Introduction to the science of sociology the university of chicago press chicago, illinois

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Introduction to the Science of Sociology

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All rights Reserved

Published September 1921

Transcriber's Note: Minor typos have been corrected. Footnotes have been moved to the end of the chapters. Italicized letters, such as (a), have been changed to unitalicized (a) for easier reading.


The materials upon which this book is based have been collected from a wide range of sources and represent the observation and reflection of men who have seen life from very different points of view. This was necessary in order to bring into the perspective of a single volume the whole wide range of social organization and human life which is the subject-matter of a science of society.

At the same time an effort has been made to bring this material within the limits of a very definite series of sociological conceptions which suggest, at any rate, where they do not clearly exhibit, the fundamental relations of the parts to one another and to the concepts and contents of the volume as a whole.

The Introduction to the Science of Sociology is not conceived as a mere collection of materials, however, but as a systematic treatise. On the other hand, the excerpts which make up the body of the book are not to be regarded as mere illustrations. In the context in which they appear, and with the headings which indicate their place in the volume, they should enable the student to formulate for himself the principles involved. An experience of some years, during which this book has been in preparation, has demonstrated the value to the teacher of a body of materials that are interesting in themselves and that appeal to the experience of the student. If students are invited to take an active part in the task of interpretation of the text, if they are encouraged to use the references in order to extend their knowledge of the subject-matter and to check and supplement classroom discussion by their personal observation, their whole attitude becomes active rather than passive. Students gain in this way a sense of dealing at first hand with a subject-matter that is alive and with a science that is in the making. Under these conditions sociology becomes a common enterprise in which all members of the class participate; to which, by their observation and investigation, they can and should make contributions.

The first thing that students in sociology need to learn is to observe and record their own observations; to read, and then to select and record the materials which are the fruits of their readings; to organize and use, in short, their own experience. The whole organization of this volume may be taken as an illustration of a method, at once tentative and experimental, for the collection, classification, and interpretation of materials, and should be used by students from the very outset in all their reading and study.

Social questions have been endlessly discussed, and it is important that they should be. What the student needs to learn, however, is how to get facts rather than formulate opinions. The most important facts that sociologists have to deal with are opinions (attitudes and sentiments), but until students learn to deal with opinions as the biologists deal with organisms, that is, to dissect them--reduce them to their component elements, describe them, and define the situation (environment) to which they are a response--we must not expect very great progress in sociological science.

It will be noticed that every single chapter, except the first, falls naturally into four parts; (1) the introduction, (2) the materials, (3) investigations and problems, and (4) bibliography. The first two parts of each chapter are intended to raise questions rather than to answer them. The last two, on the other hand, should outline or suggest problems for further study. The bibliographies have been selected mainly to exhibit the recognized points of view with regard to the questions raised, and to suggest the practical problems that grow out of, and are related to, the subject of the chapter as a whole.

The bibliographies, which accompany the chapters, it needs to be said, are intended to be representative rather than authoritative or complete. An attempt has been made to bring together literature that would exhibit the range, the divergence, the distinctive character of the writings and points of view upon a single topic. The results are naturally subject to criticism and revision.

A word should be said in regard to chapter i. It seemed necessary and important, in view of the general vagueness and uncertainty in regard to the place of sociology among the sciences and its relation to the other social sciences, particularly to history, to state somewhere, clearly and definitely, what, from the point of view of this volume, sociology is. This resulted finally in the imposition of a rather formidable essay upon what is in other respects, we trust, a relatively concrete and intelligible book. Under these circumstances we suggest that, unless the reader is specially interested in the matter, he begin with the chapter on "Human Nature," and read the first chapter last.

The editors desire to express their indebtedness to Dr. W. I. Thomas for the point of view and the scheme of organization of materials which have been largely adopted in this book.[1] They are also under obligations to their colleagues, Professor Albion W. Small, Professor Ellsworth Faris, and Professor Leon C. Marshall, for constant stimulus, encouragement, and assistance. They wish to acknowledge the co-operation and the courtesy of their publishers, all the more appreciated because of the difficult technical task involved in the preparation of this volume. In preparing copy for publication and in reading proof, invaluable service was rendered by Miss Roberta Burgess.

