Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012

Gianfranco BANDINI, University of Florence; Faculty of Education, Italy

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Gianfranco BANDINI, University of Florence; Faculty of Education, Italy

After the Second World War and during the difficult years of material and social reconstruction in Italy, the school system remained fundamentally the same as that created by fascism. Not only the organisation and general management of the schools, but the culture among the teachers and headmasters was strongly linked to the past and an idealist concept of education. The birth of the Cooperative Education Association - MCE (in 1951), which was directly inspired by Célestin Freinet’s work, represented the cultural renewal of schools, both in terms of the didactical method and, above all, the theory of education and its relationship with society. Freinet’s opinion, together with that of Dewey and American progressive education, made people think of the school as an institution with democratic education as its main objective. Above all, Freinet's communitarian and popular ideal allowed Italian teachers to leave the vestiges of state employees, who obey ministerial orders, to do those of intellectuals, who aspire to make a contribution to improve the living conditions of marginalised classes. The hardship of the situation in schools was felt by the teachers who found themselves immersed in a repetitive, bureaucratic scholastic routine, apparently neutral in its severe meritocratic selection but in reality strongly ideologised and unequal. The Freinetian philosophy brought about a willingness to change. There was a need for simple didactic methods but also “forms of real education”, strong theoretical and operational appeal, to act and reconnect all the things that the school had severed in time: community life, the sense of work, the thoughts and the world of children, communication and educational exchange between teachers. Therefore, the communitarian and popular ideal left room for many activities that were decidedly different to rote-learning, teacher-centred lessons and studying from a textbook. “Class-walks”, printing, free text and discussion and interscholastic correspondence all met the fundamental needs of the child: creativity, the possibility to express one’s opinions, physical activity and contact with the real world. The contrast with the middle class culture and the lay concept of the educational and political inspiration of Freinet's pedagogy were the reasons for its success among Italian teachers. These teachers developed a version that was well-tuned to the founder's intentions, where were gradually updated depending on the new social, economic and cultural frameworks that the school encountered. Nevertheless, the diffusion and efficacy of these characteristics were limited. The laboratory cooperative approach was a significant yet minor part that was isolated from Italian teaching and it was not able to past the confines of primary school. Towards the end of the twentieth century, this became an experience that could not regain the momentum and international dimension of its origins. This line of evolution will be retraced on the basis of three different types of sources: pedagogical literature, the Cooperative Education Association-MCE’s publications and the biographies of Freinetian educators.

The Case of Scholar group Dom Benevides: Dialoguing with North American and European Models

Taciana SANTANA, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto - UFOP, Brasil; Fernanda MOTTA, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Brasil; Juliana HAMDAN, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Brasil

The present research Project aims to investigate how the School Group Dom Benevides, created in 1909, in Mariana – historic city in the State of Minas Gerais – appropriated the pedagogical ideas in circulation in the period in relation to the guidelines of the intuitive method, moving from the 1930 to the guidelines of the educational reform movement, led by the “Pioneers of the New School”, as they were later know. It’s noteworthy that this movement obtained a great highlight in this State and was attended by intellectuals such as Firmino Costa (1887-1939) and Francisco Campos (1891-1968). During this period, in Minas Gerais, there was an increase on the access of translated works of international authors. This broadening facilitated the circulation of ideas and the formation of a repertoire that explicit discussions between educators of Minas Gerais and North America, such as Norman Calkins and John Dewey (1859-1952), and European ones, such as Pestalozzi (1746-1827), Claparède (1873-1940), among others. In this regard, we identified several aspects of this debate in the educational laws of the state during the creation of the School Group Dom Benevides – on the current João Pinheiro’s legislation in 1906 and Francisco Campos’ legislation on the years 1927 and 1932. In this sense, an analysis is being done in the period between 1909 and 1932, through documents of that institution, which is already partially scanned, making a connection between the ideas of this period. At the present time of this project we’re dedicating to review the literature as a subsidy analysis. So, we intended to investigate, during this research, school practices of that institution well as the treatment that the reform gave the teaching-learning process; the way this school group applied the legal orientations about the teaching methods and the means of evaluate student learning; the situation of the teachers who were already in action during the transition of the education policies to that group of school; the way the teaching methods fit in a didactic perspective, as well as the means by which such teaching methods were appropriated by that institution, in view of the impacts produced by these practices in the school.

