Jablonski, Marek (Michael)

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Jovannes de Cascia.

See Giovanni da Cascia.

Jovernardi [Giovenardi, Giovernardi, Iovenardi, Jobernardi], Bartolomé [Bartolomeo]

(b Rome, c1600; d Madrid, 22 July 1668). Italian harpist and theorist. After having studied mathematics, music and law at Rome, he decided in 1626 to seek his fortune at the Spanish court, but was prevented from emigrating until 1632, in which year he reached Barcelona. On 1 January 1633 he was appointed harpist in the Spanish royal chapel and on 11 November Philip IV issued an order to the Viceroy of Catalonia guaranteeing free entry of the instruments which Jovernardi had invented in Rome, including a cross-strung chromatic harp and a harpsichord of four octaves' compass (C to c'''), capable of crescendo and with provision in all but the bottom octave for both D and E, G and A.

Jovernardi succeeded Lope Machado as musician of the Cámara Real on 18 April 1642; his salary in that year amounted to 8050 reales of paper and 6815 of silver. During his long stay in Madrid, he often had difficulty collecting his salary, perhaps in part because of the envy of courtiers who resented his mixing in the affairs of state. In 1653 he sent Philip IV a summary of his services as political consultant since 1638, but even a royal order to pay him, issued late in 1654, went unheeded. He left for Italy early in 1655.

Jovernardi is known principally for his Tratado de la mussica (E-Mn 8931), whose dedication to Philip IV is dated 15 October 1634. The main subject of this bilingual treatise (Spanish and Italian on facing pages) is the classification and description of musical instruments, which Jovernardi divided into three categories: orgánica (blown), rítmica (struck) and

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