Introduction: Over the last four lessons, we have learned about the emergence of Classical Liberalism



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Social 30-1

Fall 2015

Mrs. Adams

Due October 16, 2015

Chapter 7: Challenges to Liberalism Related to Foreign Policy



Days 1/2

When Ideologies Clash!!
Introduction: Over the last four lessons, we have learned about the emergence of Classical Liberalism and its 5 principles, which are as follows:
i) individual rights and freedoms

ii) belief that humans are reasonable and can make their own decisions

iii) economic freedom

iv) protection of civil liberties

v) constitutional limits on government
From Classical Liberalism sprang various ideologies that modified the 5 principals of Classical Lioberalism some of which are:
Luddites

Chartists

Utopian Socialists

Scientific Socialism/ Marxism

Classical Conservatism
Two weeks ago, we looked at ideologies during the 20th century (1900’s) that rejected Classical Liberalism and the freedom of individuals. These ideologies include:
Communism

Fascism


Totalitarianism
Last week, we took a look at how modern Liberalism evolved based on the principals of Classical Liberalism. We examined life in the U.S.A. and Canada before and after World War 11 in order to see why changes needed to occur in the way the economy operated and how these changes reflected the principals of liberalism. As you discovered, businesses in the early 1900’s in the U.S.A. prospered; however, the workers suffered and there was very little government intervention. Sure people enjoyed economic freedom, religious freedoms, freedom of speech and the opportunity to choose where they lived and worked; however, for the majority of the population, working conditions were horrible and as you discovered corporations paid very little attention to the health of their employees and/or the environment. As long as they were making HUGE profits, life was good. The government eventually became more involved in the economy, which lead to modern Liberalism.
This week we are going to look at how conflict between ideological differences shapes the world. One of the features that liberalism and many other ideologies have in common is the goal of improving the lives of all people. Whereas fascism tended to promote the advancement of a single national group at the expense of others, communism, at least in theory, had as its objective the creation of a world in which all people would be equal and would enjoy a reasonable standard of living.

 

Many other ideologies have at their heart some goal of bettering humanity, whether it be economically, socially, spiritually, or in some other way. Where liberalism and other ideologies often differ, however, is in defining what constitutes the betterment of the human condition and how such betterment should be achieved. This difference has been and continues to be the source of conflict between nations that champion liberalism and nations or groups that favour other ideologies.


The conflicts that have arisen between liberal democracies and their rivals have frequently resulted in hardship and misery for humankind. At least one such a conflict between the Soviet Union and The U.S.A took humanity to the brink of self-destruction after WW11 during the Cold War.
Chapter 7 focuses on these two Super Powers and their ideological differences after WW11:




The Cold War

After WW11 the Soviet Union and The U.S.A. engaged in ideological conflict. The Soviet Union promoted communism around the world and the U.S.A. promoted liberal democracy. The two countries never launched a military attack on each other but it was a period of rapid and enormous nuclear weapons build-up as each country figured the other country would destroy them. Luckily, cooler heads prevailed and tension between the two countries lessen as time progressed through the mid 1960's and 1970's.






The Soviet Union (Ideology - Communism)

VS

The United States of America (Ideology - Modern Liberalism)


Step One: Please read Chapter 7 (pages 232 - 267) in your textbook, Perspectives on Ideology.

Summary: As you have seen on these pages, after the defeat of fascism and Nazism in World War II, supporters of liberalism (i.e. - U.S.A.) and communism (i.e. - The Soviet Union) started to compete for the hearts and minds of people around the globe.

 

Many of the world’s nations began to ally (become friends with) themselves with either the United States, the world’s most powerful liberal democracy, or the Soviet Union, the first nation to put communism into practice. The resulting dichotomy would shape international relations for most of the second half of the twentieth century.



 

Through most of that period, an ideological competition played out in a variety of arenas—social, scientific, economic, and military. While the world’s two dominant ideological rivals, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R, never engaged in large-scale military action against one another, their battle to advance their respective “ism” nonetheless took a great financial and human toll around the globe.



 

Throughout the conflict, the citizens of the world had to live with the possibility of global annihilation (total destruction of earth) should the ideological rivalry erupt into a shooting war.


Formative Assessment Assignment

Step Three: Please be sure to learn the following terms that are used in Chapter 7: to help solidify the terms, complete the following vocabulary sheet


Terms

Definition

Context/Examples

Alignment







Brinkmanship







Cold war







Containment







Détente







Deterrence







Dissuasion







Espionage







Expansionism







Hot war







Iron curtain







Satellite state







Sphere of influence







Summit







Superpower








Step Four: Please complete the following question:
1. Please review Figure 7-11 on page 249 in your textbook, Perspectives on Ideology and answer the following question:
Compare the two maps. What evidence do you see of expansionism and aligment?
HINT: To answer this question, look at the first map and determine who were the friends of the U.S.A. and who were the friends of the Soviet Union in 1959. Next. look at how the U.S.A. influence had changed by 1982 and list countries were there was U.S.A. influence either as allies or military assistance, but none in 1959. Do the same for the Soviet Union.
Countries Influenced by the U.S.A. in 1982, but not in 1959:
1.

2.

3.
Countries Influenced by the Soviet Union in 1982, but not in 1959:
1.

2.

3.