The foreign influence and the Francisco Campos Reform in Minas Gerais/Brasil during the 1926-1930 period

Maria do Carmo DE MATOS, Universidade do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil; Ana Amélia BORGES DE MAGALHÃES LOPES, Universidade do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil

During the 1926/1930 period an educational reform based on the ideas of the movement New Education was started in Minas Gerais/Brasil, highly influenced by American and European methods, especially in the preparation and training of teachers. In the context of a liberal government which wanted to innovate and promoted several reforms the role of education would be to prepare the citizens for an urban life and productive work; only through education would it be possible to modernize society and achieve progress. However, until it took its place as a strategy for social renovation within the Francisco Campos Reforms, education and teacher training were directed by other conceptions based on different arguments and purposes, influencing how the new propositions were interpreted and assimilated at different levels and by teachers. Since the Imperial period public education was regarded as an important strategy for the education of the people and the construction of a National State. Based on the New Education ideas as a pedagogical argument, the guidelines of the Reform blended new conceptions to strategies for the “moralization” of the population, orienting education and teacher training since the creation of the first college for teachers in the State of Minas Gerais, in 1835. Great importance was attributed to the training of teachers and for this purpose it was planned the Escola de Aperfeiçoamento, founded in 1929, which had the participation of Brazilian professors previously trained in the United States and European professors, invited by Francisco Campos. The Escola de Aperfeiçoamento had a mix of different theoretical perspectives; its staff included professors of the European line, others of the American line, besides a heavy influence of the Catholic Church. The analysis of the situation was sufficient to the perception that political conceptions and educational practices are complex processes, resulting from a mix of influences and interdependencies also at the school level. Policies and propositions at the different levels of the educational system go through processes of recontextualization, associating with existing conceptions and are resignified by hybridization processes. In this process it was important the way how the new propositions were interpreted and assimilated, especially the conceptions derived from external pedagogical movements, American as well as European. Besides the concern with the educational reality in Minas Gerais, different theoretical approaches became evident within the group of professors trained abroad, denoting some autonomy and even resistance to the official rules.

Samedi / Saturday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 3393

7.5. L'Institut Rousseau: impacts et réseaux globaux / The Rousseau Institute: global impacts and networks


Albert Malche et la circulation des idées pédagogiques dans les années 30: aux origines de la réforme académique de l’Université d’Istanbul

