Ipcc ar5 wg1 t 12 7 Sea Ice



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IPCC AR5 WG1 T

12.5.5.7 Sea Ice

Several studies based on observational data or model hindcasts sug- gest that the rapidly declining summer Arctic sea ice cover might reach or might already have passed a tipping point (Lindsay and Zhang, 2005; Wadhams, 2012; Livina and Lenton, 2013). Identifying Arctic sea ice tip- ping points from the short observational record is difficult due to high interannual and decadal variability. In some climate projections, the decrease in summer Arctic sea ice areal coverage is not gradual but is instead punctuated by 5- to10- year periods of strong ice loss (Holland et al., 2006; Vavrus et al., 2012; Döscher and Koenigk, 2013). Still, these abrupt reductions do not necessarily require the existence of a tipping point in the system or further imply an irreversible behaviour (Amstrup et al., 2010; Lenton, 2012). The 5- to 10-year events discussed by Hol- land et al. (2006) arise when large natural climate variability in the Arctic reinforces the anthropogenically-forced change (Holland et al., 2008). Positive trends on the same time scale also occur when internal variability counteracts the forced change until the middle of the 21st century (Holland et al., 2008; Kay et al., 2011; Vavrus et al., 2012).

Further work using single-column energy-balance models (Merryfield et al., 2008; Eisenman and Wettlaufer, 2009; Abbot et al., 2011) yielded mixed results about the possibility of tipping points and bifurcations in the transition from perennial to seasonal sea ice cover. Thin ice and snow covers promote strong longwave radiative loss to space and high ice growth rates (e.g., Bitz and Roe, 2004; Notz, 2009; Eisenman, 2012). These stabilizing negative feedbacks can be large enough to overcome the positive surface–albedo feedback and/or cloud feedback, which act to amplify the forced sea ice response. In such low-order models, the emergence of multiple stable states with increased climate forcing is a parameter-dependent feature (Abbot et al., 2011; Eisenman, 2012). For example, Eisenman (2012) showed with a single-column energy-bal- ance model that certain parameter choices that cause thicker ice or warmer ocean under a given climate forcing make the model more prone to bifurcations and hence irreversible behaviour.

The reversibility of sea ice loss with respect to global or hemispher- ic mean surface temperature change has been directly assessed in AOGCMs/ESMs by first raising the CO2 concentration until virtually all sea ice disappears year-round and then lowering the CO2 level at the same rate as during the ramp-up phase until it reaches again the initial value (Armour et al., 2011; Boucher et al., 2012; Ridley et al., 2012; Li et al., 2013b). None of these studies show evidence of a bifurcation lead- ing to irreversible changes in Arctic sea ice. AOGCMs have also been used to test summer Arctic sea ice recovery after either sudden or very rapid artificial removal, and all had sea ice return within a few years (Schröder and Connolley, 2007; Sedláček et al., 2011; Tietsche et al., 2011).

Diagnostic analyses of a few global climate models have shown abrupt sea ice losses in the transition from seasonal to year-round Arctic ice- free conditions after raising CO2 to very high levels (Winton, 2006b; Ridley et al., 2008; Li et al., 2013b), but without evidence for irreversi- ble changes. Winton (2006b, 2008) hypothesized that the small ice cap instability (North, 1984) could cause such an abrupt transition. With a low-order Arctic sea ice model, Eisenman and Wettlaufer (2009) also found an abrupt change behaviour in the transition from seasonal ice to year-round ice-free conditions, accompanied by an irreversible bifur- cation to a new stable, annually ice-free state. They concluded that the cause is a loss of the stabilizing effect of sea ice growth when the ice season shrinks in time. The Arctic sea ice may thus experience a sharp transition to annually ice-free conditions, but the irreversible nature of this transition seems to depend on the model complexity and structure.



In conclusion, rapid summer Arctic sea ice losses are likely to occur in the transition to seasonally ice-free conditions. These abrupt changes might have consequences throughout the climate system as noted by Vavrus et al. (2011) for cloud cover and Lawrence et al. (2008b) for the high-latitude ground state. Furthermore, the interannual-to-decadal variability in the summer Arctic sea ice extent is projected to increase in response to global warming (Holland et al., 2008; Goosse et al., 2009). These studies suggest that large anomalies in Arctic sea ice areal cov- erage, like the ones that occurred in 2007 and 2012, might become increasingly frequent. However, there is little evidence in global climate models of a tipping point (or critical threshold) in the transition from a perennially ice-covered to a seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean beyond which further sea ice loss is unstoppable and irreversible.

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