Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012

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Vendredi / Friday 14:30 - 16:30 Room: 2193

6.10. Circulation de modèles pour la formation des enseignants (dès 1970) / Circulation of teachers' Education models (from 1970)


The European Influence in the Secondary Education Teacher Training Model in Spain: why could not it work?

Cristina YANES, University of Seville, Spain

The secondary education had its origin in Spain in the nineteenth century. During those years, the history of Spanish education was significantly influenced by the different educational models arising across Europe. The journeys that experienced some aristocrats and notables contributed to bring some aspects of those educational models to Spain. Specifically those aspects related to teacher training that was to be regulated and organized at the legislative level during such years of the birth of the new educational level. In our opinion, this influence gave birth to the secondary education in Spain, as well as a specific teacher training model that, regrettably, was not going to be prolonged in time resulting in a scarce or null repercussion. The aim of this work is to provide a framework detailing the influences in the Spanish educational context: who and which were such influences and what level of involvement had in the Spanish context. The purpose is to show that the initial teacher training model for the secondary education level had a clear and evident process of internationalization both in its design and conceptualization. As a final conclusion, this paper states, amongst other aspects, that the birth of this educational level, as well as the conformation of the teacher training model is more due to political reasons brought by personalities influenced by European trends than to real and needed demands from the Spanish society, at difference from what really happened in other European countries.

International Networks of Teachers’ Centres: Seeking integration and change in the professional development of teachers 1970-1995

Wendy ROBINSON, University of Exeter, United Kingdom

From the late 1960s to the early 1990s teachers’ centres emerged in the UK as a popular focus for teacher professional development, bringing groups of teachers together from across a local area and offering a central forum and physical space in which teachers could access resources, meet together and engage in various professional development opportunities. Energised by new directions in curriculum development, particularly through the work of the Schools Council, and responsive to ambitions of the 1972 James Report, teachers’ centres appeared to offer a promising new conceptualisation of professional learning. This valued organic, teacher-led transformation; was responsive to local demand and expertise; and was committed to teacher autonomy. In the 1970s, when teachers’ centres were at their peak in the UK, it is estimated that there were between 500 and 600 centres operating in England and Wales. Regarded by some educationists as a distinctive ‘movement’ for democratic, practical and genuinely teacher-led professional development, but by others as incoherent, divisive and highly differentiated in terms of quality of provision, the teachers’ centres phenomenon divided professional opinion. Part of my recent study of the history of teacher professional development in England and Wales 1920-200, funded by the British Academy, has involved a critical re-evaluation of teachers’ centres. It has also uncovered evidence that the UK model influenced and was ‘adapted’ in a number of other countries, including the Netherlands, Spain, Japan, South Africa, the United States and Australia. Teachers’ centres leaders from the UK engaged in a series of study visits and exchanges with sister institutions in the US, South Africa and Europe, supported by a ‘National Conference of Teachers’ Centre Leaders’. The British Council was also influential in funding networking conferences which brought together teacher educators committed to the particular teacher-centred model of professional development that was embodied in the UK teachers’ centre model. Drawing upon new oral history testimony from former leaders of teachers’ centres, as well as previously uncovered archival material, this paper revisits the teachers’ centre model of professional development and critically evaluates its contribution to an emerging international phenomenon. It examines the nature of international exchange and ‘policy-borrowing’ in relation to teachers’ centres through different international networks. It identifies key players in the orchestration of this international networking through professional organisations and the British council. It also problematizes the implied contradictions in the idea of translating and possibly ‘transplanting’ a peculiarly UK-based, organic, teacher-led model of teacher professional development into different international contexts. In seeking to understand the nature and efficacy of the exchange of ideas about teacher professional development through the adaptation of the UK teachers’ centres model in other countries, theories of policy-transfer and policy-borrowing drawn from such comparative educationists as Phillips and Ochs (2003) will be considered. Though teachers’ centres, as they were originally conceived, have now largely disappeared from the UK teacher professional development landscape, they appear to continue to thrive in a wider international arena, particularly in the US, parts of Europe, India, Kenya, Nepal and Zambia, This raises important questions about what factors contributed to their demise in the UK and what factors currently contribute to their success in other international contexts.

