Ital X. 140 Problems in Italian History, 1848-1915 Course Outline: Aims and Objectives



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ITAL X.140 Problems in Italian History, 1848-1915
Course Outline: Aims and Objectives
This course aims to cover a series of methodological questions - the use of sources, historical method, debates in Italian history. It will look in detail at a series of historical themes: the Risorgimento and the Nation; Banditry; Emigration; Colonialism; the politics of the Liberal period; the run-up to the First World War. Sources and materials may include newspaper extracts, novels and diaries, paintings, laws, biographies and maps. Students are encouraged to use Italian language sources when possible. The course prepares students for the second year history acting as the first stage of a ‘pathway’.
Teaching:
20 1-hour lectures: 4 1-hour tutorials. Lectures are weekly.
Attendance is compulsory and non-attendance can result in students being excluded from the written exam. Tutorials will be arranged each term.
Assessment: One three-hour unseen examination; course work of different kinds will be set and will be obligatory
All students should read the guidelines on essay writing included in the Department Handbook and follow instructions for course work as appropriate. All citations must be properly referenced (with author, title and page number) and each essay must contain a proper bibliography. Essays and course work must be based on wide reading, not just one or two volumes/articles. Internet sites need to be used with care and only in addition to, and not instead of, printed sources.
Lecturers:
Dr John Foot, (email) J.foot@ucl.ac.uk
Prof Robert Lumley, (email) r.lumley@ucl.ac.uk


Overall Reading:
We recommend you buy at least one of the following books:
D. Beales & E. Biagini, The Risorgimento and the Unification of Italy (Longmans, 2002)

J. Dunnage, Twentieth Century Italy: A Social History (Longmans, 2002)


J. Foot, Modern Italy (Palgrave, 2003) for analysis and themes.
A. Lytellton (ed.), Liberal and Fascist Italy 1900-1945 (Oxford, 2002) for debates/themes/questions.
All three volumes are available in paperback (they will also be useful for X.240 in the second year)
Note that this Reading List is not exhaustive but is designed to give you a good grounding for the course.
Other useful overviews:

G. Holmes (ed.), An Illustrated History Of Italy (paperback), (2001).

D. Mack Smith, Italy: A Modern History (1968), new edition: Modern Italy: a Political History, (1997).

M. Clark, Modern Italy, 1871-1995, London: Longman, 2nd edit. (1996). 

V. Zamagni, The economic history of Italy, 1860-1990, (1993).

V. Castronovo, Storia economica d'Italia: dall'Ottocento ai giorni nostri, (1995).

J. Davis (ed.), Italy in the Nineteenth Century, 1796-1900, OUP, (2000).

Spencer DiScala, Italy from Revolution to Republic, 1700-Present,.

Westview Press, 2nd ed. (1998).

R.. Absalom, Italy since 1800: a nation in the balance, 1995.

H. Hearder, Italy: A Short History, Cambridge University Press, 1990  

B. Croce, A history of Italy 1871-1915, (1929). A classic history.


In Italian:

S. Colarizi, Il novecento italiano, Rizzoli, (2000).

A. De Benardi and L. Ganapini, Storia d’Italia, 1860-1995, (1996).

G. Candeloro, Storia dell’Italia moderna, 11 vols (1970–86).



Storia d’Italia dal 1861 al 1997, 2000.
Good short essays on many subjects covered on the course can be found in the three volumes edited by M. Isnenghi (a cura di), I luoghi della memoria. Simboli e miti dell'Italia unita, (1996-7).
Reference:
Good reference work can be found in the Enciclopedia Treccani (Italian); The Enciclopedia Einaudi (Italian) and the Encyclopedia Brittanica.
F. Coppa (ed.) Dictionary of Modern Italian History, (1985).
An excellent source in Italian for chronology, events, dates etc. is: I giorni della storia d'Italia :dal Risorgimento a oggi : cronaca quotidiana dal 1815, (1997) (De Agostini).
Internet:
The internet should be used with great care, and not as a substitute for reading recommended text books. Under no circumstances should uncredited sections of text be pasted into essays. Keep full web-page references for all web sites cited.
Documents:

This course will make use of different types of historical documents, from classic ‘primary sources’ (laws, constitutions, decrees) to photographs, letters, songs, film and pictures. Some of these documents can be found in various collections, for example the Riuniti photography series: Diego Mormorio, Il Risorgimento: 1848-1870 (1998); Giovanna Ginex, L’Italia liberale: 1870-1900 (1998; )Gabriele D’Autilia, L’età giolittiana: 1900-1915 (1998); Silvana Palma, L’Italia coloniale (1999).

