Office Hours: Wed. 11-12 or by appointment , tel 263-228 or firstname.lastname@example.org
ITALIAN RENAISANCE ART
1250-1400 Italian Renaissance Art History 321 concerns the Italian arts from mid thirteenth century to the end of the fourteenth century, the earliest phase of what is called the “Renaissance” or the “Early Modern Period.” The text and the Reader required for this class focus on a newer approach of contextual, multi-media work rather than on the traditional monumental arts of painting, sculpture and architecture only. Consequently, patronage and the social, historical context have greater focus here than might be the case otherwise.
Evaluation will be based on 3 image-related exams, 5 October, Wednesday; 4 November Friday; and 14 December Wednesday, last class day and one written assignment, a cumulative take-home essaydue 21 December Wednesday 12:45. Attendance is expected and invariably improves your grade. Those individuals registered for honors, or those who are graduate students should see me for separate assignments.
Attendance is expected unless a religious holiday and/or illness, or a family emergency intervenes.
Texts for the course: John White, Art and Architecture in Italy; 1250-1400 3rd ed., (Yale, 1993) and a Reader at Bob’s Copy Shop, 616 University Avenue [tel. 257-4536]. A web site for this class with images is http://www.wisc.edu/arth/ah321/index.html . The Reader contains the course Syllabus, original sources from the period and critical essays by modern scholars. Both are marked by an asterisk* on the Syllabus. You are expected to know the images listed for lectures, the related sources and critical literature. These three areas constitute the basis of both exams as well as of the written assignment.
If anyone is new to the field of Art History I would suggest reading the introduction to Helen Gardner’s Art Through the Ages (now in its 12th ed.). James Hall, Dictionary of Subjects & Symbols in Art provides a reference tool for both Christian and Classical imagery; Sylvan Barnet, A Short Guide to Writing About Art provides a guide not just to writing about art, but visual analysis, critical approaches to the field, research methods and correct documentation format.
Most material in your Reader comes from books on reserve in Kohler Art Library. I urge you to look at these texts for further discussion and imagery. The web site will also have good reproductions to study.
Issues and Approaches 2 Sept. Fri. Introduction. Course Mechanics and Historical Context.
The Production of Art: Shop Structures; Media; Condition/Restoratio Read: *Catherine King, “The Trecento: new ideas, new evidence,” in Siena, Florence, and Padua, I:ch.11.
Terms to know for panel and fresco painting: mordant gilding; ultramarine, giallorino, terra verde,ultramarine, azurite, egg tempera, bole, sinopia, arriccio, intonico, giornata, and a secco, bottegga, garzone, and punch work. For sculpture: tagliapietra, lost wax process for bronze casting. [See glossary in F. Hartt, Italian Renaissance Art.]
*Source: Cennino d'Andrea Cennini, excerpts from The Craftsman's Handbook ["Il libro dell'Arte']. Excerpt from F. Hartt, regarding technique Images: Sienese goldsmith, Seal of the Convent of S. Chiara, Siena; Persian silk fabric, 1262; Reliquary for St. Fina, early 14th c., Collegiata, San Gimignano.; Italian silk brocade, 14th c. and detail from Orcagna’s Christ in Glory with Saints, specifically mantle of St. Catherine of Alexandria.
5 Sept. Mon. Labor Day. No Class.
7 Sept. Wed.
THE PROTO-RENAISSANCE OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY
Ghibellines versus the Guelphs
The Empire [whose supporters are called Ghibellines]. The South-Italian Context for Frederick II Hohenstaufen: "Holy Roman Emperor" or "Dragon sent by Satan"?
Read: *Essay, Jill Meredith, "The Arch at Capua: The Strategic Use of Spolia and References to the Antique"; *Paul H.D. Kaplan, "Black Africans in Hohenstaufen Iconography."
Images: From Palermo, the Cappella Palatina in Roger II’s Norman palace: mosaics of dome, nave of ceiling and details, the pavement, revetment, fastigium and throne platform in west wall of nave, and pulpit with paschal candelabrum; mantle of Roger II; glove of Frederick II ; ceremonial hilt of sword. [From Meredith]: Francesco di Giorgio Martini, Arch at Capuafacade drawing, 1480s; Bust of Piero della Vigna, from Capua arch, 1234-1240; Statue of
Emperor Frederick II from Capua arch, 1234-1240. [From Kaplan]: fig. 3, Four-Headed Capital, Troia. Nicola Pisano, Adoration of the Magi [in Kaplan, fig. 7, detail]. Ms. illuminations from Moamgn’s De arte venandi cum avibus (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Ms.Lat. 1071), which Frederick ordered translated by his Syrian Astrologer, Theodor, and corrected himself:
Frederick II in Magisty (fol. 1v), Spieces of Birds (fol. 39v), Falcon Handlers (fol.?),
9 Sept. Fri. The Papacy [supported by the Guelphs] in late Thirteenth-Century Rome.
Read: *Hans Belting, "Icons and Roman Society in the Twelfth Century."
Images: The Sancta Sanctorum (1277-79), Rome. View to altar; east wall: Pope Nicholas III gives model of S. Sanctorum to Christ Enthroned; south wall: Martyrdom of SS. Peter and Paul; vault: Four Evangelists. Icon of the Madonna di S.Sisto (after restoration). Decorative details.