Finally the editors are bound to express their indebtedness to the writers and publishers who have granted their permission to use the materials from which this volume has been put together. Without the use of these materials it would not have been possible to exhibit the many and varied types of observation and reflection which have contributed to present-day knowledge of social life. In order to give this volume a systematic character it has been necessary to tear these excerpts from their contexts and to put them, sometimes, into strange categories. In doing this it will no doubt have happened that some false impressions have been created. This was perhaps inevitable and to be expected. On the other hand these brief excerpts offered here will serve, it is hoped, as an introduction to the works from which they have been taken, and, together with the bibliographies which accompany them, will serve further to direct and stimulate the reading and research of students. The co-operation of the following publishers, organizations and journals, in giving, by special arrangement, permission to use selections from copyright material, was therefore distinctly appreciated by the editors:

D. Appleton & Co.; G. Bell & Sons; J. F. Bergmann; Columbia University Press; George H. Doran Co.; Duncker und Humblot; Duffield & Co.; Encyclopedia Americana Corporation; M. Giard et Cie; Ginn & Co.; Harcourt, Brace & Co.; Paul B. Hoeber; Houghton Mifflin Co.; Henry Holt & Co.; B. W. Huebsch; P. S. King & Son; T. W. Laurie, Ltd.; Longmans, Green & Co.; John W. Luce & Co.; The Macmillan Co.; A. C. McClurg & Co.; Methuen & Co.; John Murray; Martinus Nijhoff; Open Court Publishing Co.; Oxford University Press; G. P. Putnam's Sons; Rütten und Loening; Charles Scribner's Sons; Frederick A. Stokes & Co.; W. Thacker & Co.; University of Chicago Press; University Tutorial Press, Ltd.; Wagnerische Univ. Buchhandlung; Walter Scott Publishing Co.; Williams & Norgate; Yale University Press; American Association for International Conciliation; American Economic Association; American Sociological Society; Carnegie Institution of Washington; American Journal of Psychology; American Journal of Sociology; Cornhill Magazine; International Journal of Ethics; Journal of Abnormal Psychology; Journal of Delinquency; Nature; Pedagogical Seminary; Popular Science Monthly; Religious Education; Scientific Monthly; Sociological Review; World's Work; Yale Review.