A good source for documents: D. Mack Smith, (ed.), The Making of Italy, 1799-1870 (1968).
Each sub-period will be addressed through an overview lecture, and subsequent sessions will be dedicated to specific moments or debates. These themes will then be discussed further in the tutorials.

Week 1. Introduction
Introduction to the course, organisation, reading lists: note that the course outline is not set in stone. There may be changes but within the broad parameters outlined here.

Weeks 2-7. The origins of Italy. 1848 and the Risorgimento (1848-1870)

General Reading on Risorgimento and European Historical Context:
D. Beales & E. Biagini, The Risorgimento and the Unification of Italy (2002)

Robert Gildea, Barricades and Borders: Europe 1800-1914 (1987; 2nd ed. 1996)

J. Sperber, Revolutionary Europe: 1780-1850 (2000)

E. Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution (1962)

E. Hobsbawm, The Age of Capital (1985) ch. 1

J. A. Davis (ed.), Italy in the 19th Century (2000)

S. Woolf, A History of Italy 1700-1860 (1978)

N. Doumanis, Italy (2001)

A. Lyttelton, ‘The National Question in Italy’ in M. Teich and R. Porter (eds.), The National Question in Europe (1993), pp. 63-105

J.A. Davis, ‘The Age of the Risorgimento’ in G. Holmes, (ed) Oxford Illustrated History of Italy (1997)

D. Mack Smith, The Making of Italy 1796-1866 (1968; 2nd ed. 1988)

C. Duggan, A Concise History of Italy (1994)

S.M. Di Scala, Italy from Revolution to Republic (1995)
J. Keates, ‘Nineteenth-Century Italian Culture’, in G. Holmes (1997)
B. Smith, Changing Lives: Women in European History Since 1700 (1989)

B. Caine & G. Sluga, Gendering European History (2000)

B. Waller, Themes in Modern European History 1830-1890 (1990)

M. Meriggi, Milano borghese. Circoli ed élites nell’Ottocento 1992)

M. Thom, Republics, Nations and Tribes (1995)

A. Banti, Terra e denaro: una borghesia padana dell’Ottocento (1989)

A. Banti, Storia della borghesia italiana (1996)

A. Banti, La nazione del risorgimento: parentela, santità e onore alle origini dell’Italia unita (2000)


Competing Ideas of the Polity: Giuseppe Mazzini and Carlo Cattaneo
G. Mazzini, The Duties of Man (1966)

D. Mack Smith, ‘Mazzini: An Idealist in Action’ (1972)

D. Mack Smith, Mazzini (1994)

Bolton King, Mazzini (1902)

B. King, Essays by Joseph Mazzini (1894)

R. Sarti, Mazzini: A Life for the Religion of Politics (1997)

G. Armani, Il secolo dei lumi e delle riforme (1989) 
G. Galasso (ed.), Carlo Cattaneo: Scritti politici (1978)

C. Cattaneo, Carlo Cattaneo 1801-1869: Scritti politici ed epistolari 3 vols

C.M. Lovett, Carlo Cattaneo and the Politics of the Risorgimento (1972)

K. Greenfield, Economics and Liberalism in the Risorgimento (1934)

S. Woolf, A History of Italy 1700-1860 (1978)

F. Della Peruta, Carlo Cattaneo politico (2001)

F. Della Peruta (ed.), I volti di Carlo Cattaneo, 1801-69 (2001)

Before and After 1848: A Geography of Revolt
L. Riall, The Italian Risorgimento, (1994) chapter 3

E. Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution, (1962) ch. 16

G. Candeloro, Storia dell’Italia moderna, vol. 3

P. Ginsborg, Daniele Manin and the Venetian Revolution of 1848-49 (1979)

P. Ginsborg, ‘Peasants and Revolutionaries in Venice and the Veneto in 1848’, Historical Journal, xvii, 1974

F. della Peruta, Democrazia e socialismo nel risorgimento (19xx)

C. M. Lovett, The Democratic Movement in Italy, 1830-70 (1982)

D. Mack Smith, History of Sicily (1986), part 12, pp. 405-426

A. M. Canepa, ‘Emancipation and Jewish Response in Mid-Nineteenth Century Italy’, European History Quarterly, vol. 16, October 1986

P. Ginsborg, ‘Risorgimento rivoluzionario: mito e realtà di una guerra di popolo’, Storia e Dossier, 47, 1991, pp. 61-97

M. Petrusewicz, Come il Meridione divenne una questione: rappresentazione del Sud prima e dopo il Quarantotto (1998)

R.J.W. Evans & H Pogge

von Strandmann (eds.), The Revolutions in Europe 1848-49: From Reform to Reaction (2000)

P. Jones, The 1848 Revolutions (2nd ed. 1991)

R. Price, The Revolutions of 1848 (1991)

J. Sperber, The European Revolutions of 1848-49 (1994)

J. Rosselli, The Life of Verdi (2000)

Opponents of the New Italy
E. Hobsbawm, Primitive Rebels

P. Ginsborg, ‘After the Revolution: Bandits on the Plains of the Po, 1848-54’ in J. Davis and P. Ginsborg (eds.) Society and Politics in the Age of the Risorgimento (2000)

M. Petrusewicz, ‘Society against the State: Peasant Brigandage in S. Italy’, Criminal Justice History, 8, 1987, pp. 1-20 (Teaching Collection)

L. Riall, ‘Elite Resistance to State Formation: The Case of Italy’, in M. Fulbrook (ed.), National Histories and European History (1993)

J.A. Davis, Conflict and Control. Law and Order in 19th Century Italy (1988)

A. C. Jemolo, The Church and State in Italy (1960)

R. Grew, ‘Catholicism and the Risorgimento’ in F. Coppa (ed.), Studies in Modern Italian History (1986)

O. Chadwick, The Popes in the Age of European Revolutions (1980)



Representations of the Risorgimento: Heroic Narratives and Cults of Personality
G. C. Abba, The Diary of One of Garibaldi’s Thousand (1962)

J. A. Davis, ‘Garibaldi and England’, History Today, 32, December, 1982

D. Beales, ‘Garibaldi in England’ in J. Davis and P. Ginsborg (eds.) Society and Politics in the Age of the Risorgimento (2000)

M. Deas, ‘Garibaldi in Latin America’ History Today, 32, December, 1982

L. Riall, ‘Hero, Saint or Revolutionary? 19th Century Politics and the Cult of Garibaldi’, Modern Italy, 3, 1998

D. Mack Smith, Garibaldi. A Portrait in Documents (1982)

A. Russell Ascoli & K. von Henneberg (eds) Making and Remaking Italy: The Cultivation of National Identity around the Risorgimento (Berg, 2001)


B. Tobia, Una patria per gli italiani. Spazi,itinerari, monumenti nell’Italia unita (1870-1900) (1991)

S. Pivato, Il nome e la storia (1999) Part One

U. Levra, Fare italiani: memorie e celebrazioni del Risorgimento (1992)



Weeks 8-13. The Unified State Up To The Repression Of 1898
General Reading on this period:
C. Duggan, Creare la Nazione. Vita di Francesco Crispi, (2000).

J. Davis (ed) Italy in the Nineteenth Century

A. R. Ascoli and Krystyna Von Henneberg (eds), Making and Remaking Italy: The Cultivation of National Identity around the Risorgimento (2001)

T. De Mauro, Storia linguistica dell'Italia unita (1976)

J. Davis (ed.), Gramsci and Italy's Passive Revolution (1979)

D. Mack Smith, Italy: A Modern History (1968)

A. Lyttelton, 'Shifting Identities: Nation, Region and City' in

C. Levy (ed.), Italian Regionalism (Oxford, 1996).

A. Lyttelton 'The National Question in Italy' in Teich M., Porter R. ed.s, The National Question in Europe in Historical Context (1993)

J. Morris 'The Risorgimento's failure. Italian Unification and After', Modern History Review,

February 1994 reprinted in Vinen R., Catterall P. ed.s, Europe 1815-1870 (1994).