The circulation of pedagogical models between France and Brazil in the late 20th century: teacher education and the role of the Instituts Universitaires de Formation de Maîtres

Belmira BUENO, University of São Paulo, Brazil; Denise SOUZA, University of São Paulo, Brazil; Isabel BELLO, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil

For 20 years the challenges of globalization and of the redefinition of national borders have been included in the debates about education, bringing about a resurgence of the interest in comparative studies between countries now and in the past. The globalization of economic, cultural and educational exchange brings into focus the existence of common educational problems. However, it is necessary to problematize the new forms of dissemination of the educational models and ideas that arise in the present contexts, considering the ruptures and differences as a problem of method. More than just identifying comparable features, the challenge placed before the historian, as stated by Détienne (2004), is now that of constructing comparable features. For that, it is necessary to construct a new understanding of the notion of "space – time" (Nóvoa, 2000), so as to better understand the displacements of ideas and models within the educational field. In what concerns teacher education, the interest in educational models has rekindled a concern that had faded during the second half of the 20th century. A model that now moves to a new level, for it no longer relates to copying or drawing inspiration from experiences of the old Normal School, but to the adoption of a model that proposes to be of a university level. This is the case of the Instituts Universitaires de Formation de Maîtres (IUFM) created in France in 1991 and of the Brazilian experiences that developed since the late 1990s with the Higher Normal course and with the experience of the "special programs". The present proposal examines the Brazilian conceptions currently present in the education of teachers during the initial years of schooling, and their theoretical and political matrices, considering the influences of external discourses upon the emergence of a new national formative model. In particular, it seeks to examine the influences of the French model of the IUFMs in Brazil in a moment when the integration of these institutes into universities is carried out, and when the mode of initial certification of French teachers is changed. To this end, it analyzes the French conceptions about teacher education, both referring the existing devices and the emergent ones (new university professional master degrees), and the reasons for their success in local discourses, both for initial education and to the in-service training of Brazilian teachers. Lastly, it presents and discusses within both contexts the education of teachers and the editorial products in circulation in Brazil and in France related to the market of teacher education that became strengthened in the end of the XX Century.

A foreign model, two itineraries, multiple local meanings: Teachers' Centers in the Spanish context

Tamar GROVES, ECYT Institute, University of Salamanca, Spain

Recent debates highlight that educational transfer has become more fractured, diffuse, and less coherent than it used to be in the past. It now occurs at the sub-national level, at the initiative of an increasing number of globally connected ‘local’ actors. This means that policy transfer no longer ‘arrives’ in a coherent, cohesive package. Taking into account the changing nature of the diffusion of educational ideas this paper attempts to explore two courses of transfer: a top down plan initiated by a national government and a bottom up educational project carried out by pedagogical social movements. These two itineraries were crucial to the constitution and functioning of Teacher Centers in Spain in the 1980s. The history of these Centers provides thus an interesting opportunity to analyze the nature of these opposing itineraries, their dialectic relationship and their interaction with the educational context they were supposed to change. In 1984 the newly elected socialist government issued a decree establishing Teacher Centers all over the country in order to open the education system to the active participation of teachers. According to the main figures behind the initiative it was an explicit attempt to import the English model into the Spanish education system. In many places these Centers were run by militants of pedagogical movements, a prominent feature of the Spanish educational panorama since the mid 1970s. The members of these movements were heavy consumers of foreign pedagogical writings, especially of educators associated with the New School movement and with what later would became known as Critical Pedagogy. By the mid 1980s they had an accumulated experience of more than a decade of applying innovative pedagogical methods in Spanish schools. Adopting a cultural/phenomenological approach in this article I wish to highlight the multiple meanings the creation of the Teachers Centers acquired and how these meanings mediated the adaptation and implementation of the new initiative in the Spanish context. I follow the civil servants who promoted their founding, the groups of teachers who created them and the teaching community which used their services. This allows me to explain how different kinds of local agents, in this case national officials on the one hand and social movements on the other hand, and their interaction with the local context contributed to the acceptance or rejection of different elements of the new educational initiative.

