Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012

Felicia OPARA, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Felicia OPARA, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

This article deals with colonialism and post colonial effort on the overall development of education in Africa. The paper is in two parts, the first part discusses colonial policies and educational development dating back to the 19th century, while the dawn of independence in Africa and the challenges covers the second part. This paper points out the antagonistic nature of colonialism which is reflected in their educational programmes and policies irrespective of the different approach in education work. It is worthy to note that, at the introduction of western education in Africa, the colonialists focused their attention, resources and energy on disintegration of the African society (scramble and partition of Africa (1884-1885). In all, Africans suffered marginalization, disparity,inter-denominational rivalries, discrimination in the colonial education systems. During this period, the colonial attitude was to promote liberal education with limited number of craftsmen, teachers, and other minor functionaries needed for the service of the colonial administration and the missions; but serious education was not embarked upon. Thus, the paper discovered that the motive of the colonialists and the missionaries was to use education as an effective tool to bring full Christian culture and language of civilization to fight the African culture and there was clash of cultures. Therefore, each colonial power employed its educational policies and practices to achieve these objectives. The second part of the paper x –rays the post colonial attempts at bringing education to the door post of Africans. By 1940’s, the colonial government experienced changes in ideas and attitudes and their attention shifted from the Christian missionaries to native authorities, education authorities, and their committees as legal and official partners in the, development and establishment of primary and post-primary schools. These changes were brought about by these movements namely: the anti-slavery movement, radicalism, assimilation and evangelism. From a historical standpoint, it was noted that assimilation policy gave rise to the nationalistic demand for social, economic and political take over in France and British Territory. At the dawn of independence in (1950-1960) African leaders saw education as a demanding task that must be accomplished. These African intellectuals called for a re-appropriation of the colonial forms of education to rediscover the roots of African identity. In view of the above, the paper further reviewed a number of literature, portraying the state and trend of the situation in African education, as well as the various revelations and lamentations that African traditional education should be re-appropriated, while at the same time responding to the needs of living successfully in post colonial and global times. Thus, historical research method was adopted for this study, relying heavily on the primary and secondary sources of data collection. Findings revealed that indigenous education in response to the meaning and demands of emergent situations in Africa is needed, it concludes that the post colonial notion of hybridity and creativity appropriate to the traditional education in Africa and Nigeria, in particular theorizing the curriculum and pedagogy in post colonial, post war and global times is necessary.

Jeudi / Thursday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 5189

1.5. Réseaux internationaux et organisations: formation de modèles d'éducation mondiale / International networks and organizations: designing models of world education

Chair: António NÓVOA

Educational Development in Nigeria: The Role of International Governmental and Non- Governmental Organisations

Eunice Modupeola OYETADE, Micheal Otedola College of Primary Education, Noforija, Epe, Lagos state, Nigeria; Joseph OGUNNIYI, Micheal Otedola College of Primary Education, Noforija, Epe, Lagos state, Nigeria

Education is indeed a tool for character training and molding. Sound education develops in the recipients’ position attitudes and changes their behaviours for the better. Through education, students learn to listen to others and to respect their views and opinions. In school also, learners are trained to embrace dialogue as a way of resolving differences instead of taking up arms, in order to contribute their quota to the stability and unity of the nation. Education has become one of the most important instruments for the attainment of rapid socio-economic, political, scientific and technological development in modern societies. In fact there is usually a high correlation between the overall level of development of any given society and system of education ( Samuel 1996). At the nation level, for building a united, independent and wealthy egalitarian society which is capable of maintaining its traditions and values. This paper traces the history of educational development in Nigeria and the role played by international governmental and non-governmental organizations like the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF), United States Agency for International Development (USAID), African Union (AU) and the United Nations Education and Scientific Organisation (UNESCO) in the development of education in Nigeria . The paper looks at the characteristics of formal, informal and non-formal education. It stresses the nature and importance of education and also discusses the process, forms and systems of education in Nigeria. Suggestions on how to move the educational sector in Nigeria forward are also highlighted.

