Introduction To Classical Mythology- edith Hamilton

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Introduction To Classical Mythology- Edith Hamilton

Greek and Roman mythology is quite generally supposed to show us the way the human race thought and felt untold ages ago. Through it, according to this view, we can retrace the path from civilized man who lives so far from nature, to man who lived in close companionship with nature; and the real interest of the myths is that they lead us back to a time when the world was young and people had a connection with the earth, with trees and seas and flowers and hills, unlike any-thing we ourselves can feel. When the stories were being shaped, we are given to understand, little distinction had as yet been made between

the real and the unreal. The imagination was vividly alive and not checked by the reason, so that anyone in the woods might see through the trees a fleeing nymph, or bending over a clear pool to drink, behold in the depths a naiad's face.The prospect of traveling back to this delightful state of things is held out by nearly every writer who touches upon classical mythology, above all by the poets. In that infinitely remote time primitive man could Have sight of Proteus rising from the sea; Or hear old Triton blow his wreathed horn.


And we for a moment can catch, through the myths he made, a glimpse of that strangely

and beautifully animated world. But a very brief consideration of the ways of uncivilized

peoples everywhere and in all ages is enough to prick that romantic bubble. Nothing is

clearer than the fact that primitive man, whether in New Guinea today or eons ago in the prehistoric wilderness, is not and never has been a creature who peoples his world with bright fancies and lovely visions. Horrors lurked in the primeval forest, not nymphs and naiads.

Terror lived there, with its close attendant, Magic, and its most common defense,

Human Sacrifice. Mankind's chief hope of escaping the wrath of whatever divinities were

then abroad lay in some magical rite, senseless but powerful, or in some offering made at

the cost of pain and grief.

This dark picture is worlds apart from the stories of classical mythology. The study of the

way early man looked at his surroundings does not get much help from the Greeks. How

briefly the anthropologists treat the Greek myths is noteworthy.

Of course the Greeks too had their roots in the primeval slime. Of course they too once

lived a savage life, ugly and brutal. But what the myths show is how high they had risen

above the ancient filth and fierceness by the time we have any knowledge of them. Only a

few traces of that time are to be found in the stories.We do not know when these stories were first told in their present shape; but whenever itwas, primitive life had been left far behind. The myths as we have them are the creation ofgreat poets. The first written record of Greece is the Iliad. Greek mythology begins withHomer, generally believed to be not earlier than a thousand years before Christ. The Iliad is, or contains, the oldest Greek literature; and it is written in a rich and subtle and

beautiful language which must have had behind it centuries when men were striving to

express themselves with clarity and beauty, anindisputable proof of civilization. The tales of

Greek mythology do not throw any clear light upon what early mankind was like. They do

throw an abundance of light upon what early Greeks were like—a matter, it would seem, of

more importance to us, who are their descendants intellectually, artistically,· and politically,

too. Nothing we learn about them is alien to ourselves. People often speak of "the Greek

miracle." What the [The Greeks, unlike the Egyptians, made their gods in their own image.] Illustration


Phrase tries to express is the new birth of the world with the awakening of Greece. "Old

things are passed away; behold, all things are become new." Something like that happened in Greece. Why it happened, or when, we have no idea at all. We know only that in the earliest Greek poets a new point of view dawned, never dreamed of in the world before them, but ever to leave the world after them. With the coming for-ward of Greece, mankind became the center of the universe, the most important thing in it. This was a revolution in thought. Human beings had counted for little heretofore. In Greece man first realized what mankind was. The Greeks made their gods in their own image. That had not entered the mind of man

before. Until then, gods had had no semblance of reality. They were unlike all living things.

In Egypt, a towering colossus, immobile, beyond the power of the imagination to endow

with movement, as fixed in the stone as the tremendous temple columns a representation

of the human shape deliberately made unhuman. Or a rigid figure, a woman with a cat's head suggesting inflexible, inhu-man cruelty. Or a monstrous mysterious sphinx, aloof from all that lives. In Mesopotamia, bas-reliefs of bestialshapes unlike any beast ever known, men with birds' heads and lions with bulls' heads and both with eagles' wings, creations of artists who were intent upon producing something never seen except in their own minds, the very consumma-tion of unreality.

These and their like were what the pre-Greek world wor-shiped. One need only place

beside them in imagination any Greek statue of a god. so normal and natural with all its

beauty, to perceive what a new idea had come into the world. With its coming, the universe

became rational. Saint Paul said the invisible must be understood by the visible. That was not a Hebrewidea, it was Greek. In Greece alone in the ancient world people were preoccupied with the

visible; they were finding the satisfaction of their desires in what was actually in the world

around them. The sculptor watched the athletes contending in the games and he felt that

nothing he could imagine would be as beautiful as those strong young bodies. So he made

his statue of Apollo. The storyteller found Hermes among the people he passed in the

Street He saw the god "like a young man at the age when youth is loveliest," as Homer

says. Greek artists and poets realized how splendid a man could be, straight and swift and

strong. He was the fulfillment of their search for beauty.


