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APPENDIX F

Virginia Recipe for “The Loaf”351

120 slices of wheat bread

25 cups grated nondairy cheese

10 cups raisins

4 cups vegetable oil

15 cups grated carrots

15 cups well-drained spinach

60 cups vegetarian beans

8 cups tomato puree

15 cups nondairy powdered milk

12 cups instant potatoes

1 pound brown sugar

1 cup white sugar


1. Mix.

2. Bake at 325 degrees for 40 minutes.



Makes 60 servings.

*


1 Doris J. James and Lauren E. Glaze, Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, September 6, 2006, http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=38174 (click on the link for the “full report.”) 1.

2 Treating Mental Illness in Prison, N.Y. Times, November 2, 2003, § 4 at 10, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2003/11/02/opinion/treating-mental-illness-in-prison.html.

3 Robert Blecker, Haven or Hell? Inside Lorton Central Prison: Experiences of Punishment Justified, 42 Stan. L. Rev. 1149, 1202, 1216 (1990).

4 James and Glaze, supra note Error: Reference source not found, at 1, 2.

5 Matthew Purdy, What's Worse Than Solitary Confinement? Just Taste This, N.Y. Times, August 4, 2002, § 1 at 27, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2002/08/04/nyregion/our-towns-what-s-worse-than-solitary-confinement-just-taste-this.html.

6 Id.

7 Id.

8 Malcolm Gay, Cruel and unusual punishment: Malcolm sentences himself to Prison Loaf, Riverfront Times, March 18, 2008, available at http://www.riverfronttimes.com/2008-03-19/dining/keep-it-down.

9 Id.

10 Id.

11 Id.

12 Arin Greenwood, Taste-Testing Nutraloaf: The prison food that just might be unconstitutionally bad, Slate, June 24, 2008, http://www.slate.com/id/2193538, at 1.

13 Id.

14 Wilson Ring, Vermont inmates call food foul, sue over it, MSNBC, March 22, 2008, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23761712, at 1 [hereinafter Ring, Food Foul].

15 William Lajeunesse, Nutraloaf: Jailbirds' Punishment in the Can, Fox News, March 28, 2008, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,342772,00.html.

16 Arnett v. Snyder, 769 N.E.2d 943, 946 (Ill. App. 2001).

17 Arnett, 769 N.E.2d 943.

18 Greenwood, supra note Error: Reference source not found, at 1.

19 Rayes v. Eggars, 36 F.3d 1100, 1994 U.S. App. LEXIS 26556 (8th Cir. 1994).

20 Greenwood, supra note Error: Reference source not found, at 1.

21 LeMaire v. Maass, 12 F.3d 1444, 1456 (9th Cir. 1993).

22 Greenwood, supra note Error: Reference source not found, at 1.

23 Id.

24 Myers v. Milbert, 281 F. Supp. 2d 859 (N.D.W. Va. 2003).

25 Wilson Ring, Vt. inmates take state to court over unsavory Nutraloaf, Boston Globe, March 23, 2008, available at http://www.boston.com/news/local/vermont/articles/2008/03/23/vt_inmates_take_state_to_court_over_unsavory_nutraloaf/.

26 15 Cal. Code Regs. § 1247 (West 2009).

27 Purdy, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

28 Ring, Food Foul, supra note Error: Reference source not found, at 1.

29 Gay, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

30 Policies and Procedures, Montana Department of Correction, Policy No. DOC 3-5-5 § VI(D)(1)(b), available at http://www.cor.mt.gov/resources/POL/3-5-5.pdf at 4.

31 Purdy, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

32 Greenwood, supra note Error: Reference source not found, at 1.

33 Id.

34 Purdy, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

35 Id.

36 See, e.g., King James Bible, 1 Kings 22:27 (“And say, Thus saith the king, Put this fellow in the prison, and feed him with bread of affliction and with water of affliction, until I come in peace.”).

37 Pat Nolan, On the Hill: Prisoners, Peanut Butter, and Rape, December 18, 2007, http://www.breakpoint.org/listingarticle.asp?ID=7314.