Week II. 12 Sept. Mon. Pietro Cavallini (Pietro de’Cerroni, called Cavallino, c.1240/50-1330) in Rome.
Read: Text: John White, Art and Architecture in Italy: 1250-1400, Ch. 10. "Pietro Cavallini."
Images: Mosaics in S. Maria in Trastevere (1290s): General view of apsidal mosaic, Christ and Virgin Enthroned, anonymous artist. Below, cycle of Life of the Virgin by Cavallini: individual frescoes: Annunciation; Presentation of Christ Child in Temple. Fresco in S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome (1290s), Last Judgment [fragment]. Naples: Circle of Cavallini, fresco, S. Maria Dona Regina, David.
The Venetian Republic 14 Sept. Wed. Venice : The Maritime Republic.
Read: *F. Lane Venice: A Maritime Republic, From Ch. 2, "The Port-City and Its Population," and from Ch. 15,"Arts, Sciences, and Literature." *R. Mack, Bazaar to Piazza, From Ch.1, "Trade, Travel, and Diplomacy."
Images: Mosaic of the Last Judgment on the West Wall of the Cathedral at Torcello; and Palazzo Bernardo, Gothic Palace type in Venice. Plan of Venice. "Tartar" textiles, Dalmatic from Central Asia and detail of Paolo Veneziano, Coronation of the Virgin, c. 1350. Dalmatic from Central Asia, 2nd half 14th c. and example in Giotto, Bardi Chapel, S. Croce, St. Francis and Trial by Fire before Sultan; impact on script, detail from Giotto, Crucifixion, 1304+, Arena Chapel Padua. Doges Palace, west and south facade, Venice, c. 1340+ depicted in Jacopo di Barberi's map of Venice, 1500.
The Rise of the Mendicant Orders
16 Sept. Fri. The Mendicant Orders, Especially the Dominicans (O.P.) and Franciscans (O.F.M.). Thirteenth-Century Panel Painting.
Read: *Van Os, "The Altarpieces of the Urban Religious Orders." Text: White, ch. 11, “Coppo di Marcovaldo and Guido da Siena.”
Images: Coppo di Marcovaldo: Virgin and Child Enthroned with Angels, 2nd half 13th c., S. Maria Maggiore, Florence; Madonna and Child with Angels called Madonna del Bordone, 1261; Master of S. Bernardino Madonna, 1362. Guido da Siena: Virgin and Child, Siena, Palazzo Pubblico (c. 1275-80); Guido da Siena (related to), St. Francis, Sienese 13thc; St. Dominic, 13th c. Sienese; Byzantine school, Madonna and Child, 13th c. Nat. Gallery, Washington; Duccio TheRucellai Madonna, 1285.
Week III 19 Sept. Mon. Thirteenth-Century Fresco Cycles for the Mendicants.
Read: *Borsook, Mural Painters of Tuscany excerpts from Introduction.
Text: White, ch. 12, "Cimabue and the Upper Church of S. Francesco at Assisi."
Images: View of S. Francesco, founded, 1228, consecrated 1253; Plans of Upper and Lower Church. Upper Church: The Doctors of the Church: St. Jerome; Cimabue, Crucifixion c. 1280?; Isaac Master: Isaac Rejecting Esau, c. 1290-1300? Lower church of S. Francesco, Assisi (1280s): Cimabue, Virgin and Child Enthroned with Angels and St Francis.
21 Sept. Wed. Assisi.The St.Francis Cycle.
Read: Text. White, ch. 13, “The Legend of St. Francis and the Completion of the Decoration of the Upper Church of S. Francesco at Assisi.” * Source: S. Bonaventura, Life of St. Francis (Legenda Maior): S. Damaino; Repudiated by his father; Preaching to the Birds; Nativity at Grecco; Miracle of Arezzo; Stigmata; Mouring St. Francis by S. Clare Sisters.
Images: Bonaventura Berlinghieri, St. Francis and Scenes from his Life, 1235; Master of the St. Francis Cycle, Assisi c. 1290-1305?: St. Francis before the Crucifix in San Damaino; St. Francis Repudiating his Father ; The Exorcism of the Demons at Arezzo;The Institution of the Crib at Greccio;The Preaching to the Birds; The Stigmatization of St. Francis; The Mourning of the Clares.
Stylistic Innovation in Sculpture
23 Sept. Fri. Revolutionary Change in Sculpture: Nicola Pisano (active 1258-78)
Read: *Pope-Hennessy, Gothic Sculpture (1985) on Nicola.; * Anita Moskowitz, excerpts from Nicola Pisano's Arca di San Domenico. Text: White, ch. 6, “Nicola Pisano.”
* Source: Inscriptions on the Pisani pulpits (Pope-Hennessy)
Images: Nicola Pisano: Pisa Baptistry Pulpit (1260): whole view; detail, Nativity; Adoration of the Magi; Siena Pulpit (1265-68), whole view, details: Adoration of the Magi (also note Phaedra Sarcophagu); Perugia Fountana Maggiore (finished 1278), and detail, Caryatids; with Arnolfo di Cambio the Arca of S. Domenico (1264?-7), Bologna, S. Domenico.
Week IV 26 Sept. Mon. Arnolfo di Cambio (c. 1245-c.1310).
Read: *Pope-Hennessy, "Arnolfo di Cambio"; Text: White, ch. 7, “Arnolfo di Cambio.”
