Introduction by john henrik clarke how and Why This Book Was Written



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Introduction by JOHN HENRIK CLARKE How and Why This Book Was Written
ix

I
CELEBRITIES BEFORE CHRIST


Commentary and Notes on References 27 . Imhotep, God of Medicine, Prince of Peace, and the First Christ 38 . Hatshepsut, the Ablest Queen of Far Antiquity 43 . Thotmes Ill, the Napoleon of Far Antiquity 53 . Akhenaton, the First Messiah and Most Remarkable of the Pharaohs 57

. Lokman, First Great Fabulist and Wisest Man of the Ancient East 67 . Aesop, Inspirer of the World's Greatest Minds 73 . Makeda, Queen of Sheba 81 . Piankhy, King of Ethiopia and Conqueror of Egypt 89 . Clitus, King of Bactria and Cavalry Leader of Alexander the Great 94 . Hannibal of Carthage, Father of Military Strategy 98 . Massinissa, King of Numidia and Arbiter of the Destiny of Two World Empires IID . Terence, Foremost of the Latin Stylists and Great Humanitarian II8 . Cleopatra, Exemplar of Feminine Fascination Throughout the Ages 121


ASIA
Commentary and Notes on References 133 . Zenobia, Beautiful Warrior Queen of the East 135 . Antar, Poet, Soldier, and Great Chivalrous Figure of the East 138 . Bital, the First Muezzin and Treasurer of Islam 143 . Ibrahim Al-Mahdi, Islam's Greatest Songster and Caliph of Bagdad 148 . Al-Jahiz, Lord of the Golden Age of Arab Literature 163 . Malik
vVI
Contents
Ambar, Brilliant Military Leader and Statesman of India 172 . Malik Andeel, Benevolent Sultan of Bengal, India 177 . Eugene Chen, China's Dynamic Statesman 179 . Ibn-Saud, King of Saudi Arabia and Leader of Islam 185
AFRICA
Commentary and Notes on References 191 . Abraha, Emperor of Ethiopia Whose Adoption of Christianity Changed the Face of the World 200 . Abraha Al-Arsham, Emperor of Yemen and Ethiopia Who Started a Thousand Years' World War 203 . Kafur the Magnificent, Eunuch and Ex-Slave Who Became Lord of Egypt 208 . Yusuf I, Sultan of Africa and Conqueror of the Champions of Christendom 216 . Yalcub AI-Mansur, Greatest of the Moorish Rulers of Spain 225 . Abu Hassan Ali, "The Black Sultan" of Morocco 232 . Sonni Ali, Founder of the Empire of Timbuc­too 235 . Askia the Great, Builder of the Empire of Timbuctoo 240 . Ann Zingha, Amazon Queen of Matamba, West Africa 247 . Osei Tutu, Founder of the Ashanti Nation 251 . Mulai Ismael, Most Extraordinary Ruler of the Eighteenth Century 257 . Chaka, Mighty Zulu Conqueror and Des­pot 265 . Moshesh, Basuto King, Warrior, and Statesman 277 . Cetewayo, Zulu King Who Defeated a British Army and Killed the Prince Napo­leon 287 . Mohammed Ahmed-the Mahdi, Conqueror of the Great English General Gordon 295 . Paul Belloni Du Chaillu, Explorer of Africa and Beloved Storyteller 310 . Tippoo Tib, Trailblazer for the Great Ex­plorers of Africa 319 . Behanzin Hossu Bowelle-"The King Shark,"

- African Poet-King Who Defeated France from His Throne of Gold 329 . Samuel Adjai Crowther, Explorer, African Educator, and Bishop of the British Realm 337 . Samory, "The Napoleon of the Sudan" 344 . Rabah Zobeir, Africa's Warlike Champion Against European Domination 350 . Bu-Ahmed, Iron Chancellor of Morocco 357 . Bambaata, Gallant African Chief Who Defied the White Rulers of South Africa 363 . Menelik II, "King of Kings, Ever Victorious Lion of Judah" 370 . Khama, the Good King of Bechuanaland 381 . Alfred A. Dodds, French General and Empire Builder 389 . Prempeh of the Golden Stool, King of the Ashanti 394 . Glaoui Pasha, "The Black Panther" of Morocco 405 . Isaac Wallace­Johnson, Africa's Indomitable Labor Leader 413 . Haile Selassi, Ethiopia's Dauntless Emperor 419


INTRODUCTION BY John Henrik Clarke
xi
EUROPE
Commentary and Notes on References 3 . St. Maurice of Aganaum, Roman General and Saint of the Catholic Church II . Benedict the Moor, Saint of the Catholic Church [7 . Alessandro de' Medici, First Reigning Duke of Florence 24 . Abraham Hannibal, Russian General and Comrade of Peter the Great 34 . Antonio Vieira, Portugal's Grandest Personage 40 . John VI, King of Portugal and Maker of Modern Brazil 55 . Chevalier de St. Georges, Dazzling Black Nobleman of Versailles 65 . Jean-Louis, World-famed Swordsman and Duelist 74 . Aleksander Sergeevich Push kin, the Father of Russian Literature and Apostle of Freedom 79 . Joachim Murat, Renowned Cavalry Leader of Napoleon and King of Naples 89 . George A. P. Bridge­tower, Musical Genius and Comrade of Beethoven 92 . General Alexandre Dumas ("Alexandre the Greatest"), Dashing Commander of Napoleon's Cavalry 99 . Alexandre Dumas, Pere, the World's Greatest Romancer [09 .

