A. Moser: Joseph Joachim: ein Lebensbild (Berlin, 1898, enlarged 1908–10; Eng. trans., 1901)
R. Hirschfeld: ‘Quartett Joachim’, Der Klavierlehrer, xxiv/3 (1901)
A. Valetta: ‘I quartetti di Beethoven e Joseph Joachim’, Nuova antologia, xl (1904), 798
J.A. Fuller Maitland: Joseph Joachim (London, 1905)
ROGER THOMAS OLIVER/BEATRIX BORCHARD
Joan Maria da Crema.
See Giovanni Maria da Crema.
Joannetto [Joannettus de li violettis].
See Zanetto da Montichiaro.
João IV, King of Portugal
(b Vila Viçosa, 19 March 1604; d Lisbon, 6 Nov 1656). Portuguese ruler, collector of music, writer on music and composer. As heir to the dukedom of Bragança, whose ruling family was notable for its love of music, he received a thorough musical education; his first teacher was Robert Tornar (or Torgh), an English (or possibly Irish) composer who had been a disciple of Gery de Ghersem and Mathieu Rosmarin at the Royal Flemish Chapel in Madrid. After Portugal’s successful rebellion in 1640 against Spanish rule, he was chosen king. His reign was marked by intermittent war with Spain and by Portugal’s efforts to secure foreign alliances, but he was little interested in politics. He was, however, ardently devoted to music, generous in support of composers and musical establishments in his realm and constantly in touch with distinguished musicians.
João IV assembled the largest music library of his time, based on the ducal library of his father and grandfather. Its treasures unfortunately perished in the Lisbon earthquake and fire of 1 November 1755 but are partly recorded in the catalogue printed in Lisbon in 1649. Though only the first volume of a projected set, this catalogue is astonishing: its 521 pages list many hundreds of volumes of masses, motets, Magnificat settings, psalms, madrigals, chansons, villancicos, airs, instrumental pieces and theoretical treatises with detailed descriptions of more than 2000 prints and 4000 individual manuscript compositions, ranging from the early 16th century to the late 1640s. It can be safely estimated that this represented less than a third of the total contents of the library at the time of João's death. Whereas his acquisition policy concerning printed editions was to obtain a copy of nearly every new volume published by Gardano, Vincenti, Plantin and all the major music publishers in Europe, his choice of the manuscript repertory shows a clear preference for the followers of Palestrina in the Roman school, as well for the disciples of Philippe Rogier in Madrid and the main representatives of all cathedral schools in Spain and Portugal. It is tantalizing to read of the many works no longer extant, for example the tientos of Pedro Vila and Bernardo Clavijo de Castillo, the ensaladas of Mateo Flecha and the masses of Peter Philips. The catalogue is also an essential source of bibliographical information regarding music printing in Europe, as well as of data concerning the compositional conventions of Latin and vernacular church polyphony in the Iberian Peninsula between the early 16th and the mid-17th century.
As a writer on music João is known by two brief publications, a defence of the expressive power of the stile antico and a response to criticisms of a Palestrina mass. Both were published in Spanish and Italian without place, date or authorship, but prefatory sonnets give the king’s title in acrostics. The Defensa was prompted by a letter printed almost a century earlier expressing the widely current dissatisfaction with the polyphonic style and its lack of emotional power by comparison with the music of the ancients. João’s defence ignored the truly modern music of his time, which sought to recapture the power of ancient music through monody: in arguments not always logical or coherent he defended the music of Palestrina, Victoria and their contemporaries, cast doubts on the alleged power of ancient music (much of which, he said, stemmed from the words) and indicated that emotional extremes were hardly appropriate to the ordinary service of worship. In the Respuestas he defended the modal purity of a Palestrina mass; his arguments show a wide knowledge of both the theory and the repertory of liturgical music. Two manuscript treatises in Portuguese attributed to him by earlier writers are no longer extant; they may have been destroyed with his library.
João was by far the foremost individual patron of music and musicians in 17th-century Portugal. He sponsored the publication of Duarte Lobo’s polyphonic works by Plantin (Antwerp) and of João Lourenço Rebelo’s by Balmonti (Rome), as well as the printing of several volumes of the music of Manuel Cardoso and Filipe de Magalhães by Paulo Craesbeeck, a former assistant of Plantin established in Lisbon. His patronage also had a decisive role in the careers of such important Spanish composers of his time as Carlos Patiño and Mathieu Rosmarin. João was also active as a composer, but only two short four-part motets, that were attributed to him already in the mid-18th century, survive complete. Both are in the stile antico, with strict treatment of dissonance, and proclaim a devotion to the Palestrina style.
2 motets, 6vv, inc.: Anima mea turbata est, Vivo ego, in J.L. Rebelo, Psalmi tum vesperarum tum completorii (Rome, 1657)
Doubtful: Crux fidelis, 4vv, D-Dlb; ed. G. Schmitt, Anthologie universelle de musique sacrée (Paris, 1869); ed. J. Santos, A polifonia clássica portuguesa (Lisbon, 1937); Adjuva nos, 4vv, P-Lf
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