J. A. Davis, Conflict and Control: Law and Order in 19th Century Italy 1988


In Italian

G. Sabbatucci and V. Vidotto, Storia d’Italia 1. Le premesse dell’unità (1994).

2. Il nuovo stato e la società civile, 1861-1887.

3. Liberalismo e democrazia, 1887-1914.

Scirocco A., L’Italia del Risorgimento (1990)

Scirocco A., In difesa del Risorgimento (1998)

Ginsborg P ed. ‘Risorgimento in discussione’ Passato e Presente 41 (1997)
The Risorgimento And The Italian Nation.
L. Riall, 'Hero, Saint or Revolutionary? 19th Century Poltics and the cult of Garibaldi' Modern Italy, 3, 2 (1998).

J. Davis, ‘Italy 1796-1870: The Age of the Risorgimento’ in Holmes G. ed.,



The Oxford Illustrated History of Italy (1997)

B. Lipira, Giuseppe Garibaldi: A Biography of the Father of Modern Italy, 1998.

B. Tobia ‘Urban Space and Monuments in the Nationalisation of the Masses’ in Woolf S. ed., Nationalism in Europe 1815 to the Present (1996)

J. Dickie, ‘Imagined Italies’, in Forgacs and Lumley eds., Italian Cultural Studies (1997)

J. Dickie, Darkest Italy. The Nation and Stereotypes of the Mezzogiorno, 1860-1900, (1999).

‘The South as Other: From Liberal Italy to the Lega Nord’, in Anna Cento Bull and Adalgisa Giorgio (eds), Culture and Society in Southern Italy. Past and Present, supplement to The Italianist, 14, (1994).

G. Bedani and B. Haddock (eds), The Politics of Italian National Identity : A Miltidisciplinary Perspective (2000)

D. Mack Smith Cavour and Garibaldi 1860: a study in Political Conflict (1954).

W. Maturi, Intepretazioni del Risorgimento (1962).

R. Romeo, Il giudizio storico sul Risorgimento (1987).

R. Romeo, Il Risorgimento in Sicilia, (1970).

R. Romeo, Risorgimento e capitalismo, (1959).

A. Gramsci, Il Risorgimento, (1991). Also available in English (‘Notes on Italian History’ in Antonio Gramsci: Selections from Prison Notebooks (G. Nowell-smith and Q. Hoare (eds) (1971), pp. 44-123..

S. Woolf, The Italian Risorgimento (1969); Il Risorgimento Italiano (1981).

A. Banti La nazione del risorgimento: parentela, santità e onore alle origini dell’Italia unita (2000).
Films:

Il Gattopardo, L. Visconti, 1963 (based on the novel G. di Lampedusa, The Leopard, Pantheon (1991), Senso, L. Visconti, 1954.

Viva L’Italia, R. Rossellini, 1960.
Overview. The Industrial Revolution And The Economy
A. Gerschenkron A 'Notes on the rate of industrial growth in Italy 1861-1913', Journal of Economic History, 1955

A. Portelli, Biografia di una città. Storia e racconto: Terni, 1830-1985 (1986), chapter 3.

G. Federico, G. Toniolo, 'Italy' in Sylla R, Toniolo G, Patterns of European Industrialisation the 19th Century, (1991)

Zamagni, relevant chapters

Castronovo, relevant chapters

Chapters in the various text books.

L. Cafagna, Dualismo e sviluppo nella storia d’Italia (1989).

M. Petrusewicz, Latifundium: Moral Economy and Material Life in a European Periphery, 1996 (originally in Italian 1989)

D. Kertzer (ed), The Family in Italy from Antiquity to the Present (1995).

Family Life in Central Ialy, 1880-1910: sharecropping, wage labour and coresidence (1984).