38 Jones v. Diamond, 636 F.2d 1364, 1373-74 (5th Cir. 1981).

39 Id.

40 Id.

41 Jones, 636 F.2d at 1374, 1378.

42 Miss. Code Ann. § 19-25-71 (West 1972).

43 Jones, 636 F.2d at 1374, 1378.

44 Id. at 1369.

45 Id. at 1374.

46 Id. at 1378.

47 Id. at 1379.

48 Id. at 1378.

49 Hutto v. Finney, 437 U.S. 678 (1978).

50 Id. at 681.

51 Id. at 682, 684.

52 Id. at 684.

53 Id. at 682-83.

54 Id. at 681 n. 3.

55 Id.

56 Id. at 681 nn. 4-5.

57 Id. at 683.

58 Id.

59 Finney v. Arkansas Bd. of Correction, 505 F.2d 194, 207 (8th Cir. 1974), aff’d, Hutto, 437 U.S. 678.

60 Hutto, 437 U.S. at 682.

61 Id. at 684.

62 Id. at 685-86.

63 Id. at 686-87.

64 Id. at 700, 684.

65 Gardner v. Ellis, 780 F. Supp. 1073, 1074 (E.D. Va. 1991), aff’d, Gardner v. Beale, 998 F.2d 1008, 1993 U.S. App. LEXIS 17433 (4th Cir. 1993).

66 Id.

67 Id.

68 Id.

69 Id.

70 Id.

71 Id.

72 Id.

73 Id.

74 Id.

75 Id. at 1074-75.

76 Id.

77 Id. at 1074.

78 Id.

79 Id. at 1075.

80 Johnson v. Williams, 768 F. Supp. 1161, 1163 (E.D. Va. 1991).

81 Id.

82 Id.

83 Id.

84 Id.

85 Id. at 1164.

86 Id. at 1165.

87 Id. at 1163-64.

88 Id. at 1163.

89 Johnson v. Lewis, 217 F.3d 726 (9th Cir. 2000).

90 Id. at 729.

91 Id. at 729-30.

92 Id. at 729.

93 Id. at 729-30.

94 Id. at 730.

95 Id.

96 Id.

97 Id.

98 Id.

99 Id.

100 Id. at 731.

101 Id.

102 Id. at 735.

103 Id. at 732.

104 Freeman v. Berge, 441 F.3d 543 (7th Cir. 2006).

105 Id. at 544.

106 Id.

107 Id.

108 Id.

109 Id. at 544-45.

110 Id. at 544.

111 Id.

112 Id. at 545.

113 Id.

114 Id. at 547.

115 Hutto, 437 U.S. 678.

116 Id. at 683.

117 Finney, 505 F.2d at 207.

118 Id.

119 Id.

120 Id.

121 Hutto, 437 U.S. at 683.

122 Id. at 683.

123 Id. at 683 n. 7.

124 Id. at 684.

125 Finney, 505 F.2d at 207.

126 Id.

127 Id. at 207-08.

128 Hutto, 437 U.S. at 686-87.

129 Id. at 713.

130 Hazen v. Pasley, 768 F.2d 226 (8th Cir. 1985).

131 Id. at 227.

132 Id. at 228 n. 2.

133 Id. at 227.

134 Id. at 228 n. 2.

135 Id.

136 Id.

137 Id.

138 Id. at 228.

139 Id. at 227.

140 Hamm v. De Kalb County, 774 F.2d 1567 (11th Cir. 1985).

141 Id. at 1569.

142 Id.

143 Id.

144 Id. at 1570.

145 Id. at 1575.

146 Id.

147 Id. at 1570.

148 Id. at 1571.

149 Id. at 1570.

150 Id.

151 Id. at 1569.

152 Id.

153 Id. at 1571.

154 Id. at 1572.

155 Id. at 1571.

156 Id. at 1575.

157 Id. at 1569-70.

158 Id. at 1576.

159 Islam v. Jackson, 782 F. Supp. 1111, 1111 (E.D. Va. 1992).

160 Id.

161 Id.

162 Id.

163 Id.

164 Id.

165 Id.

166 Id.

167 Id.

168 Id.

169 Id. at 1114.

170 Id. at 1115.

171 Estelle v. Gamble, 429 U.S. 97, 104-05 (1976).

172 Islam, 782 F. Supp. at 1115-16.

173 Id. at 1114.

174 Id. at 1115-16.

175 Id. at 1114.

176 Id. at 1116.

177 Hamm, 774 F.2d 1567.

178 Id. at 1571.

179 Id. at 1569.

180 Id.

181 Id.

182 Id. at 1571.

183 Id. at 1569-70.

184 Id. at 1575.

185 Id.

186 Id. at 1576.

187 Jenkins v. Angelone, 948 F. Supp. 543, 544 (E.D. Va. 1996).

188 Id. at 549.

189 Kahey v. Jones, 836 F.2d 948, 949 (5th Cir. 1988).

190 Id. at 951.

191 Africa v. Pennsylvania, 662 F.2d 1025, 1025 (3d Cir. 1981).

192 Id. at 1036.

193 McEachin v. McGuinnis, 357 F.3d 197, 198-99 (2d Cir. 2004).

194 Id. at 205.

195 Amy Ogden and Paul Rebein, Do Prison Inmates Have a Right to Vegetarian Meals?, Vegetarian Journal, March/April 2001, available at http://www.vrg.org/journal/vj2001mar/2001marprison.htm.

