The following is adapted from a book on European history published in 2010.
Unquestionably, the number one factor in bringing about global changes was the collapse of communism and the Soviet superpower. The Cold War division of Europe and the world, which had determined its history since 1945, finally ended. The danger of war was eliminated. Europe rearranged itself and realized a new European order… these changes accompanied another equally historic change, a milestone in European history, which was the transformation and elevation of the European Community, both in terms of its expansion and its radically "deepened" integration. It took deep roots during the Cold War. This development began the elevation of Europe as a superpower. A feverish enlargement process gained spectacular speed after 1980. ... The new and major enlargement process began in the mid-1990s ... The successive enlargement process, combined with a deliberate cohesion policy to assist backward regions and countries, generated and accelerated a catching-up process of the former peripheral countries of Europe.
Source: I. Berend, Europe Since 1980 (Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp.42-43.
Identify two major changes in Europe brought by the end of the Cold War in 1991, as shown in Source W. (2 marks)
Did the author of Source W think Europe was becoming stronger or weaker by 2000? Explain your answer with reference to two arguments used in Source W. (4 marks)
"The economic integration of Europe in the 1990s was imposing the standards of western Europe on the former eastern European countries." Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Source W and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)
Two major changes in Europe brought by the end of the Cold War in 1991
L1 Merely quoting from the Source without paraphrasing
L2 Answer explained in one’s own words
Two major changes:
The Cold War division of Europe came to an end and Europe became one again. (Clue: “Europe rearranged itself and realized a new European order.”)
The European Community ascended in terms of its size and importance in Europe. (Clue: “transformation and elevation of the European Community, both in terms of its expansion and its radically ‘deepened’ integration”)
Whether the author of Source W thought Europe was becoming stronger or weaker by 2000
L1 General answer without due reference to the Source
L2 Well-explained answer with due reference to the Source
Whether the author thought Europe was becoming stronger or weaker:
“The development began the elevation of Europe as a superpower.”
“…to assist backward regions and countries, generated and accelerated a catching-up process of the former peripheral countries of Europe”
By 2000, Europe experienced the consolidation of the political, economic, cultural and diplomatic forces of an increasing number of European countries. The new European Union gradually became stronger and more influential in world affairs, and could coordinate various aspects of development (particularly economic) within Europe.
“The economic integration of Europe in the 1990s was imposing the standards of western Europe on the former eastern European countries.” Do you agree?
L1 General elaboration of the general historical development of the 1990s without due reference to stance of the given statement
L2 Rough answer attempting to answer the question without sufficiently relating the issue in question with the historical development of the 1990s
L3 Well-explained answer sufficiently focusing on the issue in question and relating it with the historical development of the 1990s
(Source W) “…combined with a deliberate cohesion policy to assist backward regions and countries” / “accelerated a catching-up process of the former peripheral countries of Europe” – The relatively poorer, former eastern European states had been seen as “peripheral” while the capitalist western European states were seen as models, thus making Europe centered on the value systems of the capitalist western Europe.
(Own knowledge) The enlargement of the European Community/Union in the 1990s was indeed the extension of the EC/EU framework and structure to the newly admitted countries, and such framework and structure were based entirely on the economic and political experience of the capitalist West since the end of WWII. The EC/EU structure and procedures by no means modelled on the communist political and economic systems.
(Source W) “…combined with a deliberate cohesion policy to assist backward regions and countries” / “accelerated a catching-up process of the former peripheral countries of Europe” – The attempts at assisting former eastern European states to integrate effectively into the capitalist western European states demonstrated the latter’s willingness to take the former’s situation into consideration. It was not a wholesale hegemony of western values and standards.
(Own knowledge) The accession of former eastern European countries to the EC/EU required not merely their willingness to transform on the line of the capitalist system, but also the existing EC/EU members’ answering to the former’s needs and practical considerations. It experienced a process of liaison and compromises throughout the 1990s and beyond 2000.
[max. 2] [max. 4] [max. 7]
1. Study Sources A and B.
The following is adapted from the World Food Conference dated 16 November 1974.
All countries, and primarily the highly industrialized countries, should promote the advancement of food production technology and should make all efforts to promote the transfer, adaptation and dissemination of appropriate food production technology for the benefit of the developing countries and, to that end, they should inter alia make all efforts to disseminate the results of their research work to Governments and scientific institutions of developing countries in order to enable them to promote a sustained agricultural development.
Source: Luis G. Jinenez-Arias, Bioethics and the Environment: A Brief Review of the Ethical Aspects of the Precautionary Principle and Genetic Modified Crops (Buenos Aires: Libros en Red, 2008), p.40.
The following is adapted from an interview with a Kenyan economics expert on 27 August 2005.
Such intentions [of eliminating hunger] have been damaging [the African] continent for the past 40 years. If the industrial nations really want to help the Africans, they should finally terminate this awful aid. The countries that have collected the most development aid are also the ones that are in the worst shape. Despite the billions that have poured into Africa, the continent remains poor. Huge bureaucracies are financed (with the aid money), corruption and complacency are promoted, Africans are taught to be beggars and not to be independent. In addition, development aid weakens the local markets everywhere and dampens the spirit of entrepreneurship that we so desperately need.