2. Please review pages 261 - 267 in your textbook, Perspectives on Ideology and read the following comments:
In North America, fear of communism and nuclear attack plagued American citizens, particularly during the 1950s. Movements like McCarthyism saw many law-abiding citizens persecuted for their political beliefs and personal associations. Ironically, these actions were taken under the pretext of defending liberal democracy.
As one Albertan resident states:



Now, please view Figure 7-16 on page 261 in your textbook, Perspectives on Ideology and then watch the video - Duck and Cover @ the following link:

http://viewpure.com/IKqXu-5jw60



Lastly, please review "Cold War, 1957" on page 262 in your textbook, Perspectives on Ideology and answer the following question:
Examples of the impact of the American - Soviet ideological conflict span the world. How is this impact depicted in Patria Rivera's poem - The Cold War, 1957?

Step Six - Please submit your responses to Step 5 to Mr. Smart.

---------------


Days 3/4/5 Radio Interview
Radio Interview

Summative Evaluation: Please complete the following Challenge Assignment:
Step One: Role Playing:
In this challenge you will do a little role-playing. Your name is Terry Knotwreel, a fictitious U.S. civil servant. You have just written a book about the Cold War, and you’re on a tour promoting your work. You’ve been to book signings, appeared on local televisions talk shows and, in this case, dropped into a radio station for an interview.
Step Two: Please listen to Interval Intro(attached to this message - Please click on ss30_1_m5_02_interval.mp3) to get a sense of your character’s background. This is the radio announcer introducing you and telling the radio listeners a bit about your background.
The script that the radio announcer is using is as follow:

Please Note: If you do not hear the recording, when you "click" play, please download the file and open/play it on your desktop. You might also fix the problem by "clicking" directly on the dial that moves across the recording as it plays.
Interval Intro

 

Good morning, and welcome to The Interval. If you’re a follower of politics or history, we’ve got a treat for you today. Our guest spent almost five decades working in the White House in various capacities and served as a foreign policy and national security advisor to several presidents. This guest has now written a tell-all book about life inside and outside the White House in the second half of the twentieth century. The book is Deep Freeze: Cold War Memoirs, and our guest this morning is the book’s author, Terry Knotwreel. Good morning, Terry, pleasure to have you here.


 

Step Three: The interviewer is going to ask you a variety of questions related to Cold War events and policies. Your challenge is to provide informed, well-reasoned

answers from the point of view of someone who has an in-depth knowledge of the period of time surrounding the Cold War.

 

Listen to the Interview Questions Audio Recording (attached to this message - Please click on ss30_1_m5_intervalquestions.mp3)


The questions are also written, below. Please use the knowledge you gained in this section to provide insightful answers. Record your answers in the spaces underneath each question.

 




Cold War Interval Radio Show Interview Questions




(3 mark)

1.

Some critics have said that the policy of containment during the Cold War frequently required the United States and its allies to violate many of the basic principles of liberalism, ostensibly (or supposedly) to defend liberalism. Can you identify some examples from the Cold War that might fit this description?


Answer: Please remember you are Terry Knotwreel and answering the questions from the perspective of a former

White House employee and U.S. citizen.

To answer this question you need to find 2 - 3 examples of the U.S.A. preventing the Soviet Union from spreading it communistic ideology to other countries without direct warfare after WW11 (i.e. - supported another country financially in returning to accepting American ideology, provide military assistance to fight attacks by countries supported by the Soviet Union.)







(3 mark)

2.

Do you agree with the argument that liberal democracies sometimes have to abandon their principles to achieve a larger goal of defeating an ideological rival?


Answer: Please remember you are Terry Knotwreel and answering the questions from the perspective of a former

White House employee and U.S. citizen.

To answer this question you need to determine if you agree with liberal democracies, such as the U.S.A., abandoning principles such as freedom of choice in order to prevent other ideologies from spreading around the world (i.e. - Soviet Union spreading communism).







(3 mark)

3.

What do you think would have happened if the United States and other liberal democracies chose not to challenge communist expansionism during the Cold War?


Answer: Please remember you are Terry Knotwreel and answering the questions from the perspective of a former

White House employee and U.S. citizen.

To answer this question, you need to predict what might have happened if the U.S.A. did not attempt to block the Soviet Union from spreading communism. Do you communism would have dominated the world? Please explain.







(3 mark)

4.

Thinking back to some pivotal Cold War events, what’s your opinion of brinkmanship as a foreign policy tool? Can the inherent dangers be justified?


Answer: Please remember you are Terry Knotwreel and answering the questions from the perspective of a former

White House employee and U.S. citizen.

Please review Brinkmanship on pages 254 and 255 and let the radio show listeners know if you think this is a good way to deal with other nations to get what you want - Foreign Policy.






(3 marks) 5. Do you believe that spending on nuclear weapons by the superpowers was justifiable? If so, how do you justify it? If not, how would you have prevented the nuclear arms race from occurring if you’d had the power to do so?



Answer: Please remember you are Terry Knotwreel and answering the questions from the perspective of a former

White House employee and U.S. citizen.

Please let the radio listenrs know how you feel about the build of of nuclear weapons.





Step Four: How to present your responses to the radio show host's questions:
If you have the time, technological skills, and desire, you can record your responses and merge them with the audio recordings of the introduction and questions, or you can re-record the introduction and questions to create a Podcast.

 

As with other projects of this nature, it is important to budget your time and not let the production process become more important than developing good responses to the interview questions. Have a discussion with your teacher to decide whether creating a full podcast is a valuable use of your time.



 

If you’re not creating a podcast, you can simply submit your written responses to myself.

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