs (D) all of these.
04. Which of the following was not associated with Jacksonian Democracy? (A) extension of the suffrage (B) national nominating conventions (C) spoils system (D) decrease in Presidential power.
05. Jackson favored the destruction of the Bank of the United States because he (A) considered it unconstitutional (B) thought it was a monopoly benefiting the rich (C) charged that it was engaging in questionable political activity (D) all of these.
06. The South called the tariff of 1828 the “Tariff of Abominations” because (A) it considered the rates too high (B) it applied only to the South (C) it would raise unnecessary revenue (D) all of these.
07. The major issue in the election of 1832 was (A) nullification (B) the tariff (C) the Bank of the United States (D) sectionalism.
08. Jackson’s reply to South Carolina’s threat to secede was (A) Force Act (B) a policy of inaction (C) a “wait and see” attitude (D) none of these.
09. The political party that was formed by various groups united chiefly by their dislike of Jackson was the (A) Federalist (B) Liberal (C) Whig (D) Democratic.
10. The Specie Circular (A) forbade payment to the Treasury for public land in anything but gold or silver (B) forbade the sale of public land for six months (C) forbade payment to the Treasury for public land in specie (D) forbade the “Pet Banks” to issue Notes.
11. In 1837, many banks failed because (A) they did not print enough money (B) their Notes were not backed by gold or silver (C) land speculators withdrew their money (D) the Bank of the United States was abolished.
12. Under the “Spoils System,” a victorious political party could (A) determine the make up of Congress (B) remove Supreme Court Justices (C) fill public offices with political supporters (D) do all of these.
13. The South Carolina Exposition and Protest was drawn up in opposition to (A) Tariff of Abominations (B) Intolerable Acts (C) spoils system (D) Constitutional Convention (1787).
14. President Jackson’s Indian policy resulted in all of the following except: (A) the defeat of Tecumseh and the Prophet (B) defeat of the Black Hawks (C) Seminole War (D) removal of the Cherokees from Florida.
15. In 1830, a famous debate took place in the Senate between Webster and (A) Calhoun (B) Hayne (C) Clay (D) Jackson.
16. Henry Clay’s Compromise (1833) included (A) a lower tariff (B) a Force Bill, authorizing the President to use the military to enforce the law (C) both of these (D) neither of these.
17. The Panic of 1837, occurred because (A) many banks failed (B) sound money disappeared from circulation (C) both of these (D) neither of these.
18. Although William Henry Harrison won an overwhelming victory in the Election of 1840, voters were disappointed because (A) he was not an effective President (B) he supported Jackson’s ideas (C) he died shortly after taking office (D) he refused to use the spoils system.
19. Florida was purchased from (A) Russia (B) France (C) Spain (D) Britain.
20. The Jacksonian Era is generally considered to include the (A) 1st quarter of the 19th century (B) 1st half of the 19th century (C) 2nd half of the 19th century (D) 2nd quarter of the 19th century.
21. Which of the following treaties had nothing to do with the northern United States border? (A) Adams-Onis (B) Line of 1818 (C) Russo-American (D) Rush-Bagot.
22. The “Era of Good Feelings” was thus dubbed because of (A) the domination of the Democratic-Republicans (B) the absence of political conflict (C) the absence of sectional strife (D) the lack of important national issues.
23. The South Carolina Exposition and Protest was adopted as a result of (A) “The Tariff of Abominations” (B) the Hartford Convention (C) the Embargo Act (D) William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator.
24. Jefferson and Jackson agreed on all of the following except: (A) all citizens are equally fit for office (B) the rights of the individual should be protected (C) privilege and monopoly in government are undemocratic (D) the power of government rests on the consent of the governed.
25. By 1850, the attitude of most Northern people toward slavery can best be described as (A) strongly supporting abolition (B) tolerating slavery’s existence, but opposing its spread (C) favoring limited importation of slaves (D) favoring compensated emancipation.
26. John Quincy Adams was elected President in 1824 because (A) he was supported by the Democratic Republican Party (B) he received a majority of the electoral votes (C) he was supported by the West and South (D) he received a majority of the popular vote.
27. Which of the following would favor a protective tariff? (A) Southern planter (B) Northern manufacturer (C) Western farmer (D) land speculator.
28. What is true about the so-called “corrupt bargain” between Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams? (A) it resulted in Jackson’s selection as President (B) the charge was never proved, but it was good politics (C) it showed that the South and West were working together (D) it split the Republican Party
29. The major reason for the Panic of 1837 was (A) people had lost their jobs (B) the negative effects of the high tariff (C) a war in Europe (D) overspeculation in western lands.
30. The reason that Jackson vetoed the recharter of the Bank of the United States was that he believed (A) the federal government should not be responsible for handling money (B) the Bank was a corrupt monopoly (C) the bank was unconstitutional (D) the Bank favored the South.
31. Which of the following statements about Jackson is not true? (A) he supported nullification (B) he practiced the spoils system (C) he had faith in the common man (D) he opposed the Bank of the United States.
32. As a result of the decisions of Chief Justice John Marshall, the powers of the federal government (A) decreased (B) increased (C) increased only in time of crisis (D) decreased only in time of crisis.
33. In the Webster-Hayne Debates, Hayne presented all of the following views except: (A) the states were independent sovereigns (B) each state was the final interpreter of its duties under the Constitution (C) the national government was supreme over the states (D) the central government was becoming too powerful.
34. The President elected in 1840 was (A) Martin Van Buren (B) Zachory Taylor (C) John Tyler (D) William Henry Harrison.
35. Which of the following was the President of the Second Bank of the United States? (A) Eli Whitney (B) Nicholas Biddle (C) Daniel Webster (D) Martin Van Buren.
36. A major factor leading to the Panic of 1837 was (A) end of canal construction (B) failure of the Bank of the United States (C) crop failures in the Ohio Valley (D) overspeculation in public lands.
37. Which of the following helped to spur the western migration of settlers? (A) removal of the Indians (B) new tariff laws (C) grown of shipping industry (D) establishment of pet banks.
38. Why was it easy for reform movements to attract supporters during the Age of Jackson? (A) the Panic of 1837 encouraged the rise of labor unions (B) newspapers and lyceums spread information about social problems (C) unemployment was increasing (D) the War of 1812 had broken America’s spirit.
39. The Indian Removal Act was passed because the Indians were (A) occupying public lands (B) a menace to white settlers (C) on land wanted by white settlers (D) opposed to the doctrine of nullification.
40. Which of the following was not acquired during the period 1815-1860? (A) Louisiana Purchase (B) Alaska (C) Hawaii (D) all of these.
41. The cotton gin resulted in (A) the strengthening of slavery (B) the building of Samuel Slater’s first mill (C) the speedy growth of the textile industry in the South (D) great wealth for the inventor.
42. The New England transcendentalist authors (A) praised individualism (B) favored traditionalism (C) denounced liberalism (D) embraced sensationalism.