Gunce BERKKURT, Université Paris Ouest-Nanterre, France

Cette communication porte sur l’histoire croisée des échanges intellectuels internationaux et du projet de modernisation turque, autour du thème de la circulation des idées pédagogiques dans la période de l’entre-deux-guerres. Il s’agira d’analyser les conditions historiques d’institutionnalisation des réseaux pédagogiques transnationaux et nationaux, en particulier universitaires, en mettant l’accent sur l’action du pédagogue suisse, Albert Malche, qui devient l’expert de la réforme universitaire turque de 1933. Nous allons d’abord traiter la trajectoire d’Albert Malche au carrefour des milieux cosmopolites à la fois politique et universitaire avant et après sa mission en Turquie, pour mieux restituer son action dans la République kémaliste. L’étude de la correspondance privée et officielle de Malche avec les personnages politiques et universitaires genevois, réalisée à partir de plusieurs fonds d’archives et de bibliothèques de Genève, révèle sa double carrière: parallèlement à ses fonctions dans l’enseignement à l’Université de Genève, il fait une carrière politique au sein de l’appareil du Parti radical. Il a également des charges administratives dans le Département de l’instruction publique de l’Etat de Genève, avant d’être élu à la tête de celui-là en 1927. Sa position administrative lui permet d’être à l’origine de plusieurs entreprises de réformation de l’enseignement dans le canton de Genève, à tous les niveaux. En outre, sa prise de position en faveur de la Géorgie contre l’emprise de l’URSS, dans le cadre de la Société des Nations lui permet de côtoyer les réseaux philanthropes transnationaux. Ensuite, l’importation de la référence à Albert Malche dans les confrontations pour l’orientation des politiques publiques en Turquie sera mise en perspective. Les usages des nouvelles idées en matière des politiques éducatives prennent également leur sens à travers l’histoire du groupe qui tend à les imposer. Partant d’une démarche prosopographique, il s’agit notamment de souligner l’action d’un groupe de pédagogues turcs, diplômés de l’Institut Jean-Jacques Rousseau, qui jouent le rôle principal dans la mise en place des politiques éducatives du gouvernement kémaliste autour des années 1930. Ainsi, se pose la question de savoir comment des transactions entre différents types d’acteurs (académiques, philanthropes, etc.) engagés dans un espace transnational peuvent contribuer à façonner des politiques nationales comme la réforme scolaire, avant que celle-ci ne prenne la forme particulière d'une action gouvernementale.

From Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute to Brazil: Twenty-Seven Lessons to Be Learned from Mme Artus Perrelet

Yolanda LOBO, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

This paper investigates the influx into Brazil of the ideas originated from Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute, more specifically the theory of "schematic universe" designed by Mme Artus Perrelet, an educator with Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute. Perrelet came to Brazil in 1929 on an appointment with the government of Minas Gerais State to deliver teacher development courses within the “New School” framework. In 1931, within the aims of her assignment, Perrelet went to Rio de Janeiro where she taught twenty seven lessons on Design, Modeling and Educational Games between March and June of the same year. One of her students, a design teacher with the Teacher Preparatory School of the Federal District, Cecilia Meireles, published an article at the “Education Column” of the newspaper “Diario de Noticias” outlying the general features of such course, aiming to provide the teachers with food for thought about the educational reform that was unfolding then. Driven by her commitment towards educational reform, Cecilia Meireles inaugurated the “Education Page” as a tool to promote the debate on various teaching issues and on the development of mass education. That was the time of an educational rebirth in Brazil whose objectives were to recap on the baseline characteristics of free wheel thinking, open-mindedness, encouragement to observation and critique, fearless experimentation, and undaunted action that would lead people to turn down preconceived ideas and bias. The ideals that moved the “New School”, however, translated into hard undertakings. The ruling powers acting upon the logics of the educational field fiercely opposed to change and they were the ones that set forth what each education agent was or was not allowed to doing at each point in time. The major features of such dynamics were that the same forces that ruled the educational dynamics were fighting each other for the supreme power and could, therefore, change any time. The lessons taught by Perrelet played the fundamental role of creating a news aesthetics that would shape the new education. For her, in what refers the development of an individual, poetry – that goes beyond the art of building verses to stand for the very essence of art – is the utmost intelligence to be nurtured. A piece of art always follows a given conceptual line which leads inspiration through the rational final piece of work. Such line of though can be challenged when one listens to a piece of literature or music or stares at a sculpture or a picture with a clean-slate soul. Such conception and its method and evaluation framework that allowed individuals to develop their full potential clashed against the teaching model in force then for the teaching of design in Brazil and for the reproduction of sketching lines, although they converged into the renovation and revamping movement that geared education and architecture in Brazil. Evidence of the influence of Perrelet’s ideas can be seen in the teaching of primary school, and especially in the School of Fine Arts at the University of Brazil.

