Czar (tsar)- originally came from the idea of the Roman title caesar, but the Russian church spurred the idea of Moscow being the “third Rome” before Constantinople as the “second Rome” became sacked by the Ottoman Empire.
Ivan III (r.1462-1505) also known as Ivan the Great, first broke away from the Golden Horde to gain independence. Ivan III united the Russian nation and strengthened the authority of the monarchy by laying administrative foundations for the centralized Russian state and assumed the title of “Sovereign of all Russia”. Married Byzantine princess Sofia, who encouraged him to rebuild Moscow and transformed Moscow to the center of Russian Empire. Code of law, Sudebnik, was compiled in 1497.
Ivan IV (r.1533-1584) also known as Ivan the Terrible, was the first ruler to be officially assume the title tsar. He revised the law code, created an elite standing army, introduced local self-management in rural regions and the printing press finally arrived to Russia. In 1552, took hold the territory of Kazan and Astrakhan. The further expansion into Siberia introduced a large Muslim population and Russia accepted their culture which turned Russia into a multi-ethnic and multi-religious state. Built the St. Basil’s Cathedral. In 1553 suffered a near-fatal illness and couple of years later his beloved wife Anastasia died, believed the nobles poisoned his wife and trying to get rid of him, he revengefully began a campaign of oppressing and killing the hereditary nobles. In 1564 he secretly abdicated Moscow, but the population pleaded for his return. He agreed to return under absolute power and punish anyone disloyal. The next year set up a system called Oprichnina (separate estate) were a handpicked of his favorites went around Russia, killing anyone who displeased him and confiscated their lands and riches, unfortunately the Russian monarchy grew stronger.
The Time of Troubles (1598-1613) - a period of trouble after the last Rurik leader, Feodor I, followed a recession for Russia
three imposter ruler who claimed to be descendants of Ivan IV, who got support from the Polish and
peasant uprisings and boyar (high ranked member of the aristocracy) opposition
neighboring countries occupied lands of Russia that could not be supported
Under Boris Godunov’s reign famine (1601- 1603) struck Russia killing as many as 100,000 in Moscow alone
Internal conflicts between Russian aristocracy led to the reign of the Romanov Dynasty.
a series of rulers over a small period of time
Rise of Romanov Dynasty
Mikhail Romanov the first Romanov ruler after the Time of Troubles and his dynasty reigned until 1917. His father was forced to become a monk and his mother a nun. His father became Patriarch of the church and ruled majority of his son’s government. His father’s involvement in the government increased contact with Western Europe.
Peter the Great:
Regained access to the Baltic Sea and Baltic Trade
German and French languages became common between the nobility
Academies and schools were wide open across the country for everyone except serfs and the entry was free.
1.SAINT-PETERSBURG.COM. (2010). Retrieved February 11, 2014, from http://www.saint-petersburg.com/history/peter1st.asp - Helped information on Peter the Great.
2. TV-Novosti. (2005).Prominent Russians: Ivan III the Great. http://russiapedia.rt.com/.
Retrieved February 11, 2014, from http://russiapedia.rt.com/prominent-russians/the-ryurikovich-dynasty/ivan-iii-the-great/ -Helped achieve to get information on Ivan III the Great.
3. TV-Novosti. (2006). Prominent Russians: Ivan IV the Terrible.http://russiapedia.rt.com/. Retrieved February 12, 2014, from http://russiapedia.rt.com/prominent-russians/the-ryurikovich-dynasty/ivan-iv-the-terrible/ - Helped get basic information on Ivan IV the Terrible.
4.http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/606795/Time-of-Troubles - Gave a good description of the Time of Troubles.
5.TV-Novosti. (2006). Russian History: Through Time of Trouble to Imperial Russia. http://russiapedia.rt.com/. Retrieved February 11, 2014, from http://russiapedia.rt.com/russian-history/here-come-the-romanovs/ - Provided information on Peter the Great and Time of Trouble.
6. Maranzani, B. (2013, February 21). 5 romanovs you should know. Retrieved February 13, 2014, from http://www.history.com/news/5-romanovs-you-should-know - Gave some details of Mikhial Romanov and Elizabeth.
7. TV-Novosti. (2006). Prominent Russians: Elizaveta Petrovna Romanov. http://russiapedia.rt.com/. Retrieved February 13, 2014, from http://russiapedia.rt.com/prominent-russians/the-romanov-dynasty/elizaveta-petrovna/ - Gve additional information about Elizabeth Romanov.