43. The largest number of people in the South prior to 1860 were (A) freedmen (B) slave owners (C) slaves (D) yeoman farmers.


44. The most significant economic change in America before 1860 was (A) the growth of powerful labor unions (B) increased manufacturing in the South (C) the opening of new markets through improved transportation (D) the shift from cotton to wheat production.
45. The Free Soilers favored (A) immediate abolition with compensation (B) immediate emancipation without compensation (C) compensated manumission on a gradual basis (D) prohibition of slavery only in the new territories.
46. The Utopian communities in America before 1860 were handicapped because they (A) were ultimately overcrowded (B) were forced to compete with free enterprise (C) were outlawed by Congress (D) generally embraced free love.
47. Which of the following was not a leader of a slave revolt? (A) Nat Turner (B) Denmark Vessey (C) Frederick Douglass (D) Gabriel Proesser.
48. The slavery issue effected ante bellum religions in America by (A) fostering religious unity (B) causing many Southerners to release their slaves (C) tempering racial prejudice (D) splitting Northern and Southern churches.
49. Americans before 1860 (A) surpassed Europeans in basic scientific research (B) shone in adapting European science to their problems (C) lacked any real scientific talent (D) were not interested in science.
50. Which of the following was not a reason for the rapid expansion of cotton cultivation in the South? (A) the decline of the tobacco market (B) the invention of the cotton gin (C) abundant, unoccupied and fertile land to the west (D) the industrial revolution in England.
51. The major factor in anti-foreigner agitation in the 1850s was (A) the threat to American temperance movements (B) the influx of Catholics (C) the flood of Southern Europeans (D) the worsening of urban slum conditions.
52. A majority of slave owners in the South owned how many slaves? (A) less than 10 (B)

