Document 5 Using scientific observation and their understanding of mathematics and optics, Muslim scholars made advancements in trigonometry and astronomy as well as mapmaking. They used the astrolabe and the armillary sphere to study the skies and make calculations for their calendars and maps.
Document 6 Muslim artists used calligraphy and arabesque patterns to decorate buildings and objects of art as well as to reflect the glory of Allah. Calligraphy was used as religious art because creating likenesses of humans was forbidden by Islamic teachings.
Document 7 Muslim architects blended features from various sources, including the Byzantine Empire, as well as added new features. The photo of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is an example of Muslim architecture and the interior photo of the Mosque of Cordoba shows the geometric arabesques patterns characteristic in Islamic architecture.