Jablonski, Marek (Michael)

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P. Stefanović: ‘Barokni osvrt Enrika Josifa’ [Josif’s return to the Baroque], Književne novine (25 Nov 1956)

D. Skovran: ‘Nagradjena simfonija Enrika Josifa’ [Josif’s prizewinning symphony], Zvuk, no.67 (1966), 227–34

V. Peričić: Musički stvaraoci u Srbiji [Musical creators in Serbia] (Belgrade, 1969)

S. Đurić-Klajn: Serbian Music through the Ages (Belgrade, 1972)

J. Zec: ‘Muzika nije samo muzika’, Novi zvuk, nos.4–5 (1994–5), 5–11


Josquin, Jan [Josquinus, Johannes]

(fl 1561–3). Czech theorist. He matriculated at Wittenberg University on 30 April 1563 under the name of ‘Johannes Josquinus Boleslavensis’. At first thought to be a Frenchman or Netherlander fleeing religious persecution, Jan Josquin is now regarded as a Czech, his name a pseudonym in homage to Josquin des Prez. Hostinský’s theory that he was identical to Jan Blahoslav’s associate Václav Solín (b 1526/7; d Třebič, 5 June 1566) was refuted by Dolanský. Vávra identified him with Jan Facilis (b Byčkov; d after 1570), a schoolteacher and member of a literary society in Prostějov, and the composer of a four-part Ovidian ode. Sovík (1987) has exposed the weaknesses in Dlanský’s and Vávra’s reasoning and vindicated Hostinský. The strongest evidence for identifying Josquin with Solín is a mutilated annotation on the title-page of the only surviving copy of his treatise, which appears to state ‘B[rother] V. Solín wrote this …’. But Slovík’s other arguments, though forcibly stated, are inconclusive, and it is not impossible that the true identity behind the pseudonym has yet to be uncovered.

Jan Josquin’s Muzyka: to gest zpráwa k zpjwanij naležitá (‘Music: that is, a report on what belongs to singing’; Prostějov, 1561; ed. in Hostinský; Eng. trans., 1991) appeared shortly after the first Czech work of music theory, Jan Blahoslav’s Musica: to gest knjžka zpěwákům náležité zpráwy w sobě zawjragjcý (‘Music: that is, a book containing necessary information for singers’; Olomouc, 1558, enlarged 2/1569; ed. in Hostinský; Eng. trans., 1991). The only surviving copy of Josquin’s treatise (in CZ-Pnm) is incomplete, breaking off towards the end of chapter 8 and lacking the last two chapters. A supposed earlier edition in 1551 or 1559 cannot have existed, as examples are explicitly drawn from the ‘new’ Cantional of the Bohemian Brethren published in 1561. Like Blahoslav’s book, Josquin’s Muzyka is an elementary textbook for those without a knowledge of Latin, covering the rudiments of music and mensural notation but not counterpoint or composition; it goes into rather more detail than Blahoslav had done. The contents replicate those of many elementary treatises from Central Europe in the early and mid-16th century, but the now lost chapter 9, ‘O regimentu’, seems to have been more unusual. Josquin defined regiment as ‘how each voice is based, in which place, and how to take one voice from another when you wish to sing in three or four parts’; the word, extremely rare as applied to music theory, recalls an important and otherwise unique section on the ‘direction’ (regimen) of plainchant and polyphonic choirs in the Czech theorist Venceslaus Philomathes’s Musicorum libri quatuor (Vienna, 1512), which is one of the earliest witnesses to the practice of conducting.

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