10-50 (C) 50-100 (D) more than 100.


53. By 1860, religion in America was characterized by (A) greater intolerance (B) greater religious intensity (C) a multiplicity of denominations (D) increased restrictions on Catholics and Jews.
54. The slow development of the industrial revolution in America was characterized by all of the following except: (A) an abundant labor force (B) corresponding changes in agriculture (C) a lack of capital (D) underdeveloped natural resources.
55. The South in ante bellum times could best be described as (A) Protestant and an oligarchy (B) egalitarian and agricultural (C) industrial and agrarian (D) rural and democratic.
56. The major application for steamboats transporting freight and passengers in the United States was on (A) New England streams (B) western rivers (C) the Great Lakes (D) the trans-Atlantic.
57. In general,______ tended to bind the West and South together, while______ and_______ connected West to East. (A) steamboats, canals, railroads (B) railroads, canals, steamboats (C) canals, steamboats, turnpikes (D) turnpikes, steamboats, canals.
58. Those who were frightened by the rapid influx of Irish immigrants organized (A) the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner (B) the Molly Maguires (C) Tammany Hall (D) the Ancient Order of Hibernians.
59. The religious sects that gained most from the revivalism of the Second Great Awakening were the (A) Catholics and Episcopalians (B) Unitarians and Adventists (C) Methodists and Baptists (D) Congregationalists and Presbyterians.
60. The South’s “positive good” argument for slavery claimed all of the following except: (A) slavery was supported by both the Bible and the Constitution (B) slavery was good for the barbarous Africans, because they were introduced to Christianity (C) slavery was moral and uplifting (D) slaves were better off than most Northern wage earners.
61. The American working force in the early 19th century was characterized by (A) substantial employment of women and children in factories (B) strikes by workers that were few in number but usually effective (C) a general lengthening of the workday from 10 to 14 hours (D) a high amount of political activity among workers.
62. The “Canal Era” of American history was initiated by the construction of the (A) Mainline Canal in Pennsylvania (B) James River and Kanasha Canal from Virginia to Ohio (C) Wabash Canal in Indiana (D) Erie Canal in New York.
63. Most early railroad construction in the United States was in the (A) Northeast (B) Old South (C) Lower Mississippi Valley (D) Far West.
64. As the new continental market economy grew (A) individual households became increasingly self-sufficient (B) the home came to be viewed as a refuge from the workaday world (C) traditional women’s work was more highly valued and increasingly important (D) respect for women as homemakers declined.
65. In foreign trade in the early 19th century Americans _____ agricultural products and

_____manufactured goods and they generally imported _____ than they exported (A) imported, exported, less (B) imported, exported, more (C) exported, imported, less (D) exported, imported, more.


66. The Irish immigrants to early 19th century America (A) tended to settle on western farmland (B) were warmly welcomed by American workers (C) were mostly Catholics (D) identified and sympathized with American free blacks.
67. The sentiment of fear and opposition to open immigration was called (A) the cult of domesticity (B) nativism (C) abolitionism (D) rugged individualism.
68. The Second Great Awakening tended to (A) reduce social class differences (B) blur regional distinctions (C) promote religious diversity (D) discourage church membership.
69. An early 19th century religious rationalist sect that was devoted to the rule of reason and free will was the (A) Methodists (B) Adventists (C) Unitarians (D) Mormons.