Images: The tomb of Cardinal de Braye (d. 1282), Orvieto, S. Domenico; Rome, Ciborium, by 1285, S. Paolo fuori le Mura; Florence Cathedral facade (1302): drawing of facade by B. Poccetti, c. 1587; S. Reparata; Virgin Reclining, Virgin and Child [Madonna of the Glass Eyes].Thirsting Woman, Perugia, attributed to A. (c. 1281).
28 Sept. Wed. The Gothic and Giovanni Pisano (c.1250-c.1314)
Read: *Pope-Hennessy, "Giovanni Pisano"; Note again inscriptions for pulpits. Text: White, ch. 8, “Giovanni Pisano.”
Images: Giovanni Pisano: Siena Cathedral, west facade (between 1285-97); façade sculpture, Mary/Miriam sister of Moses; Pulpit in S. Andrea, Pistoia (1301): whole view; and detail, Sibyl, Nativity, and Adoration of Magi; Ivory Madonna, c. 1299?,Pisa, Cathedral treasury; Pulpit for Pisa Cathedral (1302-10): whole view, and detail, Allegories of Hercules, Fortitude and Prudence; Arena Chapel Madonna and Two Angels. See enlargement of Madonna, fragment, Tomb of Margaret of Luxemburg.
Urbanism and Architecture 30 Sept. Fri. Mendicant Architecture and the Contrast of Gothic Cathedrals
Read: Text: White, ch. 2, “The Architecture of the Franciscan and Dominican Expansion in Italy,” and begin ch. 3, “The Gothic Cathedrals: Siena, Orvieto, Florence.”
Images: Aerial view and map of Siena, Orvieto, and Florence. Note on maps locations of such sites as fortifications, gates, city centers--both political and ecclesiastical--and location of mendicant orders, esp. Dominicans and Franciscans. Also note fountains and water locations. The Cathedral [duomo]: Siena (original nave being vaulted 1256-60); Orvieto, Cathedral founded 1290, and Florence, S. Reparata and S. Maria dei Fiori. In Padua, S. Antonio is more important than the cathedral.
Week V. 3 Oct. Mon. Civic Buildings.
Read: Text. White, ch. 4 and 15, and part of 16.
Images: Civic Buildings: In Tuscany and Umbria: Orvieto, Palazzo del Capitano, after 1250?; Florence, Palazzo Vecchio [note the Loggia dei Lanzi to right]; the Bargello (begun c. 1255), and courtyard; Todi: the Civic Palaces (del Capitano, 1290s, del Popolo, begun 1213); and Perugia (dei Priori, 1293-7+). Siena: Palazzo Pubblico, 1298-1310, façade facing the Campo.
Terms: arti (masons' guilds), muratore (wall builder), pietra serena (grey limestone), pietra forte (buff limestone), capomaestro (headman/foreman), gabella (tax), strada (paved/brick or stone), via (unpaved)
5 Oct.Wed. Exam over material through 3 Oct.
Image Identifications [8 @ 3.5 min. each] and Image Comparisons. Extra points earned by using your course readings in READER on the exam.
PART II 1300-1350, TRECENTO ART The Practitioners in Painting and Sculpture 7 Oct. Fri. Duccio di Boninsegna (active. 1278-1318), Founder of the Sienese School.
Read: Text: White, ch. 23, second half, “Duccio di Boninsegna”; * Paul Jeromack, ”Metropolitan buys last available Duccio for $45 million,” The Art Newspaper, No. 153, December 2004, p. 13.
Images: Duccio di Boninsegna: The Rucellai Madonna, 1285; The Madonna of the Franciscans, c. 1290+; Madonna, Child and Saints, London Triptych, c. 1300; Madonna and Saints, Pisa altarpiece, c. 1305-08; Madonna and Child, new painting for Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Week VI. 10 Oct. Mon. Duccio's Maestà Read: Text: first half of White, ch. 23. * Source: Procession at completion of the altarpiece.
Images. The Maestà, 1308-11, front: Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints. Front panel reconstructed: Annunciation of the Death of the Virgin; Annunciation [of Christ's Incarnation]; Funeral...of the Virgin; Presentation in the Temple; Disputation in the Temple. Reconstructed from the back: Entry into Jerusalem; Transfiguration; Christ before Annas and the First Denial of Peter; Healing of Blind Man; Feast at Cana; Raising of Lazarus; Calling of Peter and Andrew; Temptation on the Temple; Crucifixion
Read: Text. White, ch. 24 “Giotto” [read relevant section]. *Anne Derbes and Mark Sandona, “Introduction,”The Usurer’s Heart: Giotto, Enrico Scrovegni, and the Arena Chapel in Padua.
Images: In Padua, Scrovegni family's "Arena" Chapel,1304+ view to west entrance.
Pl. 112, View toward altar and Scrovegni tomb, view to entrance.
Plan of frescoes. Frescoes: Socle area: Vices: Envy, Injustice. Virtues: Charity, Justice.
From Life of the Virgin: Expulsion of Joachim from Temple; Annunciation to St. Anne, Massacre of Innocents, Meeting at the Golden Gate, Marriage of the Virgin.
From Life of Christ: Marriage at Cana, Bribe of Judas, Taking of Christ, Crucifixion, Lamentation, Pl. 118, Resurrection.
Pl. 102, Last Judgement: Enrico Scrovegni Donating the Arena Chapel, detail of Last Judgement. [compare with Torcello's Last Judgement.]