Pedagogic Curriculum Encapsulation within Cultural Transfer as a Mode of Internationalization of Education in Nigeria: The Resultant Philosophical Hybridization and Synthesization

Don NWOSU, Kwara State University, Ilorin, Nigeria; James AKARAONYE, Federal College of Education, Owerri, Nigeria; Alice JEKAYINFA, University of Ilorin, Nigeria

The paper at hand examined the phenomena by which teacher education curriculum was transmitted to Nigeria under cover of cultural transfer within the sixty-eight year era, 1932 – 2000. The need for convenient and effective treatment required a break down of the study period into five segments characterized by appropriate events/phenomena, viz: 1) 1932–1960: Wholesale British politico-economic, and socio-cultural transfer; 2) 1961–1976: Indigenous and Euro-American diffusion of earlier British cultural transfer (mediated by local problems/needs); 3) 1977–1988: Hybridization of military force and Nigerian sovereign needs; 4) 1989–2000: Globalized and Reinforced Hybridization (especially through UNESCO; JICA, etc); 5) The Aftermath, 2001 and later: Philosophical Hybridization-Synthesization, Developmentalism, SARACUM, Holisticism. The approach adopted for the study was the historical method. Considerable use was made of British colonial documents, official Nigerian government papers, documents of various higher institutions, and documents of United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Archival materials at National Archives located in Ibadan and Kaduna were also found very helpful. The materials included colonial government documents and newspapers that constituted the major battle grounds for what has been described as the “Curriculum War” of the period (Nwosu, 1990). One of the things that stand out from the study is that the years 1932-1960 marked the era when British authority held sway over the totality of the Nigerian society. One corollary emerging from this is wholesale transfer of the British curriculum within the prevalent British culture, except as modified by the British colonial officers on the spot in the country. The third and fourth segment of the study period portrayed a situation where military rule was entrenched, hybridization emerged and was reinforced with continued military rule, widened and indeed globalized/universalized, thanks to UNESCO guidance. UNESCO programmes like Education for All (EFA), 2000 with curricular implications across different levels, and more particularly the 1998 UNESCO conference on higher education brought about curriculum transfer and diffusion in Nigerian teacher education. Again these are well mirrored in relevant curricular content and objectives (NUC-1989, 2007), (NCCE, 2002). A major discovery of the study is that by the time the 21st century was ushered in, Nigeria had not only gone through some fundamental curriculum transfer, diffusion and innovation, but also evolved new philosophies, Developmentalism and Holisticism. And what is more, this has been through a process of hybridization and synthesization. By these twin processes, Nigeria has become the nursery of Developmentalism and Holistic Globalism (Holisticism). Developmentalism proclaims that “Education is the instrument par excellence for national development” (NERDC, 1981). For its part, Holisticism enunciates the theory of “Education of the Whole Person for the Whole World, Education of the Total Person to be a Global Citizen” (Nwosu, 1990, 2006, 2010).

Internationalizing Adult Literacy Education in Nigeria:An Assessment of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 1946-2010

Moses Sunday JAYEOLA-OMOYENI, Dept of Continuing Education, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria; Adegboyega Isaac AJAYI, Dept of History, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria

Once in every twelve years Unesco had since 1949 started series of International Conferences known as CONFINTEA, following the French version of the “Conférences Internationales sur l’éducation des adultes” (Hinzen, 2010). All the conferences had specific priorities to the development of adult education and adult literacy as influenced and inspired by the historical contexts of the various nations. The introduction of western or european education by the Christian missionaries from 1842 in Nigeria led to many adults becoming illiterates in the 3rs ”reading, ‘riting and ‘rithmetic”, in the newly introduced roman alphabets and prints. The early attempt to provide some meaningful directions for adult literacy education was deficient because the schools thus established to provide basic literacy education were not adequate. The available primary schools were not properly planned to accommodate school-age children in the various communities. Thus, there was an army of unschooled children who later became adult illiterates at adulthood. In the attempt to allow the school-age children to attend schools, the available primary schools fenced the adults out of the schooling system only for a few of the adults to attend Christian “Sunday schools” before some of them could become semi-literates. The high rate of illiteracy among the adults in the new form of western education reached an alarming proportion before the end of the Second World War. The effort made by government to wipe out adult illiteracy in Nigeria, led to the British Colonial government to launch a Mass Literacy Campaign in 1946 when the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was established. This was done not only to sensitize the stark illiterate people towards becoming literate but to wipe out illiteracy in the country as a policy. This early effort of government according to Fafunwa (1982) failed to achieve any appreciable success because of many factors ranging from inadequate funding to lack of political will to back the campaign to achieve the desired objectives. Unesco, which is one of the United Nations Organization’s agencies, is specialized in helping countries to work together in areas of education, science and culture. One of the main aims of Unesco is ensuring that everyone in the world has free access to education and must be able to read and write especially in the language of their environments. This article analyses the contributions and impacts of Unesco’s various International Conferences and activities on adult literacy as it affected Nigeria between 1946 and 2010, especially in bringing the high rate of adult illiteracy in Nigeria into international focus. It discusses the trends, prospects, and challenges in the promotion of adult literacy education, and suggests the way forward to eliminate illiteracy and all that were associated with illiteracy and to achieve Education For All in Nigeria by the Unesco’s world target year 2015 as it is done in the other countries of the world.

Models and Elements of the Role of Head Teachers in School

Maria del Mar GALLEGO GARCIA, University of Malaga (UMA), Spain

Currently, aspects of the organization and functioning of management teams are evolving from their duties as a result of the training they receive during the teaching period. In this sense, the roles of head teachers in schools are undergoing profound changes in most member countries of both the EU and the countries of the European Free Trade Association and the European Economic Area. In Spain, from the standpoint of quality education, we face new challenges because “it is a key factor in our country’s development and a major challenge for teaching. Their improvement has to do largely with the proper management of schools, something that has been widely studied in recent decades". But what do we mean by head teachers? Are they merely a legal representative or do their duties and obligations go beyond that? By taking a closer look at the current legislation in Spain, in order to discuss the organization and operation of a school, we see certain aspects that are intended to provide a stable framework of reference. In this case, the most important basic principles of education are: the requirement to provide quality education to all citizens of both genders at all levels of education (equality and equity); the need for all components of the education community to work together to achieve that goal (effort from the educational community); a determined commitment to educational aims set by the EU for the coming years. The fundamental educational objectives established by the European Union and UNESCO are as follows: a) To improve the quality and effectiveness of education systems and training, this involves: improving teacher training, developing skills for the society, ensuring access to information and communication technologies for everybody. b) To facilitate widespread access to education and training systems, which involves building an open learning environment to help make learning more attractive and promote active citizenship. c) Open these systems to the outside world, which requires strengthening links with working life, increasing exchanges and mobility, and strengthening European cooperation. The motivations that lead me to develop my work are related to the conviction of the importance of exchanging views and practices in action within professional groups involved in equivalent performance, so as to facilitate reflective processes on my own practice.

Kant’s Influence on World Peace and Unesco’s Role on World Education: Mexico’s Impact