They had no wish to create some fantasy shaped in their own minds. All the an and all the

thought of Greece centered in human beings.

Human gods naturally made heaven a pleasantly familiar place. The Greeks felt at home in

it. 'They knew just what the divine inhabitants did there, what they ate and drank

and where they banqueted and how they amused themselves. Of course they were to be

feared; they were very powerful and very dangerous when angry. Still, with proper care a

man could be quite fairly at ease with them. He was even perfectly free to laugh at them.

Zeus, trying to hide his love affairs from his wife and invariably shown up, was a capital

figure of fun. The Greeks enjoyed him and liked him all the better for it. Hera was that stock

character of comedy. The typical jealous wife, and her ingenious tricks to discomfit her

husband and punish her rival, far from displeasing the Greeks, entertained them as much

as Hera's modem counter-part does us today. Such stories made for a friendly feeling.

Laughter in the presence of an Egyptian sphinx or an Assyr-ian bird-beast was

inconceivable; but it was perfectly natural in Olympus, and it made the gods

companionable. On earth, too, the deities were exceedingly and humanly attractive. In the form of lovely youths and maidens they peopled the woodland, the forest. the rivers. the sea, in harmonywith the fair earth and the bright waters.

That is the miracle of Greek mythology—a humanized world, men freed from the paralyzing

fear of an omnipotent Unknown. The terrifying incomprehensibilities which were worshiped

elsewhere. and the fearsome spirits with which earth. air and sea swarmed, were banned

from Greece. It may seem odd to say that the men who made the myths disliked the

irrational and had a love for facts; but it is true, no matter

how wildly fantastic some of the stories are. Anyone who reads them with attention

discovers that even the most non-sensical take place in a world which is essentially rational

and matter-of-fact.Hercules, whose life was one long combat

against preposterous monsters, is always said to have had his home in the city ofThebes.

The exact spot where Aphrodite was born of the foam could be visited by any ancient

tourist; it was just offshore from the island of Cythera. The winged steed Pegasus. after

skimming the air all day, went every night to a comfortable stable inCorinth. A familiar local

habitation gave reality to all the mythical beings. If the mix-true seems childish, consider

how reassuring and how sensible the solid background is as compared with the Genie who


comes from nowhere when Aladdin rubs the lamp and, his task accomplished, returns to


The terrifying irrational has no place in classical mythology. Magic, so powerful in the world

before and after Greece, is almost nonexistent. There are no men and only two women with

dreadful, supernatural powers. The demoniac wizards and the hideous old witches who

haunted Europe and America-ca, too, up to quite recent years, play no part at all in the

stories. Circe and Medea are the only witches and they are young and of

surpassing beauty-delightful, not horrible. Astrology, which has flourished from the days of

ancient Babylon down to today, is completely absent from classicalGreece. There are

many stories about the stars, but not a trace of the idea that they influence men's lives.

Astronomy is what the Greek mind finally made out of the stars. Not a single story has a

magical priest who is terribly to be feared because he knows ways of winning over the

gods or alienating them. The priest is rarely seen and is never of im-portance. In the

Odyssey when a priest and a poet fall on their knees before Odysseus, praying him to

spare their lives, the hero kills the priest without a thought, but saves the poet. Homer says

that he felt awe to slay a man who had been taught his divine art by the gods. Not the priest,

but the poet, had influence with heaven-and no one was ever afraid of a poet. Ghosts, too,

which have played so large and so fear-some a part in other lands, never appear on earth

in any Greek story. The Greeks were not afraid of the dead-"the piteous dead," the

Odyssey calls them.

The world of Greek mythology was not a place of terror for the human spirit. It is true that the gods were disconcertingly incalculable. One could never tell where Zeus's thunderbolt would strike. Nevertheless, the whole divine company, with a very few and for the most part not impor-tant exceptions, were entrancingly beautiful with a human beauty, and nothing humanly beautiful is really terrifying. The early Greekmythologists transformed a world full of fear into a world full of beauty.

This bright picture has its dark spots. The change came about slowly and was never quite completed. The godsbecome- human were for a long time a very slight improvement upon their worshipers. They were incomparably lovelier and more powerful, and they were

of course immortal; but they often acted in a way no decent man or woman would. In the Il-iad Hector is nobler by far than any of the heavenly beings, and Andromache infinitely to be preferred to Athena or Aph-


rodite. Hera from first to last is a goddess on a very low level of humanity. Almost every one

of the radiant divinities could act cruelly or contemptibly. A very limited sense of right and

wrong prevailed in Horner's heaven, and for a long time after.