196 Jamie Aron Forman, Jewish Prisoners and Their First Amendment Right to a Kosher Meal: An Examination of the Relationship Between Prison Dietary Policy and Correctional Goals, 65 Brooklyn L. Rev. 477, 478-79 (1999).

197 Rain Levy Minns, Food Fights: Redefining the Current Boundaries of the Government's Positive Obligation to Provide Halal, 17 J. L. & Politics 713, 736-37 (2001).

198 Nolan, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

199 See, e.g., Minns, supra note Error: Reference source not found, at 732.

200 See, e.g., Avi Brisman, Fair Fare?: Food as Contested Terrain in U.S. Prisons and Jails, 15 Geo. J. Poverty Law & Pol'y 49, 57 (2008).

201 See, e.g., Ogden and Rebein, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

202 Africa, 662 F.2d at 1029-30.

203 Id. at 1036.

204 See, e.g., Nolan, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

205 Udey v. Kastner, 805 F.2d 1218, 1219-20 (5th Cir. 1986).

206 Forman, supra note Error: Reference source not found, at 511.

207 Id. at 512.

208 Id. at 479.

209 Lajeunesse, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

210 See, e.g., Scott Simon, Prison Loaf: Maryland Lockup Uses Horrid Bread Dish as Disciplinary Tool, National Public Radio, April 6, 2002, available at http://www.npr.org/programs/wesat/features/2002/apr/loaf/index.html.

211 See, e.g., Arnett, 769 N.E.2d at 951-52.

212 Dahlia Lithwick, Loaf Without Parole, Slate, December 23, 2002, http://www.slate.com/id/2075999.

213 Purdy, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

214 See, e.g., Jack Broom, Is Nutra-Loaf Cruel, Unusual?, Seattle Times, April 17, 1993, available at http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19930417&slug=1696358.

215 See, e.g., Mike Ives, Cruel and Inedible?: Sizing up Vermont's meanest “loaf”, Seven Days, April 9, 2008, available at http://www.7dvt.com/2008/cruel-and-inedible.

216 See, e.g., Gay, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

217 See, e.g., Id.

218 See, e.g., Louis Porter, Inmates sue over special recipe, Rutland Herald, November 18, 2005, available at http://www.rutlandherald.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20051118/NEWS/511180371/1004/NEWS03.

219 See, e.g., Purdy, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

220 Id.

221 Id.

222 Fla. Admin. Code Ann. r. 33-602.223 (West 2009).

223 See Ring, Food Foul, supra note Error: Reference source not found, at 1.

224 Jon Johnson, Jail rioters no match for staff, Eastern Arizona Courier, July 12, 2007, available at http://www.eacourier.com/articles/2007/07/12/update/thursday/news01.txt.

225 Kate Duffy, Food for Thought: Is Nutraloaf Punishment?, WCAX News, March 24, 2008, http://www.wcax.com/Global/story.asp?S=8061875&nav=menu183_2.

226 Email from Erik Kriss, Director of Public Information, New York State Department of Correctional Services, to Author (Feb 3, 2009, 13:18 PST) (on file with author).

227 Gay, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

228 Telephone Interview with John McKay, West Virginia prison administrator, Feb 3, 2009.

229 Fla. Admin. Code Ann. r. 33-602.223 (West 2009).

230 Simon, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

231 Purdy, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

232 Id.

233 Telephone Interview with Jay Jackson, Food Program Manager, Washington State Department of Corrections, Feb 3, 2009.

234 Id.

235 Broom, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

236 Purdy, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

237 See Greenwood, supra note Error: Reference source not found, at 1.

238 Lajeunesse, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

239 Id.

240 Duffy, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

241 Id.

242 Id.

243 Greenwood, supra note Error: Reference source not found, at 1.

244 Simon, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

245 Id.

246 Broom, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

247 Id.

248 Lajeunesse, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

249 Id.

250 Id.

251 Id.

252 Id.

253 Id.

254 Kriss, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

255 Email from Dede Short, spokeswoman for the Public Information Office, Illinois Department of Corrections, to Author (Feb 6, 2009, 12:30 PST) (on file with author).