P. Rugafiori (ed.) La capitale dell’automobile: imprenditori, cultura e società a Torino (1999)

V. Castronovo 1899-1999: un secolo di storia italiana (1999).

V. Castronovo Cento anni della Fiat: 1899-1999: prodotti, volti, immagini (1999).

D. Bigazzi, Il Portello. Operai, tecnici e imprenditori all’Alfa Romeo (1906-1926), (1988).

V. Hunecke, Classe operaia e rivoluzione industriale a Milano, 1859-1892 (1982).

A. Banti, Storia della borghesia italiania, (1996)

M. Meriggi, Breve storia dell’Italia settentrionale dall’ottocento a oggi (1996).

C. Bardini, Senza carbone nell’età del vapore: gli inizi dell’industrializzazione italiana, 1998.
Emigration. Italians Abroad.
M. Maffi, Gateway to the Promised Land. Ethnic Culturew in New York’s Lower East Side, (1995) (in Italian with title Nel mosaico della città, (1992).

P. Corti, L' emigrazione, (1994).  

F. Brancato, L' emigrazione siciliana negli ultimi cento anni, (1995).

E. Franzina, Merica! Merica! Emigrazione e colonizzazione nelle lettere dei contadini veneti e friulani in America latina (1876-1902), (1994).

L. M. Lombardi Satriani and M. Meligrana, Un villaggio nella memoria. L'emigrazione, il folklore, il turismo, la mafia, la religione e la donna in Calabria, (1987).

D. Gabaccia, Italy’s Many Diasporas, (2000).

L. Sponza and A. Tosi (eds), A century of Italian emigration to Britain, 1880-1980s :five essays (1993).

L. Sponza, Divided loyalties :Italians in Britain during the Second World War, (2000).

L. Sponza, Italian immigrants in nineteenth-century Britain :realities and images, (1988).

E. Bartocci, V. Cotesta (eds), L'identità italiana :emigrazione, immigrazione, conflitti etnici, (1999)

‘Italians’, Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (1980).

R. Bosworth, Italy and the Wider World 1860-1960, (1996).

E. Franzina, Gli italiani al nuovo mondo, (1994).

P. Brunello, Pionieri. Gli italiani in Brasile e il mito della frontiera, (1994).

W. Douglass, Emigration in a South Italian Town:  An Anthropological History.  (1984). 

E. De Amicis (novel), Dagli appenini alla Ande (1997).

Films: The Godfather, The Godfather II; Italianamerican (documentary, M. Scorcese), The Sopranos (TV), Mean Streets (Scorcese, 1973).
The Risorgimento And Nation-Building. The Church And The Roman Question.
A. Lyttelton, ‘An Old Church and a New State: Italian Anti-Clericalism, 1878-1915’, European Studies Review 13 (1983)

A. C. Jemolo, Church and State in Italy 1850-1950 (1960) Chaps 1-3

R. A. Webster, Christian Democracy in Italy 1860-1960 (1961)

F. J. Coppa, The Modern Papacy since 1789 (1998)

R. Grew, 'Catholocism and the Risorgimento' in Coppa F. ed., Studies in Modern Italian History, (1986)

D. Mack Smith, Italy and its Monarchy (1989).

F. Cusin, Antistoria d’Italia, 1970.

G. B. Guerri, Antistoria degli italiani (1999).

C. B. Cavour, Libera chiesa in libero stato (1970); Stato e Chiesa, (1995).

L. Bianciardi, Antistoria del Risorgimento, (1995).

E. Galli Della Loggia, L’identità italiana, (1998).
The Nation Abroad. Italian Colonialism from Dogali to Adua.
A. Del Boca (ed.), Adua: le ragioni di una sconfitta (1997).

A. Burgio (ed.), Nel nome della razza :il razzismo nella storia d'Italia : 1870-1945, (2000).

A. Sbacchi, Etiopia under Mussolini: Fascism and the Colonial Experience, (1985).

A. Del Boca, Gli italiani in Africa orientale. Vols. 1, 2, 3, (1992-1999),

---- Gli italiani in Libia. Vols. 1-2, (1997).  

---- L' africa nella coscienza degli italiani. Miti, memorie, errori, sconfitte, 1992. 