Other dark spots too stand out. There are traces of a time when there were beast-gods.

The satyrs are goat-men and the centaurs are half man, half horse. Hera is often called

"cow-faced," as if the adjective had somehow stuck to her through all her changes from a

divine cow to the very human queen of heaven. There are also stories which point back

clearly to a time when there was human sacrifice. But what is astonish-ing is not that bits of

savage belief were left here and there. The strange thing is that they are so few.

Of course the mythical monster is present in any number of shapes, Gorgons and hydras and chimaeras dire,\but they are there only to give the hero his meed of glory. What could a hero do in a world without them? They are al-ways overcome by him. The great hero of mythology, Hercu-les,

might be an allegory of Greece herself. He fought the monsters and freed the earth from

them just as Greece freed the earth from the monstrous idea of the unhuman supreme over

the human.

Greek mythology is largely made up of stories about gods and goddesses, but it must not

be read as a kind of Greek Bible, an account of the Greek religion. According to the most

modem idea, a real myth has nothing to do with religion. It is an explanation of something in

nature; how, for instance, any and everything in the universe came into existence: men,

animals, this or that tree or flower, the sun, the moon, the stars, storms, eruptions,

earthquakes, all that is and all that happens. Thunder and lightning are caused when Zeus

hurls his thunderbolt. A volcano erupts because a terrible creature is imprisoned in the

mountain and every now and then strug-gles to get free. The Dipper, the constellation

called also the Great Bear, does not set below the horizon because a goddes

once was angry at it and decreed that it should never

sink into the sea. Myths are early science, the result of men's first trying to explain what they

saw around them. But there are many so-called myths which explain nothing at all. These

tales are pure entertainment, the sort of thing people would tell each other on a long

winter's evening. The story of Pyg-malion and Galatea is an example; it has no conceivable


connection with any event in nature. Neither has the Quest of the Golden Fleece, nor Orpheus

and Eurydice, nor many an-other. This fact is now generally accepted; and we do not have

to try to find in every mythological heroine the moon

or the dawn and in every hero's life a sun myth. The stories are early literature as well as

early science. But religion is there, too. In the background, to be sure,

but nevertheless plain to see. From Homer through the tragedians and even later, there is a

deepening realization of what human beings need and what they must have in their gods.

Zeus the Thunderer was, it seems certain, once a rain-god. He was supreme even over the

sun, because rocky Greece needed rain more than sunshine and the God of Gods would

be the one who could give the precious water of life to his worshipers. But Homer's Zeus is

not a fact of nature. He is a person living in a world where civilization has made an en-try, and of course he has a standard of right and wrong. It is not very high, certainly, and seems chiefly applicable to others, not to himself; but he does punish men who lie and

break their oaths; he is angered by any ill treatment of the dead; and he pities and helps

old Priam when he goes as a suppliant to Achilles. In the Odyssey, he has reached a

higher level. The swineherd there says that the needy and the stranger are from Zeus and

he who fails to help them sins against Zeus himself. Hesiod, not much later than the

Odyssey if at all, says of a man who does evil to the suppliant and the stranger, or who

wrongs orphan children, "with that man Zeus is angry."

Then Justice became Zeus's companion. That was a new idea. The buccaneering

chieftains in the Iliad did not want justice. They wanted to be able to take whatever they

chose because they were strong and they wanted a god who was on the side of the strong.

But Hesiod, who was a peasant living in a poor man's world, knew that the poor must have

a just god. He wrote, "Fishes and beasts and fowls of the air devour one another. But to

man, Zeus has given justice. Beside Zeus on his throne Justice has her seat." These

passages show that the great and bitter needs of the helpless were reaching up to heaven

and changing the god of the strong into the protector of the weak.

So, back of the stories of an amorous Zeus and a cowardly Zeus and a ridiculous Zeus, we

can catch sight of another Zeus coming into being, as men grow continually more conscious

of what life demanded of them and what human beings needed in the god they worshiped. Gradually this Zeus


displaced the others, until he occupied the whole scene. At last. he became, in the words of

Dio Chrysostom, who wrote during the second century A.D.: "Our Zeus, the giver of every

good gift, the common father and saviour and guardian of mankind."

The Odyssey speaks of "the divine for which all men long," and hundreds of years later Aristotle wrote, "Excellence, much labored for by the race of mortals." The Greeks from the earliest mythologists on had a perception of the divine and the excellent. Their longing for them was great enough to make them never give up laboring to see them clearly, until at last the thunder and lightning were changed .into the Universal Father.

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