256 Greenwood, supra note Error: Reference source not found, at 1.

257 Id.

258 Myers, 281 F. Supp. 2d at 865-66.

259 Id.

260 Lithwick, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

261 Id.

262 Id.

263 Id.

264 Purdy, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

265 Simon, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

266 Id.

267 Lajeunesse, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

268 15 Cal. Code Regs. § 1247(b).

269 Arnett, 769 N.E.2d at 951-52.

270 Simon, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

271 Broom, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

272 Arnett, 769 N.E.2d at 951-52.

273 15 Cal. Code Regs. § 1247(b).

274 Id.

275 Id.

276 See, e.g., Purdy, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

277 Simon, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

278 I used Veggie Slices® by Galaxy Nutritional Foods®.

279 Duffy, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

280 Lithwick, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

281 Simon, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

282 Broom, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

283 Id.

284 XXXXXXX

285 XXXXXXX

286 XXXXXXX

287 Arnett, 769 N.E.2d at 951-52.

288 Simon, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

289 Arnett, 769 N.E.2d at 951.

290 Arnett, 769 N.E.2d at 951-52.

291 15 Cal. Code Regs. § 1247(b).

292 Simon, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

293 Broom, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

294 Arnett, 769 N.E.2d at 951-52.

295 15 Cal. Code Regs. § 1247(b).

296 Broom, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

297 Simon, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

298 Duffy, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

299 Lithwick, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

300 U.S. Const. amend. VIII.

301 Johnson v. Lewis, 217 F.3d at 731; see Farmer v. Brennan, 511 U.S. 825, 832 (U.S. 1994).

302 Rhodes v. Chapman, 452 U.S. 337, 345 (U.S. 1981).

303 Id. at 346.

304 Id.

305 Farmer, 511 U.S. at 832.

306 Id. at 833.

307 Id. at 832.

308 Wilson v. Seiter, 501 U.S. 294, 298 (U.S. 1991).

309 Farmer, 511 U.S. at 832; Tafoya v. Salazar, 516 F.3d 912, 916 (10th Cir. 2008); Johnson v. Lewis, 217 F.3d at 731; Palmer v. Johnson, 193 F.3d 346, 351-52 (5th Cir. 1999).

310 LeMaire, 12 F.3d at 1456.

311 Johnson v. Lewis, 217 F.3d at 731.

312 Id.

313 Dixon v. Godinez, 114 F.3d 640, 643 (7th Cir. 1997).

314 Duffy, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

315 Shaw v. Murphy, 532 U.S. 223, 229 (U.S. 2001).

316 Id.

317 Id.

318 Id. at 230.

319 Purdy, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

320 Hutto, 437 U.S. at 686-87.

321 Farmer, 511 U.S. at 832; Tafoya, 516 F.3d at 916; Johnson v. Lewis, 217 F.3d at 731; Palmer, 193 F.3d at 351-52.

322 Jenkins, 948 F. Supp. at 547-48.

323 Nick Plumber, Jail House Hooch: How to Get Liquored Up While Locked Down, Modern Drunkard Magazine, November 2003, available at http://www.drunkard.com/issues/11-03/11-03-jailhouse.htm.

324 Shaw, 532 U.S. at 229.

325 LeMaire, 12 F.3d at 1456.

326 Forman, supra note Error: Reference source not found, at 479.

327 Id.

328 Id. at 511.

329 Bell v. Wolfish, 441 U.S. 520, 547 (1979).

330 U.S. Const. amends. V, XIV.

331 Malinski v. New York, 324 U.S. 401, 415 (U.S. 1945).

332 Shaw, 532 U.S. at 228.

333 Magna Carta, cl. 39 (Eng. 1215) (“No free man shall be taken or imprisoned or disseised of his Freehold, or Liberties, or free Customs, or be outlawed, or exiled, or any other wise destroyed, nor will we go upon him nor send upon him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land.”).

334 Town of Castle Rock v. Gonzales, 545 U.S. 748, 755-56 (U.S. 2005).

335 Mathews v. Eldridge, 424 U.S. 319, 333 (U.S. 1976).

336 Id. at 334.

337 Id. at 334-35.

338 Nolan, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

339 Hutto, 437 U.S. at 681 n. 3.

340 Mathews, 424 U.S. at 334-35.

341 Duffy, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

342 Greenwood, supra note Error: Reference source not found, at 1.

343 Ring, Food Foul, supra note Error: Reference source not found, at 1.

344 15 Cal. Code Regs. § 1247(b).

345 Arnett, 769 N.E.2d at 951.

346 Arnett, 769 N.E.2d at 951-52.

347 Simon, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

348 Purdy, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

349 Broom, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

350 Duffy, supra note Error: Reference source not found.

351 Lithwick, supra note Error: Reference source not found.



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