R. Bosworth, Italy: The Least of the Great Powers (1979)

R. Bosworth, Italy and the Approach of the First World War (1983)

F. Chabod, Italian Foreign Policy: The Statecraft of the Founders (1996)

R. Cunsolo, 'Libya and the undoing of the Giolittian System' in Coppa F J ed Studies in Modern Italian History (1986)

R. Drake, Byzantium for Rome: the politics of nostalgia in Umbertian Italy (1980)

C. Duggan, ‘Francesco Crispi, ‘political education’ and the problem of Italian national consciousness, 1860-1896’, Journal Modern Italian Studies, 2, 2 (1997)

A. A. Kallis, 'Expansionism in Italy and Germany between Unification and teh First World War: On the Ideological and Political Origins of Fascist Expansionism', European History Quarterly 28, 4 (1998)

C. J Lowe, F. Marzari, Italian Foreign Policy 1870-1940 (1975) Chs 5-7

D. Mack Smith, Italy and its Monarchy (1989) pp. 205-233

J. Whittam, The Politics of the Italian Army (1977) Ch.s 10-13


1893-1898. Sicily And Milan. Democracy And Repression
Tilly L.A. Politics and Class in Milan 1881-1901 (1992)

Tilly L.A. 'I Fatti di Maggio: the working class of Milan and the rebellion of 1898' in R.J. Bezucha ed. Modern European Social History (1972)

Lyttelton A. 'Milan 1880-1922: the city of industrial capitalism' in Brucker G., ed. People and Communities in the Western World vol. 2, 1979, 250-88

Meriggi, Morris, Tilly, 'Class Formation and Political Mobilisation in Turn of the Century Milan', Social Science History, 19, 2 (1995)

Tilly L.A. ‘Structure and Action in the Making of Milan’s Working Class’ Social Science History 19, 2 (1995).

F. Gaeta, La crisi di fine secolo e l’età giolittiana, (1982).

A. Canavero and G. Ginex (eds), Il ’98 a Milano: fatti, personaggi, immagini, (1998).

G. Nesti I fasci siciliani (1994)

F. Renda I Fasci siciliani, 1982-4 (1977).
Weeks 14-19.
Theme 3. The Liberal Period. 1899-1915

Reading:
C. Seton-Watson, Italy from Liberalism to Fascism (1967)

G. Toniolo, An economic history of Liberal Italy, 1850-1918, 1990.

R. Romanelli, L’Italia liberale (1861–1900) (1979)

---- Il comando impossibile: stato e società nell’Italia liberale (1988)

Emilio Gentile, L’Italia giolittiana, 1899-1914, 1990.

A. De Grand, The Hunchback’s Tailor: Giovanni Giolitti e Liberal Italy from the challenge of mass politics to the rise of Fascism, 1882-1922, (2001).

R. Monteleone, Filippo Turati, 1987; F. Livorsi, Turati, 1984; F. Catalano, Filippo Turati, 1983.

G. Salvemini, Il ministro della mala vita, 1910, 1919.
Elite Theories and the Age of Mass Society

Benedetto Croce A History of Italy, 1871-1915 (1929), Chap. X

Eric Hobsbawm A Short History of the Twentieth Century (1999), Chap. 1

Norberto Bobbio Ideological Profile of Twentieth Century Italy (1995)

Norberto Bobbio ‘Elites’ in N. Bobbio et al (eds.), Dizionario di politica (1990)

James Meisel (ed.) Pareto and Mosca (1965)

Gaetano Mosca ‘The Political Class’ in A. Pizzorno (ed.), Political Sociology (1971)

Richard Bellamy Modern Italian Social Theory (1987), Chaps on Pareto and Mosca

R. Medici La metafora Machiavelli: Mosca, Pareto, Michels, Gramsci (1990)

R. Aron Main Currents in Sociological Thought (1970) esp. pp 158-66

Scipio Sighele La folla delinquente (1985)

J.S. McClelland The Crowd and the Mob: From Plato to Canetti (1989), Chaps 6 & 7, Introduction

A. Lyttelton (ed.) Italian Fascisms, from Pareto to Gentile (1973)

D. Pick Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder (1989)


Futurism in Italy before the War
Marshall Berman All that is solid melts into air (1982) pp. 15-36

