Jablonski, Marek (Michael)



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BIBLIOGRAPHY


E. Fleury: Famines, misères et séditions: épisodes de l’histoire révolutionnaire de Saint-Quentin en 1789 (Laon, 1849)

C. Gomart: Notes historiques sur la maîtrise de Saint-Quentin et sur les célébrités musicales de cette ville (Saint Quentin, 1851/R)

J.A. Clerval: L’ancienne maîtrise de Notre-Dame de Chartres du Ve siècle à la Révolution (Chartres, 1898/R)

F. Raugel: ‘Bernard Jumentier (1749–1829), maître de chapelle de la Collégiale de Saint-Quentin et ses oeuvres inédites’, GfMKB: Bamberg 1953, 279–82

NEAL ZASLAW


Jumièges.


Benedictine abbey in northern France. St Pierre de Jumièges was founded in 654 by St Philibert (c616–85), its first abbot. By the 8th century it ranked with Fontenelle and St Taurin d’Evreux as one of the most important monasteries in Neustria. The first half of the 9th century, however, brought a series of disasters, above all the Norman raids. The raid of 851 left the cloister in ruins; the monks fled, most of them to Haspres near Cambrai and some to St Denis. According to the preface of Notker’s Liber hymnorum, one of the fleeing monks eventually found his way to St Gallen (c860), carrying with him an antiphoner (probably an antiphonale missarum) containing proses (versus ad sequentias) that inspired Notker’s own work.

Refounded in 934, the cloister regained its wealth throughout the 11th and 12th centuries, particularly under William the Conqueror, and extended its influence to England. After a period of prosperity lasting until the 14th century, the Hundred Years War brought renewed hardships to Jumièges. The 16th century was a period of relative stability for the abbey despite the sack by the Huguenots in 1562, but the 17th and 18th centuries saw a gradual decline ending with the dissolution in 1790, when a part of the library was destroyed and another part moved to the municipal library at Rouen.

The most important period in the history of music at Jumièges was the period before the destruction of 851, when the abbey appears to have played a central role in the early development of the sequence and the prose. The earliest reports of textless melismas to alleluias and responsories (apart from St Augustine’s ambiguous mention of the jubilus), for example, the neuma triplex mentioned by Amalarius of Metz, the rubric ‘cum sequentia’ added to some of the alleluias of the Mont-Blandin Antiphoner, and the canon of the Council of Medux (845) come from the first half of the 9th century, but no source of sequences or proses dates from before about 900 (Crocker has compiled a list of sources). Yet from Notker’s account it is clear that at Jumièges sequences, proses and perhaps tropes were being sung and copied before 851. Jumièges is thus among the earliest places from which there is unambiguous evidence of the singing and copying of sequences and proses, and this evidence supports the view that proses and tropes originated in Jumièges and other Neustrian and Lotharingian cloisters perhaps around the turn of the 9th century. No liturgical manuscripts from Jumièges survived the Norman raids and the dispersion of the community in 851. In later centuries, however, the abbey built up a rich music library, with manuscripts showing its close ties with England during the 11th and 12th centuries. The surviving manuscripts, now at Rouen, have been catalogued by Hesbert.



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