June 18, 1921



I. Sociology and "Scientific" History

II. Historical and Sociological Facts

III. Human Nature and Law

IV. History, Natural History, and Sociology

V. The Social Organism: Humanity or Leviathan?

VI. Social Control and Schools of Thought

VII. Social Control and the Collective Mind

VIII. Sociology and Social Research

Representative Works in Systematic Sociology and Methods of

Sociological Research

Topics for Written Themes

Questions for Discussion


I. Introduction

1. Human Interest in Human Nature

2. Definition of Human Nature

3. Classification of the Materials

II. Materials

A. The Original Nature of Man

1. Original Nature Defined. Edward L. Thorndike

2. Inventory of Original Tendencies. Edward L. Thorndike

3. Man Not Born Human. Robert E. Park

4. The Natural Man. Milicent W. Shinn

5. Sex Differences. Albert Moll

6. Racial Differences. C. S. Myers

7. Individual Differences. Edward L. Thorndike

B. Human Nature and Social Life

1. Human Nature and Its Remaking. W. E. Hocking

2. Human Nature, Folkways, and the Mores. William G. Sumner

3. Habit and Custom, the Individual and the General Will.

Ferdinand Tönnies

4. The Law, Conscience, and the General Will. Viscount Haldane

C. Personality and the Social Self

1. The Organism as Personality. Th. Ribot

2. Personality as a Complex. Morton Prince

3. The Self as the Individual's Conception of His Rôle.

Alfred Binet

4. The Natural Person versus the Social and Conventional Self.

L. G. Winston

5. The Divided Self and Moral Consciousness. William James

6. Personality of Individuals and of Peoples. W. v. Bechterew

D. Biological and Social Heredity

1. Nature and Nurture. J. Arthur Thomson

2. Inheritance of Original Nature. C. B. Davenport

3. Inheritance of Acquired Nature: Tradition. Albert G. Keller

4. Temperament, Tradition, and Nationality. Robert E. Park

III. Investigations and Problems

1. Conceptions of Human Nature Implicit in Religious and

Political Doctrines

2. Literature and the Science of Human Nature

3. Research in the Field of Original Nature

4. The Investigation of Human Personality

5. The Measurement of Individual Differences

Selected Bibliography

Topics for Written Themes

Questions for Discussion


I. Introduction

1. Society, the Community, and the Group

2. Classification of the Materials

II. Materials

A. Society and Symbiosis

1. Definition of Society. Alfred Espinas

2. Symbiosis (literally "living together"). William M. Wheeler

3. The Taming and the Domestication of Animals.

P. Chalmers Mitchell

B. Plant Communities and Animal Societies

1. Plant Communities. Eugenius Warming

2. Ant Society. William E. Wheeler

C. Human Society

1. Social Life. John Dewey

2. Behavior and Conduct. Robert E. Park

3. Instinct and Character. L. T. Hobhouse

4. Collective Representation and Intellectual Life.

Émile Durkheim

D. The Social Group

1. Definition of the Group. Albion W. Small

2. The Unity of the Social Group. Robert E. Park

3. Types of Social Groups. S. Sighele

4. Esprit de Corps, Morale, and Collective Representations

of Social Groups. William E. Hocking

III. Investigations and Problems

1. The Scientific Study of Societies

2. Surveys of Communities

3. The Group as a Unit of Investigation

4. The Study of the Family

Selected Bibliography

Topics for Written Themes

Questions for Discussion


I. Introduction

1. Geological and Biological Conceptions of Isolation

2. Isolation and Segregation

3. Classification of the Materials

II. Materials

A. Isolation and Personal Individuality

1. Society and Solitude. Francis Bacon

2. Society in Solitude. Jean Jacques Rousseau

3. Prayer as a Form of Isolation. George Albert Coe.

4. Isolation, Originality, and Erudition. T. Sharper Knowlson

B. Isolation and Retardation

1. Feral Men. Maurice H. Small

2. From Solitude to Society. Helen Keller

3. Mental Effects of Solitude. W. H. Hudson

4. Isolation and the Rural Mind. C. J. Galpin

5. The Subtler Effects of Isolation. W. I. Thomas.

C. Isolation and Segregation

1. Segregation as a Process. Robert E. Park

2. Isolation as a Result of Segregation.

L. W. Crafts and E. A. Doll

D. Isolation and National Individuality

