H.W. Shaw: The Succession of Organists of the Chapel Royal and the Cathedrals of England and Wales from c.1538 (Oxford, 1991), 287–8
I. Spink: Restoration Cathedral Music 1660–1714 (Oxford, 1995), 357–60
(b Ozark, AL, 12 March 1883; d Ozark, 7 April, 1958). American composer and tune book compiler. In about 1900 he moved to southeast Alabama, where he learned shape-note hymn singing from other blacks and became a singing-school teacher. During the 1920s he composed shape-note songs in both the folk-hymn and gospel-hymn styles, encouraging his friends and pupils to do the same. His The Colored Sacred Harp (1934/R) was the first new collection in four-shape notation to be published in the 20th century, and the only tunebook to contain mostly songs by black composers. In the 1950s he began regular broadcasts of black shape-note singing over radio station WOZK in Ozark. After his death black singers continued the radio programmes, made television broadcasts, and used his book at such annual events as the Alabama and Florida Union State Sacred Harp Singing Convention and the Jackson Memorial Sing in Ozark.