Week VII. 17 Oct. Mon. Giotto’s Other Projects:
Images: In Florence: Ognissanti Madonna, c. 1306-10; Santa Croce, Bardi Chapel c. 1315-20? [*"L" on plan for S. Croce], Stigmatization of St. Francis, Renunciation of Worldly Goods, Apparition at Arles. Santa Croce, Peruzzi Chapel, c. 1325 [*"K" on S. Croce plan], Raising of Drusiana. Santa Croce, Baroncelli Chapel ["B" at right transept on S. Croce plan], c. 1328-34, Altarpiece, The Coronation of the Virgin. Rome: Engraving after Giotto's now destroyed Navicella.]. Naples: lost projects.
Images: Florence: Baptistry doors, 1318+, detail: Carrying of the Baptist’s Body, Entombment of John the Baptist, SPES. (Hope), Presentation of the Baptist’s Head. Reliefs on Campanile to Florentine Cathedral c.1334-37: Noah; Creation of Eve; "Sculpture"; The Weaver; Creation of Adam; Medicina; Agricultura. 21 Oct. Fri. Simone Martini: Civic Patronage in Siena; Ecclesiastical Patronage in Assisi; Aristocratic Patronage in Naples.
Read: White, ch. 26, "Simone Martini".
Images: The Maestà, 1315, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena; St. Louis of Toulouse Altarpiece, 1317 [note, his mother was Mary of Hungary as in Tino's tomb]; S. Francesco, Assisi, Lower Church [*"A" on plan]: Chapel of St. Martin, c. 1320-30: chapel entrance; St. Martin Invested and Renouncing the Sword; SS. Mary Magdalen and Catherine. From altarpiece of Blessed Agostino Novello, c.1333-6: Miracle of Wolf and Miracle of Fallen Child. Guidoriccio da Fogliano, c. 1330? disputed fresco in Palazzo Pubblico; Frontispiece to manuscript [owned by Petrarch] of Servius's "Commentary on Virgil," 1340-44.
Week VIII. 24 Oct. Mon. Tino di Camaino (c. 1285-1337) and Giovanni and Pacio da Firenze [Bertini] active 1343-45.
Read: "Tino di Camaino..." Text: White, relevant sections of ch. 31; Catherine King, “Women as patrons: nuns, widows and rulers,” in Siena, Florence and Padua, vol. 2: ch. 11:254-255.
Images: Tino di Camaino: Henry VII and his councillors, 1315; Tomb of Cardinal Petroni, c. 1318, Cathedral, Siena; Tomb of Mary of Hungary, 1325+, Naples, S.Maria Donna Regina. Madonna, Child, Angels, St. Francis and S. Chiara who presents Queen Sancia, marble relief.
Naples: S. Chiara, Giovanni and Pacio Bertini of Florence, Tomb for Robert I of Anjou, 1343 [Note full view of tomb before and after bombing in WWII.].
26 Oct. Wed. – 28 Oct. Fri. Siena: A Case Study in Civic Patronage. The Sala dei Nove, Palazzo Pubblico. The Lorenzetti Brothers: Pietro (c. 1290-1348) and Ambrogio (d. 1348?)
Read: Text: White, ch. 27 “Ambrogio and Pietro Lorenzetti.” *Excerpt from Art in Renaissance Italy, “Altarpieces: Conventions and Contexts.” *Source: Inscriptions on frescoes in Sala dei Nove, Siena, Palazzo Pubblico, in Siena, Florence and Padua II:167.
Images: Ambrogio Lorenzetti's frescos, 1337-40, Palazzo Pubblico, Sala dei Nove: general view; specific frescoes, Good Government,detail of Justice, Concord and other Personifications including Peace. The Good City; The Good Countryside; Bad Government and the City. Attributed to Lorenzetti, The commune, 1344 (cover of an account book). Note another version of this, Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Maestà, c.1335-37, [originally for main church of Augustinian Hermits in Massa Marittima.]
Sienese focus on Mariology in Siena’s Cathedral: Simone Martini, Annunciation, 1333; Ambrogio’s Lorenzetti’s Presentation in the Temple, 1342; and Pietro’s Birth of the Virgin, 1342.
Pietro Lorenzetti, Madonna, Child, SS. Francis and John the Evangelist, and Deposition, Lower church, S. Francesco, Assisi, c. 1326-30.
31 Oct. Mon. The Private Funerary Chapel: Florence. Taddeo Gaddi (active c. 1328-
c.1366): The Baroncelli Chapel, S. Croce and Mariology.
Read: Text: White, relevant section of ch. 28, “Tuscan Painting.”
Images: Florence: Taddeo Gaddi at S. Croce, Baroncelli Chapel, c. 1328-34 [*"B" on plan]: Views of chapel Vault frescoes: Hope, Humility, Charity and Faith; Life of the Virgin: Wall fresco: Joachim’s Expulsion from the Temple and Annunciation of Angel to Joachim , The Marriage of the Virgin, Annunciation, and Visitation, fictive niches with liturgical items. Note stained-glass window images as well. Giotto Workshop altarpiece of the Coronation and pinacle detail, God the Father and Angels. Anonymous artist, Tomb of the Baroncelli family including fresco of The Virgin and Child by Taddeo Gaddi. Maso di Banco: St. Sylvester and the Dragon, late 1430s, S. Croce, Baradi di Vernio Chapel.