1. Historical Races as Products of Isolation. N. S. Shaler

2. Geographical Isolation and Maritime Contact. George Grote

3. Isolation as an Explanation of National Differences.

William Z. Ripley

4. Natural versus Vicinal Location in National Development.

Ellen C. Semple

III. Investigations and Problems

1. Isolation in Anthropogeography and Biology

2. Isolation and Social Groups

3. Isolation and Personality

Bibliography: Materials for the Study of Isolation

Topics for Written Themes

Questions for Discussion


I. Introduction

1. Preliminary Notions of Social Contact

2. The Sociological Concept of Contact

3. Classification of the Materials

II. Materials

A. Physical Contact and Social Contact

1. The Frontiers of Social Contact. Albion W. Small

2. The Land and the People. Ellen C. Semple

3. Touch and Social Contact. Ernest Crawley

B. Social Contact in Relation to Solidarity and to Mobility

1. The In-Group and the Out-Group. W. G. Sumner.

2. Sympathetic Contacts versus Categoric Contacts. N. S. Shaler

3. Historical Continuity and Civilization. Friedrich Ratzel

4. Mobility and the Movement of Peoples. Ellen C. Semple

C. Primary and Secondary Contacts

1. Village Life in America (from the Diary of a Young Girl).

Caroline C. Richards

2. Secondary Contacts and City Life. Robert E. Park.

3. Publicity as a Form of Secondary Contact. Robert E. Park

4. From Sentimental to Rational Attitudes. Werner Sombart

5. The Sociological Significance of the "Stranger." Georg Simmel

III. Investigations and Problems

1. Physical Contacts

2. Touch and the Primary Contacts of Intimacy

3. Primary Contacts of Acquaintanceship

4. Secondary Contacts

Bibliography: Materials for the Study of Social Contacts

Topics for Written Themes

Questions for Discussion


I. Introduction

1. The Concept of Interaction

2. Classification of the Materials

II. Materials

A. Society as Interaction

1. The Mechanistic Interpretation of Society. Ludwig Gumplowicz

2. Social Interaction as the Definition of the Group in Time

and Space. Georg Simmel

B. The Natural Forms of Communication

1. Sociology of the Senses: Visual Interaction. Georg Simmel

2. The Expression of the Emotions. Charles Darwin

3. Blushing. Charles Darwin

4. Laughing. L. Dugas

C. Language and the Communication of Ideas

1. Intercommunication in the Lower Animals. C. Lloyd Morgan

2. The Concept as the Medium of Human Communication.

F. Max Müller

3. Writing as a Form of Communication. Charles H. Judd

4. The Extension of Communication by Human Invention.

Carl Bücher

D. Imitation

1. Definition of Imitation. Charles H. Judd

2. Attention, Interest, and Imitation. G. F. Stout

3. The Three Levels of Sympathy. Th. Ribot

4. Rational Sympathy. Adam Smith

5. Art, Imitation, and Appreciation. Yrjö Hirn

E. Suggestion

1. A Sociological Definition of Suggestion. W. v. Bechterew

2. The Subtler Forms of Suggestion. Albert Moll

3. Social Suggestion and Mass or "Corporate" Action.

W. v. Bechterew

III. Investigations and Problems

1. The Process of Interaction

2. Communication

3. Imitation

4. Suggestion

Selected Bibliography

Topics for Written Themes

Questions for Discussion


I. Introduction

1. Sources of the Notion of Social Forces

2. History of the Concept of Social Forces

3. Classification of the Materials

II. Materials

A. Trends, Tendencies, and Public Opinion

1. Social Forces in American History. A. M. Simons

2. Social Tendencies as Social Forces. Richard T. Ely

3. Public Opinion and Legislation in England. A. V. Dicey

B. Interests, Sentiments, and Attitudes

1. Social Forces and Interaction. Albion W. Small

2. Interests. Albion W. Small

3. Social Pressures. Arthur F. Bentley

4. Idea-Forces. Alfred Fouillée

5. Sentiments. William McDougall

6. Social Attitudes. Robert E. Park

C. The Four Wishes: A Classification of Social Forces

1. The Wish, the Social Atom. Edwin B. Holt

2. The Freudian Wish. John B. Watson

3. The Person and His Wishes. W. I. Thomas

III. Investigations and Problems

1. Popular Notions of Social Forces

2. Social Forces and History

3. Interests, Sentiments, and Attitudes as Social Forces

4. Wishes and Social Forces

