(bMilwaukee, 31 Oct 1925). American musicologist. He studied at Northwestern University (BM 1947, MM 1948), with Gurlitt in Freiburg (1951), with Handschin in Basle (1952), and with Bukofzer, Lowinsky and Kerman at the University of California at Berkeley, where he took the doctorate in 1964 with a dissertation on Trabaci’s keyboard music. He taught at Northland College (1948–50), the University of Arkansas (1958–61), Ohio University (1961–2) and Roosevelt University in Chicago (1962–70); in 1970 he joined the staff of the Claremont Graduate School in Claremont, California; he retired from teaching in 1994. His scholarly interests include the music of Marenzio, analysis of musical styles and the history of performing practice. In 1988 he founded and became editor of the journal Performance Practice Review. He has applied computer technology to his studies in analysis, which have ranged from the music of Bach to works of the early 20th century. Much of his research has centred on Italian keyboard music, particularly that of Frescobaldi and the Neapolitan school of the period around 1600; he traced the development of this music from the late Renaissance to the early Baroque, examining both harmonic and melodic styles.