Emily Braun (ed.) Italian Art in the Twentieth Century (1989) essays by A. Lyttelton and E. Coen

Umberto Apollonio (ed.) Futurist Manifestos (1973)

Pontus Hulten (ed.) Futurism and Futurismis(1992)

Marjorie Perloff The Futurist Movement (1986) Chap. 3

Gunter Berghaus The Genesis of Futurism: Marinetti’s Early Career and Writings 1899-1909 (1995)

Richard Humphreys Futurism (1999)

Claudia Salaris Storia del futurismo: libri, giornali, manifesti (1985)

Claudia Salaris Marinetti: arte e vita futurista (1997)

Claudia Salaris Dizionario del futurismo (1996)

Claudia Salaris Roma delle avanguardie: dal futurismo all’underground (1999)

Esther Da Costa Meyer The Work of Antonio Sant’Elia (1995)

Jana Howlett & Rod

Mengham (eds.) The Violent Muse. Violence and the Artistic Imagination in Europe, 1910-39 (1994), Introduction and essay by David Forgacs

Anna D’Elia L’universo futurista. Una mappa: dal quadro alla cravatta (1988)

Gianna Piantoni &

D’Anne Pingeot (eds.) Italies, 1880-1910. L’art italien à l’epreuve de la modernite (2001), essays by Gianna Piantoni and Livia Velani

Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art (1997) Catalogue
Tate Modern Collection and website
Rural Italy and Class organisation. Emilia and Lombardy, 1900-1915
J. A. Davis J A , 'Italy' in Geary D ed. Labour and Socialist movements in Europe (1989).

*A. Cardoza, Agrarian Elites and Italian Fascism; the province of Bologna, 1901-1926, 1982.

T. Abse ‘Italy’ in Berger S., Broughton D. eds. The Force of Labour. The Western European Labour Movement and the Working Class (1995)/

A. Bull, ‘The Lombard Silk Spinners in the 19th C.: an Industrial Workforce in a Rural Setting’ in Baranski Z., Vinall S., Women and Italy (1991)/

A. De Grand, The Italian Left in the Twentieth Century (1989).

J. Miller, From Elite to Mass Politics: Italian Socialism in the Giolittian era (1990)

C. Levy, ‘Italian Anarchism 1870-1926’ in D Goodway ed. For Anarchism (1989)

C. Levy, Gramsci and the Anarchists (2000) Ch. 1

F. Snowden, 'From Sharecropper to Proletarian: Rural Tuscany, 1880-1920' in Davis, J. ed. Gramsci and Italy's Passive Revolution (1979)

C. L Tilly, The Rebellious Century (1975)

D. H. Bell Sesto San Giovanni 1880 – 1922 (1986)

G. Cerito, Dall’insurrezionalismo alla settimana rossa: per una storia dell’anarchismo in Italia, 1891-1914 (1977).

L. Lotti La settimana rossa (1972)

S. Merli, Proletariato di fabbrica e capitalismo industriale: il caso italiano, 1880-1900, (1976).

C. Crainz Padania: il mondo dei braccianti dall’Ottocento alla fuga delle campagne (1994).

M. Gribaudi Mondo Operaio e Mito Operaio (1987)


The Nation and the road to Intervention, 1912-1915

J. Pollard, ‘Religion and the Formation of the Italian Working Class’ in Halpern R., Morris J., eds. American Exceptionalism? (1997)

A. Petracco, L’anarchico che venne dall’america. Storia di Gaetano Bresci e del complotto per uccidere Umberto I, (2001).

W. A. Renzi, ‘Italy's neutrality and intervention into the Great War: a re-examination' American Historical Review LXXIII (1968), 1414-32

W. A. Renzi, In the Shadow of the Sword. Italy's neutrality and intervention into the Great War (1987)

C. Segre, Fourth Shore. The Italian Colonisation of Libya (1974)

R. A. Webster Industrial Imperialism in Italy 1908-1915 (1975)

G. De Rosa L’intervento dell’Italia nella prima guerra mondiale, (1962).

C. De Biase L’Italia dalla neutralità all’intervento nella prima guerra mondiale (1965-6).

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