Alexandre Dumas, Fils, Remaker of the Modern French Stage [23 . Ira Aldridge, Greatest of the Othellos [30 . Jose T. De Sousa Martins, Medical and Sanitary Expert of Portugal [38 . Claudio J. D. Brindis de Sala, German Baron and Court Violinist [42 . Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, England's "Greatest Musical Sensation" [46 . Sosthene H. Mortenol, French Naval Captain and Commander of the Air Defenses of Paris [54 . Blaise Daigne, African Barefoot Boy Who Became a French Cabinet Minister [58

V
vi


Contents
SOUTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA
Commentary and Notes on References 167 . Henrique Dias, Ex-Slave Who Broke the Power of Holland 171 . Manuel Carlos Piar, Hero of Venezuelan Democracy and Martyr to the Cause of True Democracy 178 . Vicente Guerrero, Mexican Liberator and President 182 . Bernardino Rivadavia, First President of the Argentine Republic 187 . Rafael Carrera, Liberator of Guatemala Who Was Worshipped as a God by the Indians 192 . Carlos Gomes, First Great Operatic Composer of the New World 20O. Dom Pedro II, "The Magnanimous," Brazilian Emancipator 203 . Machado de Assis, First Great Writer of Brazil 211
THE WEST INDIES
Commentary and Notes on References 217 . Captain Cudjoe, Dauntless Maroon Chief of Jamaica 222 . Toussaint L'Ouverture, the Negro of Whom Napoleon Was Jealous 227 . Dessalines, "The Ferocious," Liberator of Haiti and Its First Emperor 241 . Alexander Petion, Haiti's First and Noblest President 247 . Louis Delgres, Guadeloupe Patriot Who Defied Napoleon 255 . Richard Hill, Scientist, Judge, and Champion of Human Rights 258. Mary Seacole, Forerunner of the Modern Red Cross Nurse 262 . Antonio Maceo, "The Lion, the Centaur, the Invincible" 272 . Ulises Heureaux, Iron-fisted Dictator of Santo Domingo 279 . Sir Conrad Reeves, Chief Justice of Barbados 291 . Edward Wilmot Blyden, Linguist, Educator, Statesman, and African Patriot 294 . Felix Eboue, Great Statesman of France, Africa, and the West Indies 298
THE UNITED STATES
Commentary and Notes on References 3°5 . Estevanico, Discoverer of Arizona and New Mexico and Pioneer Explorer of the Southwest 317 . Nat Turner, Leader of America's Greatest Slave Revolt 325 . Frederick Douglass, Ex-Slave Who Rose to Be a Mighty Champion of Freedom 332 . Jan Ernest Matzeliger, Inventor Who Gave Supremacy in the Shoe Industry to the United States 35° . Peter Jackson, Gallant Knight of the Prize Ring 356 .

Paul Laurence Dunbar, Afro-America's First Great Poet 364 . Bert Williams, King of Laughter 373 . Booker T. Washington, Ex-Slave, America's Leading Exponent of Industrial Education 383 . William Monroe Trotter, Most Un­selfish of the Negro Leaders 399 . William Burghardt Du Bois, Scholar, Educator, and Fighter for Human Rights 4°7 . Marcus Garvey, "Provisional President of Africa" and Messiah 415 . Hubert Henry Harrison, Intellectual
Contents vii Giant and Free-Lance Educator 432 . Errzest Everett Just, Pioneer in Biol­ogy 443 . Arthur A. Schomburg, "The Sherlock Holmes of Negro History" 449' Henry Ossawa Tanner, Foremost Modern Painter of Religious Subjects 455 . George Washington Carver, Agricultural Wizard of Tuskegee 462 . Jack Johnson, World Heavyweight Champion and Demolisher of "The White Hope" 474 . Matthew Alexander Henson, First Mortal to Stand on the Top of the World 490' Roland Hayes, Poor Factory Boy Who Became a World­famed Singer 499 . Carter G. Woodson, Pioneer in Negro History and Education 508 . Paul Robeson, Intellectual, Musical, and Histrionic Prodigy 513 . Charles Clinton Spaulding, Financial Genius and Insurance Magnate 521 . Marian Anderson, "The Voice of the Century" 524 . Joe Louis, the Superman of the Prize Ring 530
ADDITIONAL GREAT MEN OF COLOR
Commentary 537 . Great Men of Color in Brief: Egypt, Ancient and Modern

538 . Arabia and Eastern Islam 539 . Saudi Arabia 541 . Africa 541 . Ancient Rome 546 . Eastern Roman Empire 547 . Spain 547 . Portugal 548 . Italy 549 . Russia 549 . England: Robert Browning's Negro Ancestry 550 . Austria 551 . Germany 552 . France 552 . Haiti 554 . Brazil 556 . Nicaragua 558 . The United States 558 . References 564

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