Edouard Claparède et la résonance scientifique de ses idées dans la psychologie et la pédagogie italiennes

Carlo TROMBETTA, Università «La Sapienza» Roma, Italy

La lecture attentive des manuscrits conservés à la Bibliothèque de Genève (BGE) et dans les archives de la famille de Morsier et de la Fondation Institut Rousseau, ainsi que le dépouillement de la revue “Archives de Psychologie” nous apprennent que Claparède a eu beaucoup de contacts personnels et épistolaires avec des psychologues, des pédagogues et des hommes de culture italiens. En dépit de cela, l’influence de sa pensée a été relativement faible. Devant cette constatation, on se demandera pourquoi il en a été ainsi. Faute d’études spécifiques, qui demandent d’ultérieurs approfondissements, on ne peut formuler que des hypothèses. Sur le versant psychologique, la pensée de Claparède se situe sur des positions diverses de celles de nos spécialistes en la matière; d’une part, parce que ceux-ci étaient influencés par le positivisme, par le courant de Wundt et par le gestaltisme, alors que l’école de Genève suivait d’autres voies, et d’autre part, parce que ses études paraissaient éclectiques et, peut-être, trop peu le fruit de véritables recherches de laboratoire, bien que ses travaux sur l’orientation professionnelle et sur la pensée aient été jugés, plus tard, fondamentaux, la traduction de ce dernier ayant été faite longtemps après. A cela il faut ajouter la présence de composantes de type idéologique, contraires aux demandes de deux grands psychologues italiens: Ponzo et Gemelli. Une autre hypothèse a trait à la traduction italienne de ses œuvres: traductions seulement des ouvrages de caractère éducatif ou tout au plus psychopédagogique. Et c’est peut-être aussi pour cette raison que la pensée de Claparède n’a pas eu l’approbation et l’écho qu’elle méritait. Sur le versant pédagogique, divers éléments de type politique (fascisme) et idéologique (idéalisme et surévaluation des expériences scolaires italiennes) ont peut-être empêché de faire connaître sa pensée. Ce n’est qu’avec l’avènement de la République que l’on a «découvert» Claparède, encore que cette découverte se soit limitée au rôle qu’il a joué dans le mouvement de l’école active.

Women at the Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute and his impact on the Spanish pedagogical reform

María POVEDA, Complutense University, Spain; Teresa RABAZAS, Complutense University, Spain

The Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute, center for research in education, has been an international center for all education professionals. From the field of history of education there have been several studies on its influence and the role it has played in twentieth-century pedagogy, although lacking further study of its dissemination in Spain. Specifically, our country has been one of the most frequently been visited by teachers who were awarded scholarships by a Spanish institution, called the Board for expansion of scientific studies (Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios e investigaciones científicas-JAE, 1907). However, the presence of some female teachers and the transfer of training in Spanish pedagogy of the first third of the twentieth century hasn’t been studied in depth. This question is the main objective of this paper. The JAE pensioned 700 professionals specializing in educational pedagogy to various European research centers, of which 86 women representing various professions in the field of education: teachers, inspectors, regular teachers, university assistant professors. The number of women who visited the Institute is greatly reduced. In this paper we analyze the important presence of women at the Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute in the first third of the twentieth century. Distinguished women as Concepción Otero, Rosa Sensat, Maria Luisa Navarro, Regina Lago, Dolores or Mercedes Rodrigo Gonzalez Blanco, were pioneers in a long way to go towards equality of opportunity for Spanish society.

Samedi / Saturday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 5193

7.6. Santé et éducation physique: influences extérieures et produtions nationales / Health and physical education: foreign influences and national productions

Chair: Véronique CZAKA

Health education concepts in Europe and the impact of international trends on Hungarian education in the 19th century