2 Nov. Wed. A Civic-Religious Campaign in Orvieto.
Read: White, ch. 32 , “Lorenzo Maitani and the Façade of Orvieto Cathedral”.
Images: Orvieto Cathedral façade, begun 1310; Virgin and Child beneath canopy on façade; reliefs of Scenes from Genesis, and details of Creation of Eve, Cain Killing Abel, two angels. Relief of Prophecies of the Redemption; Relief of Scenes from Life of Christ, including details of Visitation, Baptism of Christ. Relief of Last Judgment detail of the Damned. Ugolino di Vieri, Reliquary of the Holy Corporal, 1338.
4 Nov. Fri. Exam 2. [Through material of 2 November.]
Week X. PART III. 1350-1400. POST-PLAGUE AND RECOVERY 7 Nov. Mon.The Spector of Death and the Hope for Immortality: Plague Imagery and Systems of Thought
Read: *Source: Excerpts from Boccaccio, The Decameron; and *Van Os, “The Black Death and Sienese Painting: A Problem of Interpretation.” Discussion.
9 Nov. Wed. Continued: Text: White, ch. 40, sections on “The Decoration of the Camposanto in Pisa”, “Andrea Orcagna, Nardo di Cione, and Jacopo di Cione,” and “Andrea Bonaiuti da Firenze.”
Images: Pisa: Francesco Traini (?), Triumph of Death, early 1350s?, Camposanto at Pisa. Florence : Santa Maria Novella, Andrea Orcagna: Strozzi Chapel altarpiece, Christ in Majesty , 1357, and detail [*14 on plan]; Andrea da Firenze/Bonaiuto:Dominican Chapter house , called the “Spanish Chapel” fresco cycle, 1365+ [*no. 25 on plan]. General view and diagram; Frescoes: Triumph of the Church; The Triumph of St. Thomas Aquinas; Vault: Navicella, Resurrection, Pentecost, Ascension.
Death imagery: A Flagellant Confraternity in Procession, 14th c. copy of Villani’s Cronica; [ Note for comparative purposes, imagery stressing papal primacy, Associate of Giotto, Stefaneschi Altarpiece, Christ Enthroned and Martyrdoms of SS. Peter and Paul ; and Ciborium, Sant’Ambrogio, Milan, relief of Christ Presenting Keys to St. Peter, Book to St. Paul]
11 Nov. Fri. Sculpture: Andrea Cione called Orcagna (active c. 1343-68) in Florence and Nino Pisano (c. 1315-1368?)
Read: Text: White, ch. 43, Andrea Orcagna and for Nino Pisano.
Images: Orsanmichele, rebuilt 1337, remodeled 1380-1404, Pl.157 and Pl.152, interior; Andrea Orcagna, Tabernacle, 1359 and detail, Marriage of Virgin. Also, Death and Assumption of Virgin, on back of Tabernacle. Bernardo Daddi, Virgin and Child with Angels, 1347, altar within Orcagna tabernacle; Biadaiolo Master, The Distribution of Grain to the Needy at Orsanmichele, c. 1335-40, ms. illumination.
Nino Pisano: Madonna del Latte, c. 1350-68, Pisa, S. Maria della Spina.
WEEK XI. 14 Nov. Mon. Later Florentine “Recovery”
Read: Text: White, ch. 40, section on “Agnolo Gaddi and Spinello Aretino.”
Images: Agnolo Gaddi: Legend of the Cross, c. 1380, Choir, S. Croce: Finding of the True Cross. Spinello Aretino: Sacristy of S. Miniato al Monte, Life of St. Benedict, by 1387.
16 Nov. Wed. The Region of Emilia Romagna [Bologna and Modena]: Vitale da Bologna, (active 1334-1361) and Tommaso da Modena, 14th c.
Read: Text: White, ch. 29, relevant parts; *Robert Gibbs, Introduction and excerpts from ch. 4, “Treviso: the Capitolo of the Dominicans”in Tomaso da Modena.
Images: Vitale da Bologna: St. George and the Dragon; frescoes at Pomposa; Life of St. Anthony panel. Tomaso da Modena: Right wing of reliquary diptych, Walters Museum; the Chapter House of S. Nicolò, Treviso. St. Albert the Great, St. Jerome.
18 Nov. Fri. Equestrian Monuments, Tombs and Reliquaries. Especially the Work of Bonino da Campione (active after 1349; d. 1397)
Read: *Pope-Hennessy, "Giovanni di Balduccio" and “Bonino da Campione.” Text: White, ch. 34, “Giovanni di Balduccio and North Italian Sculpture. *Catherine King, “The Tombs and Relics of Saints,” from ch. 5, “Effigies: Human and Divine” in Siena, Florence, and Padua, vol 2: 120, 122-127.
Images: Bonino da Campione: Monument of Cansignorio della Scala, Sagrato di Santa Maria Antica, Verona,1370-74; Monument of Bernabò Visconti, Milan, c.1385.
Other tombs: Giovanni di Balduccio, Arca di S. Pietro Martire, 1339, Milan, S. Eustorigo
Reliquaries: Giovanni Bartolo da Siena and his father, Reliquary bust of Saint Agatha, 1376, Catania Cathedral; Attrib. Mariano d'Agnolo Romanelli, Reliquary of Saint Fina, c.1380-90, San Gimignano; Lando di Pietro, Fragment of a Crucifixion, 1338. Osservanza, Siena. Note poem on parchment, dated Jan. 1337 found inside the Christ figure. Reliquary of Beata Humiliana, by 1394, S. Croce, Florence.