70. Of the following, the most flourishing of the early 19th century communitarian experiments was that at (A) Brook Farm, Massachusetts (B) Oneida, New York (C) New Harmony, Indiana (D) Seneca Falls, New York.


71. The Hudson River school excelled in the art of painting (A) landscapes (B) portraits (C) animal life (D) daguerreotypes.
72. Transcendentalists believed that all knowledge came through (A) the writings of John Locke (B) the senses (C) observation (D) an inner light.
73. Virtually all the distinguished historians of early 19th century America were from (A) the South (B) the middle Atlantic states (C) New England (D) the West.
74. The plantation system of the cotton South was (A) increasingly monopolistic (B) efficient at utilizing natural resources (C) financially stable (D) attractive to European immigrants.
75. By the mid-19th century, (A) most southerners owned slaves (B) the smaller slaveholders owned a majority of the slaves (C) slavery was a dying institution (D) most slaves lived on large plantations.
76. Most white southerners were (A) planter aristocrats (B) small slaveowners (C) yeoman farmers (D) “poor white trash”.
77. Transcendentalists were dedicated to (A) predestination (B) individualism (C) respect for authority (D) conventional wisdom.
78. Perhaps the slave’s greatest horror was (A) the separation of slave families (B) the frequent use of the whip by slaveowners (C) the breeding of slaves (D) slaves always having to do the most dangerous work on the plantation.
79. In the ante bellum South, the most uncommon and least successful form of slave resistance was (A) feigned laziness (B) sabotage of plantation equipment (C) running away (D) armed insurrection.
80. After 1830, the Abolitionist Movement took a new, more energetic tone, encouraged by the (A) success of the British abolitionists (B) the triumph of the Liberty Party (C) success of the American Colonization Society (D) success of several southern slave revolts.
81. Which of the following best describes the term “Manifest Destiny”? (A) rapid settling of the frontier (B) right of the United States to acquire all the territory to the Pacific Ocean (C) obligation of the United States to spread democracy (D) duty to conquer the Native Americans.
82. The first settlements in the Salt Lake Valley were founded by (A) farmers seeking fertile land (B) traders with the Indians (C) army posts to protect wagon trains (D) people seeking religious freedom.
83. Which of the following was a prominent Democratic leader? (A) Abraham Lincoln (B) William Seward (C) Stephen Douglas (D) Horace Greely.
84. Which of the following was elected immediately after Van Buren? (A) Taylor (B) Polk (C) Pierce (D) Harrison.

85. Which of the following was a result of the other three? (A) annexation of Texas (B) questionable boundary claims (C) rights of Mexican residents (D) treaties with the Indians.


