(b Grasse, 25 July 1867; d Vittel, 25 Sept 1933). French bass. He reportedly studied singing in Paris and made his operatic début at Béziers in 1891 in La favorite. He sang at La Monnaie, 1894–1900, and then was based in Paris, appearing both at the Opéra and at the Opéra-Comique, where he sang in the French première of Puccini’s La bohème (1898). He made his Covent Garden début in 1897 as the Duke of Mendoza in d’Erlanger’s Inès Mendo. That season he sang the Landgrave in a French version of Tannhäuser; he returned regularly until 1907 and again in 1927 and 1928. He was engaged at the Metropolitan Opera, 1900–08, and then sang at the Opéra until 1931. He appeared frequently in other centres, including Monte Carlo, Buenos Aires, Chicago, Madrid and Barcelona, and was heard regularly at La Scala, 1917–27, where in 1924 he created Simon Magus in Boito’s posthumous Nerone. Endowed with a powerful, resonant voice with a range which allowed him to sing such baritone parts as Tonio and Scarpia, he had a large repertory of French and Italian roles and many Wagnerian ones including Klingsor, Hans Sachs, Wotan, Titurel and Gurnemanz. His art is preserved on a number of recordings, most notably his Méphistophélès in Gounod’s Faust.