Selected Bibliography

Topics for Written Themes

Questions for Discussion


I. Introduction

1. Popular Conceptions of Competition

2. Competition a Process of Interaction

3. Classification of the Materials

II. Materials

A. The Struggle for Existence

1. Different Forms of the Struggle for Existence.

J. Arthur Thomson

2. Competition and Natural Selection. Charles Darwin

3. Competition, Specialization, and Organization. Charles Darwin

4. Man: An Adaptive Mechanism. George W. Crile

B. Competition and Segregation

1. Plant Migration, Competition, and Segregation. F. E. Clements

2. Migration and Segregation. Carl Bücher

3. Demographic Segregation and Social Selection.

William Z. Ripley

4. Inter-racial Competition and Race Suicide. Francis A. Walker

C. Economic Competition

1. Changing Forms of Economic Competition. John B. Clark

2. Competition and the Natural Harmony of Individual Interests.

Adam Smith

3. Competition and Freedom. Frédéric Bastiat

4. Money and Freedom. Georg Simmel

III. Investigations and Problems

1. Biological Competition

2. Economic Competition

3. Competition and Human Ecology

4. Competition and the "Inner Enemies": the Defectives, the

Dependents, and the Delinquents

Selected Bibliography

Topics for Written Themes

Questions for Discussion


I. Introduction

1. The Concept of Conflict

2. Classification of the Materials

II. Materials

A. Conflict as Conscious Competition

1. The Natural History of Conflict. W. I. Thomas

2. Conflict as a Type of Social Interaction. Georg Simmel

3. Types of Conflict Situations. Georg Simmel

B. War, Instincts, and Ideals

1. War and Human Nature. William A. White

2. War as a Form of Relaxation. G. T. W. Patrick

3. The Fighting Animal and the Great Society.

Henry Rutgers Marshall

C. Rivalry, Cultural Conflicts, and Social Organization

1. Animal Rivalry. William H. Hudson

2. The Rivalry of Social Groups. George E. Vincent

3. Cultural Conflicts and the Organization of Sects.

Franklin H. Giddings

D. Racial Conflicts

1. Social Contacts and Race Conflict. Robert E. Park

2. Conflict and Race Consciousness. Robert E. Park

3. Conflict and Accommodation. Alfred H. Stone

III. Investigations and Problems

1. The Psychology and Sociology of Conflict, Conscious

Competition, and Rivalry

2. Types of Conflict

3. The Literature of War

4. Race Conflict

5. Conflict Groups

Selected Bibliography

Topics for Written Themes

Questions for Discussion


I. Introduction

1. Adaptation and Accommodation

2. Classification of the Materials

II. Materials

A. Forms of Accommodation

1. Acclimatization. Daniel G. Brinton

2. Slavery Defined. H. J. Nieboer

3. Excerpts from the Journal of a West India Slave Owner.

Matthew G. Lewis

4. The Origin of Caste in India. John C. Nesfield

5. Caste and the Sentiments of Caste Reflected in Popular Speech.

Herbert Risley

B. Subordination and Superordination

1. The Psychology of Subordination and Superordination.

Hugo Münsterberg

2. Social Attitudes in Subordination: Memories of an Old Servant.

An Old Servant

3. The Reciprocal Character of Subordination and Superordination.

Georg Simmel

4. Three Types of Subordination and Superordination.

Georg Simmel

C. Conflict and Accommodation

1. War and Peace as Types of Conflict and Accommodation.

Georg Simmel

2. Compromise and Accommodation. Georg Simmel

D. Competition, Status, and Social Solidarity

1. Personal Competition, Social Selection, and Status.

Charles H. Cooley

2. Personal Competition and the Evolution of Individual Types.

Robert E. Park

3. Division of Labor and Social Solidarity. Émile Durkheim

III. Investigations and Problems

1. Forms of Accommodation

2. Subordination and Superordination

3. Accommodation Groups

4. Social Organization

Selected Bibliography

Topics for Written Themes

Questions for Discussion


I. Introduction

1. Popular Conceptions of Assimilation

2. The Sociology of Assimilation

3. Classification of the Materials

II. Materials

A. Biological Aspects of Assimilation

1. Assimilation and Amalgamation. Sarah E. Simons

2. The Instinctive Basis of Assimilation. W. Trotter

B. The Conflict and Fusion of Cultures