Henriette PUSZTAFALVI, University of Pécs Faculty of Health Sciences, Hungary

Health education has provided a systematic knowledge of the middle ages found in written records. Like other European countries, in Hungary the knowledge of theologians, priests, and doctors was the source of knowledge. The 19th century brought significant changes because the emerging network of schools (compulsory schooling) has raised the need that education has to concentrate on preserving the health of children. Modernizing societies emerged after each other formulated new demands against kids, school, and health. My research aim is to find and identify those trends, ideas, and correlations within the institutional framework of health education operating in the 19th century, which determined the European and Hungarian health education system. Materials and methods: The primary and secondary sources, with Hungarian and foreign materials, documents, books, bulletins, brochures, magazines - was carried out by exploration, evaluation, correlation analysis, document analysis of my educational and medical history research. Results and conclusion: The institution of school was suitable for preventive function (Antal-Kapronczay). The first status examinations by school doctors were carried out in France and as a result of this, other countries also developed the examination of school children (Darányi). Due to a sharp increase in international press, almost every professional has to ascertain the emerging trends in Europe (Gracza and Kapronczay). The regularity of international conferences such as the International Conference of School Doctors also helped diffusion of knowledge between national and foreign practice. The national press reviewed foreign innovations continuously. German (S. Mannheim) and French trends as a basis of Hungarian health education fully penetrated the efforts in the 20th century. Translations of the latest concepts and new methods by Hungarian professionals were available to everyone and were adapted to the fullest. As conclusion we can say that supporting policy of a given country had significant effect on the acclimatisation of new methods and protocols. All European countries supported the dissemination of successful practices, but established a specific system in the field of health education adapted to the national characteristics. Many similarities can be seen between English (D. Clement), Hungarian and German educational practice, but in everyday practice we can explore uniqueness and elements reflecting the knowledge of the given nation. Institutional and organizational systems related to health education are fully tailored to the bureaucratic system of a given country, so that we can not see full parallels. In summary, it can be said that the Hungarian health education concept is mostly the combination of French, German and English experience. The ongoing debate between experts was continuous; however, systems were adapted to specific national characteristics.

Les origines de la Gymnastique volontaire en France, ou l’appropriation française de la gymnastique suédoise

Jean SAINT-MARTIN, Université Grenoble 1, France; Pierre-Alban LEBECQ, ILEPS, CRIS, Lyon 1

En matière de pratique physique, de santé et d’éducation, la gymnastique suédoise inventée par Per Henrick Ling au début du XIXe siècle en Suède va devenir au fil des décennies une référence en France. Par l’intermédiaire de plusieurs voyages d’étude, financés par le ministère de l’instruction publique entre 1892 et 1898, l’exemplarité suédiste va progressivement se renforcer pour devenir de plus en plus influente sous la houlette notamment du docteur Philippe Tissié et de la Ligue française d’éducation physique. Toutefois, il faut attendre les années 1940 et 1950, et une deuxième série de voyages d’étude, pour que les conceptions de la gymnastique suédoise soient réactualisées en France. Entre tradition et innovation, la Ligue française d’éducation physique, devenue Fédération française de gymnastique éducative en 1953, franchit en effet une nouvelle étape dans l’appropriation de la gymnastique suédoise en inventant la gymnastique volontaire. S’inspirant dès 1946-1949 de la frivilliga gymnastik et de la diversité de propositions en matière de gymnastique féminine au cours la seconde moitié des années 1950, la FFGE, sous l’action de Pierre Seurin et de Raymond Dinéty, va défendre le principe d’une éducation physique pour adultes. Ainsi, au milieu des trente Glorieuses, la gymnastique volontaire française s’affranchit résolument de l’éducation physique scolaire, qui devient par ailleurs de plus en plus sportive, pour intéresser un public féminin soucieux de participer à la démocratisation des loisirs corporels en France. L’objet de cette communication consistera à expliquer pourquoi jusqu’en 1972 et l’enracinement de la gymnastique volontaire en France, l’influence suédoise demeure une sorte de caution scientifique et technique pour ses partisans. Nous verrons notamment que les concepteurs suédois de gymnastique féminine animent régulièrement des stages internationaux sur le territoire français et participent ainsi au renouvellement des pratiques physiques, d’entretien et/ou de santé qui connaissent à cette époque un véritable essor pour finalement mettre en œuvre d’une manière concrète et originale une gymnastique pour toutes.

The hygienic - Pedagogic congresses in Europe: link and exchange of ideas with the community of Mexican professionals. A space of internationalization in the XIXth century

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