New York conservatory founded in 1905 and known as the Institute of Musical Art until 1924; seeNew York, §12.
Juilliard String Quartet.
American string quartet, founded in 1946 by William Schuman, then president of the Juilliard School. The members are Joel Smirnoff (b New York, 1950), who studied at the University of Chicago and at Juilliard, and in 1980 became a member of the Boston SO; Ronald Copes (b Arkansas, 1950), who studied at Oberlin Conservatory and at the University of Michigan, taught at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and was a member of the Dunsmuir and the Los Angeles piano quartets as well as appearing as a soloist; Samuel Rhodes (b Long Beach, NY, 1941), who studied the viola with Sydney Beck and Walter Trampler and composition with Earl Kim and Sessions, later becoming a member of the Galimir Quartet (1961–9) and a professor at Juilliard; and Joel Krosnick (b New Haven, CT, 1941), who studied with William D’Amato, Luigi Silva, Jens Nygaard and Claus Adam, was a member of the New York Chamber Soloists and gave the premières of Ligeti’s Cello Concerto and Gerhard Samuel’s Three Hymns to Apollo. At its founding the quartet was lead by Robert Mann (b Portland, OR, 1920), who studied the violin with Edouard Déthier and composition at Juilliard, and who appeared frequently as a soloist; the original second violinist was Robert Koff, who was succeeded by Isidore Cohen (1958–66), Earl Carlyss (1966–86), Joel Smirnoff (1986–97) and Ronald Copes ( from 1997); Rhodes replaced the original viola player, Raphael Hillyer, in 1969; the original cellist, Arthur Winograd, was succeeded by Claus Adam in 1955 and by Krosnick in 1974.
The Juilliard String Quartet has been quartet-in-residence at Juilliard, the Library of Congress (from 1962) and Michigan State University (from 1977). Although the quartet is usually identified as specializing in 20th-century music (its repertory of nearly 600 works includes over 150 by 20th-century composers), it has come to devote an equal amount of time to the standard repertory, notably the Beethoven quartets, of which it has presented numerous complete cycles and which it has recorded. The quartet’s efforts on behalf of American composers are incalculable; its more than 60 first performances of American works include the Quartets nos.2 and 3 of Elliott Carter, the Quartet no.1 of Leon Kirchner and works by Schuman, Sessions, Piston, Copland, Babbitt, Foss, Mennin, Diamond and many others. Its many recordings include the complete chamber music for strings of Schoenberg, Webern and Carter, Bach’s Art of Fugue and the quartets of Debussy, Ravel and Dutilleux. It has appeared throughout the world and at most of the international music festivals, and in 1961 was the first American quartet to visit the USSR. Since Mann’s retirement the ensemble sound – once aggressive, impetuous, described as ‘contemporary, urban-American’ – has become sweeter in tone and more elegant in execution.