21 Nov. Mon. Milan and Pavia the Visconti
Read: Text:White, ch. 38 on architecture, ch. 43 on sculpture; ch. 41, section on “Lombardy” for ms. illuminations”. *“Milan: The Visconti,” excerpts from Art in Renaissance Italy, 122-27.
Images: Cathedral of Milan, begun 1386; Certosa at Pavia, 1396+; Arca of S. Agostino in S. Pietro in Ciel d’Oro, Pavia, dated 1362. Relook at equestrian monument for Bernabo Visconti by Bonino da Campione, before 1363. Tomb of Azzone Visconti, c. 1342-44, for San Gottardo, Milan. Ms. illuminations: Geoffredo da Viterbo, Death of Jacob, detail of page from Pantheon, for Azzone Visconti; Giovanni dei Grassi, Vulture, Goldfinch, and Green Parrot, memorandum book, late 14th c., [compare with De Arte Venandi cum Avibus for Frederick II]; Vainglory, from Petrarch’s De Viris Illustribus, after 1336; page from the Uffiziolo of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, before 1395 with duke’s profile portrait.
23 Nov. Wed. The Carrara
Read: * “’Splendid models and examples from the past,’” excerpt from Siena, Florence, and Padua, I, ch. 8, “Carrara patronage of art”, 155-171; ch. 10, “Astrology, antiquity and empiricism: art and learning,” 196-202, 210-213.
Images: Sculpture: Andriolo de’Santi and others, Monumtne of Jacopo II da Carrara, 1351, and fresco by Guariento, Coronation of the Virgin and Portrait of Jacopo II in Adoration, 1351, Erimitani, originally S. Agostino, Padua. Carrara palace of the Reggia [now largely destroyed]: Chapel: Guariento, Angel Principalities, and Angel Virtue Ministering to Two Supplicants, both c. 1347-50; Sala Virorum Illustrium: Carrara emblems: red chariot (carro) and helmet with Saracin’s head; after Altichiero, Petrarch in his Study, from Petrarch’s De Viris Illustribus, c. 1400. Anonymous author, Study of a French Bean detail from Herbal before 1403 for Francesco Carrara.
THANKSGIVING RECESS: 24-26 November.
Week XIII. 28 Nov. Mon. The Republic of Venice
Read: Text: White, ch. 29 relevant parts and ch. 43, relevant sections; *Pope-Hennessy, “Jacobello and Pierpaolo dale Masegne.”
Painting: Paolo Veneziano: Tomb of Doge Francesco Dandolo, d. 1339, Venice, Frari, Chapter House; Polyptych with Coronation of the Virgin, late 1350s? [1345?]; Coronation, 1358; Pala D’Oro, San Marco, Venice. Guariento, Coronation of the Virgin; S. Maria dei Frari and SS. Giovanni e Paolo.
Sculpture: Tomb of Doge Andrea Dandalo, c. 1354 and mosaic, Baptism and Crucifixion all in Baptistry of San Marco. Jacobello and Pierpaolo dalle Masegne: High Altar of S. Francesco, Bologna, 1388-92; Iconostasis, San Marco, Venice, 1394.
30 Nov. Wed. Altichiero (da Zevio c. 1330-c.1390)
Read: *“The Chapel of Bonifacio Lupi”, excerpts from Siena, Florence, and Padua, v.2, 179-193.
Images: Padua: The Chapel of Bonifacio Lupi, in Sant' Antonio. Chapel facade sculpture and tombs by Venetian, Andriolo de'Santi and assist., c. 1372-77 and frescoes by Veronese painter, Altichiero, c. 1377-79. Themes concern primarily Christ's Passion and the life of St. James the Great: Altichiero: Entombment of Christ above Rossi family tomb by Andriolo de’Santi; Wall frescoes: Martyrdom of St. James; Baptism of Queen Lupa; Battle of Clavigo; Virgin, Child and Saints with Bonifacio Lupi and Caterina dei Francesi; The Council of King Ramiro; and The Crucifixion. For Andriolo de'Santi, also see Tomb of Bonifacio Lupi with fresco above of Christ Resurrected with Angels. 25 Nov. Wed. Open…catch up.
Thanksgiving Holiday. 26 Nov.-29 Nov.
2 Dec. Fri. Women as Patrons: Widows and Rulers
Read: *Catherine King, excerpts from"Women as patrons: nuns, widows and rulers," in Siena, Florence and Padua vol. 2, ch. 11: Introduction and ‘Feminine Behavior Defined by Men,’243-249.
Images: Attributed to Giovanni del Biondo, The Annunciation with Saints, after 1380; Guariento, The Crucifixion with Bona Maria Bovolina, c. 1332; Santa Croce chapel, attributed to Taddeo Gaddi, The Entombment of Christ with Donatrix, c. 1332 [The Bardi di Vernio Chapel,"R" on plan for Santa Croce]. Attrib. to Guisto de’Menabuoi, Ordination of St. Louis of Toulouse, 1394, originally San Benedetto, Padua.