Isaias RIVERA, Tecnologico de Monterrey (ITESM), Mexico

History has taught us that the closer humans come together the more they influence each other’s ideas. The growing interdependence of human actions in history has influenced the creation of a structure that regulates human interaction. Rights are the set of ideas that establish rules among men and the actions that bring them together. The idea of peace is practiced by sovereign individuals, together these individuals make formulas that render rights in society and propagate peace among peoples. Throughout Immanuel Kant’s political writings, the idea of autonomy and men being free is manifested as a right. However, societies regardless of their periphery or core status have needed a body of regulation that dictates respect among one another. The enormous task of integrating individuals and ideals together has been assigned to education. As education has progressed, information has expanded and human rights have come to be understood. The quest for peace as the end of all hostilities is a political process that requires all participants to first seek a ground for education. As a direct result of World War I, from 1920 to 1946 the first mechanical attempt at world order existed under the name of The League of Nations. Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles approximately twenty two or twenty nine Nation States (depending on technicalities) united to seek possible solutions to territorial and unconcluded peace treaty issues that previous international quarrels had created. One of the League’s bodies was the Committee for Intellectual Co-operation which is the ancestor of the now known United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), made initial efforts to present a cosmopolitan view based on educational-based activities. After much struggle the League of Nations project collapses but not without paving the initial road to UNESCO´s realization in November 16, 1945. This paper will examine how Kant´s philosophy has been used and interpreted by UNESCO and how UNESCO has influenced education in Mexico. It is my understanding that Kant´s philosophical and political reflection and his quest for mankind’s advancement through reason and autonomy had a great influence in the creation of modern education and its focus on justice and human rights. Even though the League of Nations and thereafter the UN were created about one hundred thirty years after Kant’s death, the reflection of perpetual peace and cosmopolitan view have great parallel ideologically to that of the world order presented by the international institutions mentioned here. UNESCO’s ideology is strongly based on the purpose of developing a universal moral standard of value. It is my belief that Kant’s idea for world peace is a blueprint for the basis of UNESCO’s model for world education.

Jeudi / Thursday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 1130

1.6. Symposium [Part 1]. Université et formation des enseignants / University and teachers' education

[Part 2: session 2.15.]

Coordinator(s): Diana Elvira SOTO ARANGO; Thérèse HAMEL

Discussant: José Rubens LIMA JARDILINO

The symposium about “University and teachers´ education” aims at analyzing the history and the prospective factors of the teachers´ education since the university as institution, with the question: What impact did university exert since the teacher´s education in the cultural-educational transformation in the education of the politic leaders, the leadership of the scientific-technologic, the nations´ training and if the universities, since the faculties which train teachers, have the ability, from the autonomy and the freedom of thought, to investigate and to innovate and train the generation of teachers that will lead the cultural educational changes of the changeable society of the 21st century? To the university he is admitted inside its socio-political, local, national and international context as the trainer of the personnel that directs the society with a few spaces of political power and it structures practices of political cultures. The educator is analyzed as a social actor in spaces of local and national power. One will connect the educators' forming powers with the trends of the scientific - educational advanced thought of the epoch. In addition, we must indicate that the educator's concept is assimilated as «the specialist in the educational activity and pedagogic work, but they added other concepts as intervention in politic, intellectual, social and professional in this area”.

The Construction of Hope/Utopia in training in Central training People in Paraná (Brasil)

Alvori AHLERT, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná - UNIOESTE, Brasil

The objective of this research is to rescue the question of hope/utopia that moves people linked to the Centro de Formação Urbano-Rural Irmã Araújo - CEFURIA of Curitiba - PR in the process of popular education developed in and through this center. The methodological approach follows the research group involved in research on the CEFURIA through a participatory research. Based on a dialogue process, we start from the principle that researchers have only a part of knowledge, which in comparison with the research subjects is complemented with the knowledge and truths and construction of new knowledge. This means a process of exchange and mutual education between researcher and researched. At first it discusses the research hope as a concept/category in popular education, developed by the CEFURIA. The investigations are based on the participation of dialogue and evaluation reports and analysis frameworks produced by the research team at the Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos – UNISINOS and documents produced by the CEFURIA, especially in the work CEFURIA: 25 anos fazendo história popular, Ana Inês Souza. As theoretical framework, we chose the works of Jürguen Moltmann, Ernst Bloch, Paulo Freire, Alfonso Torres Carrillo e Danilo Streck. The research showed that hope/utopia is a concept/category that pervades the entire trajectory of CEFURIA and represents the quest for building socialism, understood as a society, just, fraternal and democratic. In CEFURIA, hope is a category since its inception and has followed along its path of progress and setbacks, crises and achievements. [...] The origin of the popular struggle are the real problems experienced by the people, its beginning or its onset, is given by militant intervention of people who can not live with social injustices. That by understanding its causes, indignant and begin to work to overcome them. Some of these people do it for political conviction, others moved by faith, others are still engaged in popular struggle by both forces - faith and politics»(Souza). Hope does not deny the difficulties and impossibilities, but at the same time, it pulls people from their inertia and sets in motion. Jürgen Moltmann sees hope in the ability to cope with everything that is either static and inert. Lets hope for him to see the movement of things and the possibilities of change. Therefore, a hope and a thought that is not a utopia in the sense of a "no place", but that guide to what "has no place" and that may have it. Conclude that for CEFURIA not about waiting for a pure waiting. But a hot standby (Freire). Freire reminds us that the ontological necessity of hope needs to be articulated with practice. So the document that served as the analysis deals with the challenges of CEFURIA for these hopes become concreteness (Souza). So all of the historical trajectory of CEFURIA is marked by the pursuit of a great utopia: the hope of building socialism, understood as a society, just, fraternal and democratic.