The Other as parameter: Teaching, Meritocracy, Quality and Internationalization of Teaching in the pages of Vega Magazine, Brazil (1996-2008)

Paula Perin VICENTINI, College of Education of the University of São Paulo (USP)/Faculdade de Educação da USP, Brazil; Alaina ALVES, College of Education of the University of São Paulo (USP)/Faculdade de Educação da USP, Brazil

We aim to analyze how Veja magazine – the most important weekly publication in Brazil – presents the education in other countries as a model for our country, targeting the internationalization of our educational system. The magazine has been published by Abril Editors since 1968, and has a printing of approximately one million copies and a great number of subscribers. The magazine has a clear editorial conception that, besides presenting articles about cultural and artistic activities, brings reports about daily life and political facts, as well as keeping a team of regular columnists, some of them dedicated to educational issues. Having as an initial mark the promulgation, in 1996, of the current Law of Guidelines and Bases of the National Education this analysis is extended until 2008, happening, thus, in a period in which countless measures were taken in order to universalize the primary school in Brazil. The 668 copies of Veja, edited during this period, were analyzed in a undergraduate research project of Scientific Initiation, by Alaina Alves, supported by State of São Paulo Research Foundation and linked to the project Teaching Profession: a study about the ways of teachers’ social recognition from 20th to 21st century, under the coordination of Paula Perin Vicentini. Having as reference the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu’s theory, it was possible to verify that Veja, aiming to justify the proposals that has been supporting to the improvement of Brazilian education, presented a greater number of reports about the excellence of other countries’ teaching system – especially: China, England, United States, Canada, Singapore, South Korea and Finland –, highlighting the measures adopted in this area that should be implemented as an example by Brazil in order to solve the problems faced in the public schools. Among those measures, there is not only the massive investment in teachers’ formation, but also the development of a meritocratic system to regulate their conquests, in order to reassure the recruiting of the best for the teaching work and give them the career progression according to their performance. The reports of higher repercussion about the excellence of the educational system in these countries – especially Korea and Finland – try to link to international parameters the project defended by the magazine to the national education, in which initiatives of valuing the teaching profession based on meritocratic criteria are understood as fundamental not only to solve the problems of the Brazilian education, but also to promote the economic growth of the country. Therefore, we may say that Veja magazine, when proposing the adoption of the educational measures by Brazil implemented by countries seen as examples in this area, has revealed itself as an important means in the support of the internationalization of the Brazilian educational system.

Vendredi / Friday 14:30 - 16:30 Room: 1130

6.11. Symposium. La dimension transnationale des réformes scolaires françaises au XIXe siècle / The international dimensions of French school reforms in the 19th century

