Jablonski, Marek (Michael)

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Jora, Mihail

(b Roman, 2/14 Aug 1891; d Bucharest, 10 May 1971). Romanian composer. He studied theory and solfège with Teodoreanu at the Iaşi Conservatory (1909–11); at the Leipzig Conservatory (1912–14) with Teichmüller (piano) and with Krell and Reger (counterpoint and composition); and in Paris (1919–20) with Schmitt (composition) and other private teachers. As a pianist, conductor and critic he served the cause of Romanian music after World War I; he was founder-chairman of the Society of Romanian Composers (1920) and music director of the Romanian Broadcasting Corporation (1928–33); and in his position as professor of harmony, counterpoint and composition at the Bucharest Conservatory, he fostered the development of a contemporary Romanian school. In 1955 he was elected to the Romanian Academy and in 1969 he received the Herder Prize. As a composer he was the first 20th-century Romanian to concern himself extensively with ballet and with songs, two genres well suited to his preference for illustrative music. His songs are composed in a folk style, their melodies based on the intonation of spoken Romanian, and they achieve vivid expression through turns of harmony, melody or rhythm. The ballets are richly polyrhythmic and full of melodies taken from the Romanian peasantry or gypsy bands, harmonized with oriental, Tatar or Romanian folk formulae. Jora’s chamber music shows him to be a master of miniature form, and closer to neo-classicism than elsewhere in his oeuvre. The orchestral works have affinities with German romanticism and with French impressionism, but remain essentially Moldavian in spirit. His collected essays were published as Momente muzicale (Bucharest, 1968).


(selective list)

Ballets: La piaţă [At the Market Place], op.10, 1928; Demoazela Măriuţa, op.19, 1940; Curtea veche [The Old Court], op.24, 1948; Cînd strugurii se coc [When Grapes Are Ripe], op.35, 1958; Întoarcerea din adîncuri [Back from the Depths], op.39, 1959; Hanul Dulcineea [Dulcinea’s Inn], op.51, 1966

Orch: Suita, op.2, 1915; Privelişti moldoveneşti [Moldavian Landscapes], op.5, 1924; Sym., C, op.17, 1937; Burlesca, op.27, 1949

Choral: Mărire ţie, patria mea [Glory to you, my Country] (cant, M. Dumitrescu), 1959; Ballad (Dumitrescu), op.37, Bar, chorus, orch (1968)

Other inst: Joujoux pour ma dame, suite, op.7, pf, 1925; Str Qt no.1, op.9, 1926; Sonata, pf, 1942; Poze şi pozne [Pictures and Tricks], opp.25, 41, 48, suites, pf, 1948–63; Sonata, vn, 1951; Sonata, va, 1962; St Qt no.2, op.52, 1966

Songs: 5 Lieder, op.1, 1913; Cîntece [Songs] (O. Goga, A. Maniu, G. Bacovia), opp. 11, 14, 15, 1930–35; 15 Songs (Maniu, Bacovia, Arghezi), 1937; 6 Songs (L. Blaga), op.28, 1945, 1961; 8 Songs, op.30 (Z. Stancu); 5 Songs, op.33 (M. Eminescu), 1952; 6 Songs (Dumitrescu), op.38, 1956; 7 Songs (Dumitrescu), op.47, 1962; 4 Songs (Dumitrescu), op.54, 1968

Principal publishers: ESPLA, Fundaţiilor, Muzicală (Bucharest)

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