La réforme de l'éducation supérieure en Equateur (2010). Le modèle polytechnique revisité?

María Cristina CARDENAS, Universidad de Cuenca, Équateur

L’histoire de l’Équateur nous renseigne sur des projets d’État, société et éducation que les gouvernements ont promus dès la colonie jusqu’au XXe siècle et le debut du XXI. Vers la moitié du XIXe siècle, la formation universitaire du pays n’arrivait pas à dépasser l’enseignement centré sur l’entraînement religieux des futurs fonctionnaires de la burocratie de l’État, et la société équatorienne de l’époque semblait ancrée dans le passé. Il fallait construire une nation capable de surmonter l’ignorance généralisée et le manque de techniciens capables d’appliquer leurs connaissances. Dans le but de changer cette situation et de former les ingénieurs et les techniciens qui pourraient faire sortir le pays de la société agricole et artisanale, le Président Gabriel García Moreno a supprimé l’Université Centrale de Quito et le 27 août 1869 il a fondé la Escuela Politécnica Nacional (plus connue aujourd’hui comme la “Primera Escuela Politécnica”) en s’inspirant du modèle polytechnique européen de l’époque (Allemagne, Suisse, France). Le Président a donc fait appel à la Compagnie de Jésus (1870) et lui a confié la mission de l’Escuela Politécnica Nacional en matière de formation des futurs hauts responsables du développement du pays. Il fallait passer de la république “utopique” à la république “pratique”, un changement qui renforcerait à la fois la qualité scientifique de la formation et l'apprentissage pratique du métier. Le positivisme de la science privilégiait l’utilité pratique de l’innovation en fonction des intérêts politiques, économiques, sociaux et culturels de la société. À la mort de García Moreno en 1875, l’Escuela Politécnica a dû fermer ses portes. Cependant et malgré sa courte durée, le modèle polytechnique est resté un idéal de qualité pour la formation supérieure des jeunes en Équateur. Au début du XXIe siècle, le gouvernement de l’Équateur a décidé d’entreprendre la réforme la plus récente de l’université équatorienne. En 2010, la nouvelle Loi Organique de l’Enseignement Supérieur (LOES) déclare que l’éducation supérieure doit répondre à la planification nationale et au régime de développement, a la prospective de développement scientifique, humanistique et technologique mondial. Les actions et les résolutions prises par le gouvernement jusqu’à présent conduisent à former des docteurs ingénieurs et techniciens destinés à diriger les transformations de la société en termes de création d’une burocratie experte et d’une éducation générale pour le «bien vivre» (buen vivir) acheminé vers une société autocentrée. Les humanités et les sciences sociales ne sont pas particulièrement appréciées. On pourrait dire que la comparaison entre deux temps chronologiques et historiques serait d’utilité pour avancer une hypothèse sur le rôle de l’université équatorienne vers la moitié du XXIe siècle. Dans les transformations que connaissent aujourd’hui les sociétés latino-américaines, l’institution universitaire a un rôle essentiel à jouer pour accompagner, ou parfois initier, les évolutions contemporaines et assumer pleinement sa mission de création et de diffusion des connaissances, mais aussi pour engager la réflexion, anticiper et contribuer à un développement durable de la société de la connaissance au sens plein du concept.

The rural teacher in Colombia (XXth and XXIst centuries). Life stories and University educational intervention

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