Week XIV. 5 Dec. Mon. Chapel Decoration
Read: Continue King, ch. 11, ‘Consorts of Rulers and Queens,’ 249-254 regarding the Baptistry in Padua. Also, Diana Norman, “Art and Learning,” from ch. 10, "Astrology, antiquity and empiricism: art and learning" in Siena, Florence and Padua, vol. 1: 210-213.
Images: Padua: Baptistry, Padua commissioned by Fina Buzzacarina, c. 1375, from Giusto de'Menabuoi: general view of baptistry; Dome: Dome of Heaven with Christ Blessing and the Virgin in Glory; from dome: detail, Astrology and The Creation of the World [Note simply for comparative material, Guariento, The Planet Luna with Two Children, 1360s, Padua, Eremitani]; wall fresco, Crucifixion and altar wall, Annunciation, Madonna and Saints with Fina Buzzacarina. 7 Dec. Wed. Secular Cycles
Read: *Colin Cunningham, “For the Honour and beauty of the city: the design of town halls,” regarding the Palazzo della Ragione in Padua in Siena, Florence and Padua, vol. 2, pp. 49-53. From the reading for 5 Dec. on “Art and Learning”, pp. 210-213, and pp. 201-202, “The Paduan Salone” regarding the pictorial program in the Palazzo della Ragione.
Padua: Salone, Palazzo della Ragione, 1219 and 1306. Pictorial cycle: details: Labour of Month for December and Capricorn, 15th c. copy of Giotto; Labour of the Month for July (Threshing). From Baptistry in Padua, Giusto de’ Menabuoi, detail of Creation of the World, c. 1375.
San Gimignano. Memmo di Filippuccio, detail of The Torments of Love, c.1305-10, Camera del Podestà, Palazzo Comunale.
Florence: Story of the Chastelaine de Vergi, bedroom in the Palazzo Davanzati, c. 1395Pl.226 and Bartoldo di Fredi, Creation of the World, 1367, Collegiata, San Gimignano. Palazzo della Ragione.
Women as Patrons. Nuns
9 Dec. Fri. Read: *Catherine King, Ch. 9, “Change and Continuity in Marian Altarpieces,” section on ‘Florentine Marian Altarpieces,” 206-211; and Ch. 11, “Women as Patrons,” section on ‘Nuns,’ pp.255-266 for San Pier Maggiore altarpiece in Siena, Florence and Padua, vol II.Sources: "St. Bonaventura, Introduction and 'Prologue' to the Tree of Life (Lignun vitae).
Images: Florence: Benedictine Nuns at convent of Santa Felicità--architecture, frescoes, manuscripts, and altarpieces: Niccolò di Pietro Fiorentino, The Crucifixion, 1387, chapter-house wall fresco, and vault fresco with seven virtues; convent high altarpiece, Niccolò di Pietro Gerini, The Coronation of the Virgin with Saints. 1395-1401; Missal, att. to 'Ser Monte of the Badia', The Martyrdom of St. Felicity's Seven Sons, 1358.
Benedictine Nuns at convent of San Pier Maggiore: Jacopo di Cione, The Coronation of the Virgin with Saints, 1370-71.
Third Order Patrons: Guariento, A Particular Judgement, detail of The Coronation of the Virgin, 1344. Taddeo Gaddi, Tree of Life with donor and Manfredi family arms, Saints, and Last Supper, Refectory, Santa Croce, c. 1330-60.
Week XV. 12 Dec. Mon. Roman Catholic Liturgy in Manuscripts and in Manuscripts
Read: * Barbara Drake Boehm, "The Books of the Florentine Illuminators," and *Laurence Kanter, "Master of the Codex of Saint George," and Cat. No. 7. The Codex of Saint George and Cat. 8. Missal. [These are from Painting and Illumination in Early Renaissance Florence 1300-1450.]. Text: White, ch. 28, “The Florentine Painters,” and “Pacino di Bonaguida”; *Excerpt from Painting and Illumination, “Pacino di Bonaguida” and “Illumination of St. Michael.” Text: White, ch. 29 regarding ”The Bolognese School,” “Lombardy, and Niccol da Bologna, Missal, 1374, and “Lombardi,” pp.581-590 and fig. 357, Giovanni dei Grassi, Vulture, Goldfinch, and Green Parrot; fig. 359, Paduan: French Bean
Images: From above Ms. reading see images on web site.
Terms: Specified in Boehm reading: Liturgical manuscripts: Missal [book of the Mass or "text for the priest's celebration of the Eucharist (Holy Communion). The Psalter: Book of Psalms, 150 "songs of praise in poetic form" attributed to King David. These were often sung.
The musical manuscripts: the gradual: parts of the Mass to be sung by a choir. "codified by St. Gregory in late 6th c., with the music falling at logical intervals to mark actions or movements in the service. The antiphonary, or antiphonal: "contained the prayers and praise necessary for the Divine Office" Established by St. Benedict.
Monastic devotions: Matins (night ofice) about 2:30 A.M.; lauds: day hours at 5:00A.M., prime: 6:00 A.M., terce: 9:00A.M., sext: noon, none: 3:00 P.M., vespers: 4:30 P.M., and compline: 6:00P.M. ("Mass would be celebrated between terce and sext.") (p. 20)
Instructions written in liturgical manuscripts were written in red, thus called rubrics.
Laude: hymns..as to the Virgin in the morning and in the evening [remember Duccio’s Rucellai Madonna paid for by a group devoted to the singing of such hymns at S. M. Novella..
