(b Hukvaldy, Moravia, 3 July 1854; d Moravská Ostrava, 12 Aug 1928). Czech composer. His reputation outside Czechoslovakia and German-speaking countries was first made as an instrumental composer, with a small number of chamber and orchestral pieces written between his operas, which he considered his main work. The balance has now been largely redressed and he is regarded not only as a Czech composer worthy to be ranked with Smetana and Dvořák, but also as one of the most substantial, original and immediately appealing opera composers of the 20th century.
1. Early life and studies (1854–80).
2. The Organ School, folk music, the early operas (1881–1904).