1. The Analysis of Blended Cultures. W. H. R. Rivers

2. The Extension of Roman Culture in Gaul. John H. Cornyn

3. The Competition of the Cultural Languages. E. H. Babbitt

4. The Assimilation of Races. Robert E. Park

C. Americanization as a Problem in Assimilation

1. Americanization as Assimilation

2. Language as a Means and a Product of Participation

3. Assimilation and the Mediation of Individual Differences

III. Investigations and Problems

1. Assimilation and Amalgamation

2. The Conflict and Fusion of Cultures

3. Immigration and Americanization

Selected Bibliography

Topics for Written Themes

Questions for Discussion


I. Introduction

1. Social Control Defined

2. Classification of the Materials

II. Materials

A. Elementary Forms of Social Control

1. Control in the Crowd and the Public. Lieut. J. S. Smith

2. Ceremonial Control. Herbert Spencer

3. Prestige. Lewis Leopold

4. Prestige and Status in South East Africa. Maurice S. Evans

5. Taboo. W. Robertson Smith

B. Public Opinion

1. The Myth. Georges Sorel

2. The Growth of a Legend. Fernand van Langenhove

3. Ritual, Myth, and Dogma. W. Robertson Smith

4. The Nature of Public Opinion. A. Lawrence Lowell

5. Public Opinion and the Mores. Robert E. Park

6. News and Social Control. Walter Lippmann

7. The Psychology of Propaganda. Raymond Dodge

C. Institutions

1. Institutions and the Mores. W. G. Sumner

2. Common Law and Statute Law. Frederic J. Stimson

3. Religion and Social Control. Charles A. Ellwood

III. Investigations and Problems

1. Social Control and Human Nature

2. Elementary Forms of Social Control

3. Public Opinion and Social Control

4. Legal Institutions and Law

Selected Bibliography

Topics for Written Themes

Questions for Discussion


I. Introduction

1. Collective Behavior Defined

2. Social Unrest and Collective Behavior

3. The Crowd and the Public

4. Crowds and Sects

5. Sects and Institutions

6. Classification of the Materials

II. Materials

A. Social Contagion

1. An Incident in a Lancashire Cotton Mill

2. The Dancing Mania of the Middle Ages. J. F. C. Hecker

B. The Crowd

1. The "Animal" Crowd

a) The Flock. Mary Austin

b) The Herd. W. H. Hudson

c) The Pack. Ernest Thompson Seton

2. The Psychological Crowd. Gustave Le Bon

3. The Crowd Defined. Robert E. Park

C. Types of Mass Movements

1. Crowd Excitements and Mass Movements: The Klondike Rush.

T. C. Down

2. Mass Movements and the Mores: The Woman's Crusade.

Annie Wittenmyer

3. Mass Movements and Revolution

a) The French Revolution. Gustave Le Bon

b) Bolshevism. John Spargo

4. Mass Movements and Institutions: Methodism.

William E. H. Lecky

III. Investigations and Problems

1. Social Unrest

2. Psychic Epidemics

3. Mass Movements

4. Revivals, Religious and Linguistic

5. Fashion, Reform, and Revolution

Selected Bibliography

Topics for Written Themes

Questions for Discussion


I. Introduction

1. Popular Conceptions of Progress

2. The Problem of Progress

3. History of the Concept of Progress

4. Classification of the Materials

II. Materials

A. The Concept of Progress

1. The Earliest Conception of Progress. F. S. Marvin

2. Progress and Organization. Herbert Spencer

3. The Stages of Progress. Auguste Comte

4. Progress and the Historical Process. Leonard T. Hobhouse

B. Progress and Science

1. Progress and Happiness. Lester F. Ward

2. Progress and Prevision. John Dewey

3. Progress and the Limits of Scientific Prevision.

Arthur J. Balfour

4. Eugenics as a Science of Progress. Francis Galton

C. Progress and Human Nature

1. The Nature of Man. George Santayana

2. Progress and the Mores. W. G. Sumner

3. War and Progress. James Bryce

4. Progress and the Cosmic Urge

a) The Élan Vitale. Henri Bergson

b) The Dunkler Drang. Arthur Schopenhauer

III. Investigations and Problems

1. Progress and Social Research

2. Indices of Progress

Selected Bibliography

Topics for Written Themes

Questions for Discussion


[1] See Source Book for Social Origins. Ethnological materials,

psychological standpoint, classified and annotated bibliographies for

the interpretation of savage society (Chicago, 1909).

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