86. Which of the following events occurred first? (A) Tariff of Abominations (B) Force Act (C) South Carolina Exposition and Protest (D) Clay’s Compromise Tariff.
87. The admission of Texas to the Union was delayed over the issue of (A) extension of slavery (B) questionable boundary claims (C) rights of Mexican residents (D) Indian treaties.
88. By 1860, over 50% of the value of American exports was from (A) peanuts (B) cotton (C) rice (D) sugar
89. According to the views of John C Calhoun in 1828, a federal law could be nullified by (A) the majority of the state legislatures (B) opposition of a single state legislature (C) the action of a state supreme court (D) the action of a state constitutional convention.
90. The passing of the Canal era of United States history was largely the result of (A) development of the railroads (B) the Panic of 1837 (C) the invention of the steamship (D) creation of the great turnpike system.
91. All of the following were candidates for President except: (A) Martin Van Buren (B) Henry Clay (C) William Henry Harrison (D) Salmon Chase.
92. The most important result of the Abolitionist Movement was (A) winning the majority of the Northern people to the anti-slavery cause (B) a movement that sent most of the slaves back to Africa (C) convincing a majority of southerners that their way of life was dying (D) to make compromise between the North and South almost impossible.
93. Which of the following is a TRUE statement? (A) California was purchased from England (B) Mexico received no money for territory ceded after the Mexican War (C) Texas won its independence from Mexico after the Battle of the Alamo (D) none of these.
94. What caused the decline of the Whig Party? (A) the party spit over the tariff issue (B) the party lacked outstanding leaders (C) the party died out when the more vigorous Republicans took over (D) the party split over the slavery issue.
95. The Compromise of 1850 was based in part on the point of view that (A) the principles of the Missouri Compromise should be followed (B) slavery should not exist (C) slaves are personal property cannot be prohibited (D) the voters in a territory should decide the issue of slavery.
96. Between 1790 and 1860, the Negro population of the United States (A) grew tremendously (B) was increased by importation from Puerto Rico (C) outnumbered the white population (D) outnumbered the white population in the South.
97. In 1860, the quickest way to send a message from California to Missouri was (A) Pony Express (B) wireless telegraph (C) Butterfield mail route (D) stagecoach.
98. Which of the following is a true statement? (A) The South wanted to annex Texas because it would add to the number of slave states (B) James K. Polk was President in 1845 (C) there was a gold rush to California in 1849 (D) all of these.
99. The city that became the “gateway to the west” because of the Erie Canal was (A) New York (B) Buffalo (C) Pittsburgh (D Boston.
100. The outstanding advantage of the steamboat over the flatboat for transportation on the Mississippi River during the 1840s was that it (A) could transport people as well as goods (B) was cheaper to operate (C) was subsidized by the government (D) could make a round trip.
101. Most manufacturing establishments during the first half of the 1800s were owned and operated (A) as partnerships of several people (B) by individuals (C) as corporations with numerous stockholders (D) as combinations of corporations.
102. The invention that was most responsible for shaping the economy of the South was the (A) steam locomotive (B) steamship (C) cotton gin (D) cotton planter.
103. Each of the following is a true statement about slavery in the South except: (A) there were about 1 million slaves in 1860 (B) most slaves worked on farms or plantations (C) most southerners owned no slaves (D) most southerners owned only a few slaves.
104. During the 1830s, the Abolition Movement became (A) less active (B) more militant (C) less active (D) convinced that slavery could only be ended gradually.
105. Those who believed in the Pro-Slavery argument held that (A) slavery was of positive value to the slaves because it provided them with a secure and stable existence (B) slavery was necessary to provide a secure labor supply of cheap labor (C) slavery acted as a civilizing influence on the slaves (D) all of these.
106. Each of the following is true about the slave gang labor system except: (A) slaves could earn wages during their free time (B) overseers assigned work (C) slaves “drivers” directed the work (D) it was designed to get as much work as possible out of the slaves.
110. Between 1819-1844, the number of Senators representing slave states and free states had been kept equal by (A) compromises in the admission of new states (B) increasing the number of Senators from slave states (C) increasing the number of Senators from Northern states (D) decreasing the number of Senators from Northern states.
111. The Missouri Compromise (1820) (A) admitted Missouri as a slave state (B) kept an even balance between slaves and free states (C) prohibited slavery in the rest of the Louisiana area north of 36’ 30” (D) all of these.
112. The Wilmot Proviso provided that (A) slavery would be prohibited in the lands acquired from Mexico after the Mexican War (B) slavery would be permitted in the lands acquired from Mexico after the Mexican War (C) voters in the lands acquired from Mexico would decide the issue of slavery (D) none of these.
115. Which of the following was not necessary for Southern economic prosperity? (A) acquisition of new lands suitable for cultivation of cotton (B) reduction of the tariff on manufactured goods (C) establishment of a tariff on raw foreign cotton (D) relaxation of laws prohibiting the importation of slaves from Africa.
120. Which of the following did not have the effect of stirring up feeling against slavery? (A) Harriet Beecher Stowe (B) Jefferson Davis (C) William L. Garrison (D) Henry Ward Beecher.
121. Nearly all Negro Spirituals expressed the slaves” (A) contentment (B) love of America (C) acceptance of hard work (D) longing for freedom.
122. The two
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