Jablonski, Marek (Michael)



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BIBLIOGRAPHY


I. Lakatos: ‘Jodál Gábor munkássága’ [The work of Jodál], Igazság [Cluj] (25 April 1964)

V. Cosma: Muzicieni români (Bucharest, 1970)

OCTAVIAN COSMA


Jöde, (Wilhelm August Ferdinand) Fritz


(b Hamburg, 2 Aug 1887; d Hamburg, 19 Oct 1970). German music educationist. After attending teachers’ training college (1902–8) and working as a teacher in Hamburg, he studied musicology at the Musikhochschule in Leipzig (1920–21) and was appointed professor at the Berlin Akademie für Kirchen- und Schulmusik in 1923. Jöde simultaneously contributed significantly to the Jugendmusikbewegung by founding amateur music societies called Musikantengilde, which aimed to create a sense of community through music, and editing the journals Die Laute and Die Musikantengilde. Also in 1923 he was named director of the music school that was affiliated with the academy; his influential book Das schaffende Kind der Musik was published in 1928 and he served as head of the Volks- und Jugendmusikpflege programme at the academy from 1930. In 1936 he was found guilty of making sexual overtures to several female students and dismissed; these charges, although justified, were most likely made public because Nazi officials suspected Jöde of being a socialist. Temporarily ostracized, he worked intermittently as a broadcaster in Munich, but after applying for Nazi party membership in 1938, he was made professor at the Mozarteum in Salzburg, joining Cesar Bresgen in the Hitler Youth music division. Jöde moved to a Nazi educational institute in Brunswick in 1943 and Bad Reichenhall in 1944. After the war he was director of the Amt für Jugend- und Musikpflege in Hamburg (1947–52) and from 1952 he served as chairman of the Internationales Institut für Jugend- und Volksmusik, for which he conducted courses in Trossingen and Stuttgart. He was an editor for the series Das Chorbuch and prepared several volumes of song collections (including Der kleine Rosengarten, Jena 1921; Der Kanon, Wolfenbüttel, 1937; Sonnenberg-Liederbuch, with W. Gundlach, Wolfenbüttel, 1957).

Jöde’s history as a music educator in Germany is controversial: his apologists argue that the naivety of his educational methods, which eschewed analysis and political awareness, allowed many features of the Jugendmusikbewegung – the fostering of a communal music culture (Gemeinschaftsmusikkultur), the rejection of ‘bourgeois’ ideals such as virtuoso music-making, the mystical cult of the ‘Volk’ – to play into the hands of the Hitler Youth. Critics point out that Jöde was an active supporter of Nazi ideology, repackaging his ideas in 1934 to match the wishes of the party and seeking support from prominent Nazis such as the philosopher and educationist Ernst Krieck, the publisher Georg Kallmeyer and the amateur writer on music Richard Eichenauer. His student, Wolfgang Stumme, was head of the music division of the Hitler Youth and invited Jöde to contribute a chapter to the 1940 edition of its music handbook Musik im Volk. During his postwar career, Jöde was accepted as an important figure in the reform of German music education, gaining the title ‘father of folk music’, and he was much praised for his revival of folklore and folkdances and his work as editor and author.




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