Tilapia farmers often have problems deciding if Nile tilapia or red tilapia is the proper choice for culture. Nile tilapia is the most widely farmed tilapia world-wide but interest in red tilapia culture is growing rapidly. Nile tilapia are more dependable spawners and produce more consistant quantities of fry than red tilapia. Survival of eggs, fry and juveniles is higher for Nile tilapia and Nile tilapia are more tolerant of low water temperatures than most strains of red tilapia. Red tilapia often have higher market value, are more appropriate for culture in salinities above 10 g/l, and are easier to seine harvest from earthen ponds and transport live than Nile tilapia. Red tilapia need continual selection to retain their red color and pass the red color from generation to generation. Farmers should evaluate environmental conditions, culture system and markets before selecting either Nile tilapia or red tilapia for culture.