Source: “SPIEGEL Interview with African Economics Expert: "For God's Sake, Please Stop the Aid!" – Spiegel Online website” (http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/spiegel-interview-with-african-economics-expert-for-god-s- sake-please-stop-the-aid-a-363663.html) (Accessed on 7 July 2014).
Refer to Source A. Identify one concrete action that the governments of developed countries could take to help resolve the problem of hunger in developing countries. Support your answer with one clue from Source A. (1+1 mark)
Refer to Source B. What strategy did the industrial nations adopt in the last quarter of the 20th century to help African countries resolve the problem of hunger? (1 mark)
What was the author’s attitude towards the industrial nations’ strategy? Explain your answer with reference to Source B. (3 marks)
What are the usefulness and limitations of Sources A and B in reflecting the means adopted by the international community in the late 20th century to eliminate hunger? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A and B and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)
Suggested answers and reference for assessment
One concrete action that the governments of developed countries could take to resolve the problem of hunger in developing countries
Concrete action, e.g. (either ONE):
Advancing the progress of food production technology (Clue: “should promote the advancement of food production technology”)
Sharing their research outcomes related to food production technology with developing countries (Clue: “should … disseminate the results of their research work to Governments and scientific institutions of developing countries”
[1+1 mark] [1+1 mark]
Strategy adopted by industrial nations to help African countries resolve the problem of hunger Strategy:
Giving monetary aid to African countries
Author’s attitude towards the industrial nations’ strategy
L1 General answer merely attempting to summarize the Source
L2 Appropriate answer pinpointing and elaborating the attitude
Negative / disapproving
“they should finally terminate this awful aid”
“Africans are taught to be beggars and not to be independent.”
The author pointed out many undesirable outcomes of the industrial nations’ grant of financial aid, while no positive outcome has been mentioned.
Usefulness and limitations of Sources A and B in reflecting the means adopted by the international community to eliminate hunger
L1 Lopsided answer focusing on either usefulness or limitations
L2 Comprehensive answer covering both usefulness and limitations
(Source A) promoting advancement of food production technology; sharing food production technology and research outcomes with developing countries
(Source B) granting financial aid to developing countries
Limitations, e.g. Sources A and B do not reflect the following:
Promoting contraception in relatively conservative countries / religious communities
Calling international conferences to discuss and negotiate innovative strategies in redistribution of wealth and resources
Donating food and medical facilities from developed countries to developing countries
2. Study Sources C, D and E.
The following is an excerpt from an article on humanitarianism in the post-colonial era published in 2002
Despite the technological advancements, the missions MSF sought from 1971 to 1976 remained limited. Early missions included Nicaragua after the earthquake of 1972 and Honduras after the 1974 hurricane Fifi. Because of the budget constraints, these early missions were not very effective. Throughout the 1970s, MSF remained a small relief organization because volunteers usually had other jobs. …Since MSF volunteers did not believe in selling humanitarian services, they did not advertise to solicit contributions, which kept their funds low.
Source: Kimberly Salome Greenberg, "Humanitarianism in the Post-Colonial Era: The History of Médicins Sans Frontières" (2002) (http://tcr.org/tcr/essays/EPrize_Medecins.pdf, Fitzhugh@tcr.org ) for the Concord Review, Inc., Ralph Waldo Emerson Prize (2004), p.60.
The following is adapted from an article about Médicins Sans Frontières in1998
The multiplication of its missions in refugee camps at the end of the 1970s forced MSF to adopt a more professional approach, which meant, for example, paying a coordinator in Bangkok and providing small stipends for doctors sent out for six-month periods. This trend, far from being welcomed by every MSF member, began to divide those who longed for the days of purely voluntary emergency medicine (including the veterans of Biafra) from the new generation of doctors wanting to serve for longer terms in refugee camps and to provide more demanding medical services. In 1979 these long-submerged tensions led to a split within MSF.
Source: "The MSF Experience - Médicins Sans Frontières Website" (http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/msf-experience) (Accessed on 7 July 2014).
The following is adapted from an article about MSF in 2011.
With the end of the Cold War, speaking out publicly and defending human rights began to gain some legitimacy within the other four sections of MSF. Created during the 1980s in Belgium, Holland, Spain and Switzerland, they had until then resolutely opposed the French practice of bearing witness, which they accused of politicising MSF in violation of its statutes. After bitter debate, in 1992 all of the sections decided to remove the provisions in the charter committing MSF to confidentiality and prohibiting it from any involvement in a country’s internal affairs. ... MSF increasingly challenged western governments and the UN, criticising in particular military interventions that claimed the protection of humanitarian actors as their mandate.
Source: Fabrice Weissman, "Silence Heals... From the Cold War to the War on Terror, MSF Speaks Out: A Brief History" in Claire Magone et al ed., Humanitarian Negotiations Revealed (London: C. Hurst & Co., 2011), pp.183-184.
Refer to Source C. What was the major constraint faced by the MSF during the early 1970s? Support your answer with one clue from Source C. (1+1 mark)
Refer to Source D. What was the factor that changed the MSF’s mode of financing its humanitarian missions? Explain your answer with reference to Source D. (3 marks)
Refer to Source E. What kind of debate changed the development of the MSF during the 1990s? Explain your answer with reference to Source E. (4 marks)
Do Sources C, D and E sufficiently reflect the factors affecting the work the MSF in relieving problems of population and resources worldwide? Explain your answer with reference to Sources C, D and E, and using your own knowledge (7 marks)