Janovka, Tomáš Baltazar [Janowka, Thomas Balthasar]
(b Kutná Hora, bap. 6 Jan 1669; d Prague, bur. 13 June 1741). Czech lexicographer and organist. He received a Jesuit education, first at or near Kutná Hora and then at the St Wenceslas seminary, Prague. He graduated MPhil at Charles University, Prague, on 1 August 1689, and he is also known to have attended lectures in medicine. On 27 June 1691 he became organist of the Týn Church, the principal church of the Old Town, and he remained in this post for 50 years.
Janovka’s only completed work, the Clavis ad thesaurum magnae artis musicae (Prague, 1701/R1973, 2/1715/R as Clavis ad musicam), was the first musical dictionary to appear in the Baroque period; it consists of 20 preliminary pages and 224 pages of text covering some 170 terms arranged alphabetically by broad subjects. Like predecessors such as Tinctoris, and certain 17th-century theorists in the appendixes to their treatises, his purpose was to define and explain musical terms. He was primarily concerned with the meanings of Latin and Italian terms but also included a few German and French words and even two in Czech. He referred to Kircher's Musurgia universalis (1650), the Ars cantandi once ascribed to Carissimi (n.d.), and Daniel Speer's Grund-richtiger … Unterricht (1687, 2/1697), and he was familiar with earlier works by Rhau, Gumpelzhaimer and others. His definitions are more correct and precise than those of Kircher. He drew his musical examples from J.C.F. Fischer, Kapsberger, Kuhnau, Murschhauser, Speth and Wentzely. He placed particular emphasis on subjects related to the organ and church music but also included other instruments as well as some dances. Several of his articles are substantial; these include ‘Tonus’, ‘Figurae musicae’ and that on the organ, while ‘Tactus’ extends to 50 pages. Janovka apparently failed to complete a second work, which was to be called Doctrina vocalis et instrumentalis.