English new wave rock group. Its members were Paul John William Weller (b Woking, 25 May 1958; vocals and electric guitar), Bruce Foxton (b Woking, 1 Sept 1955; bass guitar) and Paul Richard Buckler (b Woking, 6 Dec 1955; drums). Between 1977 and 1981 the Jam recorded more than 20 hit songs written by Weller, most of them vignettes of city life, contemporary equivalents of the work of his 1960s heroes, the Who, the Kinks and the Small Faces. The most striking of these were In the City, Down at the Tube Station at Midnight, Eton Rifles, Going Underground and Town Called Malice. Musically, the Jam followed the broad punk rock pattern with gruff, unadorned singing by Weller, fast tempos and abrasive guitar accompaniments. Onto this, however, the group grafted simple vocal harmonies and more sophisticated song structures. Their final hit, Town Called Malice (Pol., 1982), incorporated a soul music bass line and presaged Weller's next musical move. In 1982 he formed the Style Council to perform more pointed lyrics in a jazz and soul style. His outstanding work of the 1990s was the solo album Wildwood (Go-Disc, 1993) which was nominated for the Mercury Music Prize in 1994. For further information see P. Hewitt: The Jam: a Beat Concerto (London, 1996).