Book of Hours: private devotions for the laity. Contain: calendar of feast days; four Gospel lessons for Christmas, the Annunciation, the Epiphany, feast of Ascension.
Hours of the Virgin. Each hour preceded by an illustration from the Passion or from the Infancy of Christ and Coronation of the Virgin. Hours of the Passion; Hours of the Cross; Hours of the Holy Spirit. Seven Penitential Psalms Office of the Dead.
Note use of personal devices or emblems requested by patrons in manuscripts.
14 Dec. Wed. In class exam over material from 7 Nov. through 12 Dec.
Final Exam. Cumulative take-home paper due, 21 December 2:45.* [or before].
Table of Contents .Architectural plans:
a. Padua, S. Antonino.
b. Florence, S. Croce and S. Maria Novella
1. Sources: 1. Cennino d'Andrea Cennini, excerpts from The Craftsman's Handbook ["Il libro dell'Arte']. *
2. St. Bonaventura, Excerpts from his Life of St. Francis (Legenda Maior) 3. Inscriptions on the Pisani pulpits (Pope-Hennessy, 1986: 170, 177)
4. Document: Procession at the Completion of Duccio's Maestà.
5. Inscriptions from the Sala dei Nove, Siena, Palazzo Pubblico [From Siena, Florence and Padua. 2:167.
5. Excerpts from Boccaccio, the Decameron 6. St. Bonaventura, Introduction and "Prologue" to the Tree of Life (Lignum vitae) 2. Critical Essays:
1. Siena, Florence and Padua: Art, Society and Religion 1280-1400, vol. I.
Diane Norman, “’Splendid models and examples from the past’: Carrara patronage of
art,” Ch. 8, 155-171, 241-42.
Diane Norman, “Astrology, antiquity and empiricism: art and learning,” Ch. 10, 197-202,
210-13, 243 and 244.
Catherine King, “The Trecento: new ideas, new evidence.” Ch.11, 217-121, 244-5.
2. Siena, Florence and Padua. Vol. II, Case Studies.
Colin Cunningham, “For the honour and beauty of the city: the design of town halls,” Ch.
2, 49-53, and 269.
Catherine King, “Effigies: human and divine,” Ch. 5, 120, 122-127 and 271
Diane Norman, “Those who pay, those who pray, and those who paint: two funerary
chapels,” Ch. 8, 179-191, and 274.
Diane Norman, “’Hail most saintly Lady’: Change and continuity in Marian altarpieces,”
‘Florentine Marian altarpieces,’ Ch. 9, 206-11, 275
Catherine King, “Women as patrons: nuns, widows and rulers,” Ch. 11, 243-254, 277.
3. Excerpt from F. Hartt, Italian Renaissance Art, regarding technique.
4. Jill Meredith, "The Arch at Capua: The Strategic Use of Spolia and References to Antique."
5. Paul H.D. Kaplan, "Black Africans in Hohenstaufen Iconography."
6. Hans Belting, "Icons and Roman Society in the Twelfth Century."
7. Frederic C. Lane, Ch. 2 "The Port-City and Its Population" and Ch. 15, "Arts, Sciences, and Literature," from Venice: A Maritime Republic. 8. Rosamond E. Mack, "Trade, Travel, and Diplomacy," from Bazaar to Piazza.
9. Van Os, "The Altarpieces of the Urban Religious Orders."
10. Eve Borsook, "Introduction," from The Mural Painters of Tuscany.
11. John Pope-Hennessy, Italian Gothic Sculpture (1996).
“Nicola Pisano” 12, 16, 23, 28, 33
“Arnolfo di Cambio,” 54, 59, 61, 67,
“Giovanni Pisano,” 34, 35, 37, 42, 47, 52, 53
“Andrea Pisano,” 96, 99, 105
12. John Pope-Hennesy, Italian Gothic Sculpture(1986)
“Bonino da Campione,” 200,201
“Giovanni di Balduccio,” 198, 199, 200
“Jacobello and Pieropaolo Masegne,” 203-204
13. Anita Moskowitz, Excerpts from Nicola Pisano's Arca di San Domenico.
14. Paul Jeromack, “Metropolitan buys last available Duccio for $45 million.”
15. Anne Derbes and Mark Sadona, “Introduction” from The Usurer’s Heart. 16. John T. Paoletti and Gary M. Radke, Art in Renaissance Italy, 2nd ed.
“Altarpieces: Convention and Contexts,” 105-108
“Milan: The Visconti,” 122-127
17. Van Os, "The Black Death and Sienese Painting: A Problem of Interpretation."
18. Robert Gibbs, Tomaso da Modena, Introduction and excerpts from ch. 4, “Treviso: the
Capitolo of the Dominicans.”
19. Barbara Drake Boehm, "The Books of the Florentine Illuminators," from Painting and Illumination in Early Renaissance Florence 1300-1450.
20. Laurence Kanter, "Master of the Codex of Saint George," and Cat. No. 7, The Codex...and Cat. 8, Missal. From Painting and Illumination.
21. Ibid., excerpt, "Pacino di Bonaguida" and Illumination of St. Michael.
Note: Most of your readings come from books on reserve at the desk in Kohler Art Library. I urge you to consult them for far better photographs than Xerox copy provides. This is especially true of Pope-Hennessy and Painting and Illumination.