Coordinator(s): Damiano MATASCI; Klaus DITTRICH

Discussant: Damiano MATASCI

Les contributions réunies dans ce symposium, toutes issues de jeunes chercheurs qui terminent ou ont terminé des recherches en archives, questionnent l'histoire de l'éducation en France à partir d'une perspective transnationale. L'objectif général est de contribuer à une reconsidération des réformes scolaires françaises de la deuxième moitié du XIXe siècle. Le «global turn» de la recherche historique de ces dernières années invite en effet à revisiter le passé sous l’angle des connexions, des interactions et des interdépendances entre les régions et les parties du monde. Il permet alors de repenser des problèmes historiques, de mettre en lumière des acteurs inédits, sous-évalués ou inconnus ainsi que de faire émerger des logiques jusque-là relativement négligés par l’historiographie. Le décalage chronologique relatif à l'institutionnalisation du système scolaire moderne dans plusieurs pays occidentaux, qui passe par exemple par l’introduction de la scolarité obligatoire et par la diversification des filières scolaires, enclenche un processus d'observations mutuelles entre les pays et stimule une intense circulation internationale d’idées pédagogiques et de «modèles scolaires». Les réformateurs français cherchent dans les pays étrangers des solutions susceptibles de pallier les déficits hexagonaux. L'argument international est utilisé comme un instrument de légitimation des réformes scolaires afin de combler le supposé retard de la France par rapport à ces concurrents européens. Le premier objectif de ce symposium est d’interroger les directions, les hiérarchies et les formes de la circulation internationale des idées pédagogiques promues par les réformateurs français. Voyages, missions, congrès, expositions, associations et correspondances privées contribuent à tisser un réseau transnational de contacts fort ramifiés qui facilite le transfert d'idées et de politiques éducatives d’un pays à l’autre. Plusieurs exemples et modèles scolaires s'offrent alors aux réformateurs français. Les contributions questionnent particulièrement les interactions entre la France, l'Allemagne, les Etats-Unis et la Suisse. Les acteurs seront au centre de l’attention. Certaines grandes figures de la pédagogie républicaine affichent un intérêt marqué pour l’étranger qu'il convient d’interroger et la Ligue de l'enseignement française établit également des relations avec d'autres associations étrangères. Le deuxième objectif est de mener une réflexion sur l’impact des connexions internationales et les modalités d'intégration du savoir sur l’étranger lors des réformes scolaires françaises. Si la réappropriation et la retraduction des modèles scolaires sont conditionnées par des conjonctures nationales spécifiques, ici la lutte politique entre conservateurs et républicains, il s’agit de savoir quelle est l'emprise de la sphère internationale sur les réformes françaises et comment elle façonne, structure et canalise les débats de la fin du XIXe siècle en participant simultanément à la construction même d'un modèle national.

Les contacts pédagogiques entre la France et les Etats-Unis pendant la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle: la référence américaine de l’école primaire républicaine

Klaus DITTRICH, Korea University, Seoul, South Corea

Cette contribution propose de dresser un bilan des contacts entre pédagogues français et américain pendant les dernières décennies du XIXe jusqu’à la Première Guerre Mondiale, c’est-à-dire pendant l’époque où la France discute et achève l’implémentation d’une vaste réforme scolaire avec notamment l’introduction de l’école primaire républicaine. L’article s’interroge pourquoi et comment les acteurs français entrèrent en contact avec leurs homologues américains. Basée notamment sur des rapports de missions et complétée par une documentation archivistique provenant des deux côtés de l’Atlantique, la contribution s’insère donc dans des tendances historiographiques récentes qui étudient la dimension transnationale des réformes scolaires. Dans un premier temps on abordera la période qui mène à la législation sur l’école obligatoire. Un long débat prépara en effet cette législation dès les dernières années du Second Empire. Ce débat comportait une importante référence transnationale lorsqu’un groupe de réformateurs républicains autour de Ferdinand Buisson nouait des contacts intenses avec leurs homologues américains, la génération des soi-disant “common school crusaders” qui venaient d’achever la construction de systèmes scolaires publiques dans les Etats du nord-est américain. Ces contacts qui passaient notamment par les Expositions universelles offrirent des arguments dans le débat français et contribuèrent à réconforter la position des réformateurs. Dans un deuxième temps on étudiera l’époque après l’institutionnalisation de l’école républicaine. Les acteurs français présentèrent avec orgueil leurs institutions récemment achevées. Une nouvelle génération d’administrateurs et un changement majeur des conceptions américaines de l’enseignement avec un accent sur les connaissances pratiques sont à l’origine d’un intérêt continu français dans les développements outre-Atlantique. Mais cette période se caractérise aussi par un certain désenchantement des relations pédagogiques franco-américaines qui se traduit par une compétition des modèles scolaires.

Circulation internationale des savoirs et réformes scolaires en France, 1870-1914

Damiano MATASCI, EHESS, France et Université de Genève, Suisse

Après le «tournant transnational» de la recherche historique des ces dernières années, de nombreuses études montrent l’importance des connexions internationales et l'usage intensif des références étrangères lors des réformes scolaires dans de nombreux pays occidentaux dans la deuxième moitié du XIXe siècle. La construction des systèmes scolaires modernes se nourrit de la comparaison et chaque pays trouve dans l'évolution scolaire internationale un réservoir d'exemples et de modèles. Ce papier s'intéresse plus particulièrement au processus d'internationalisation de la réforme scolaire en France entre 1870 et 1914. Il présente tout d’abord les manières à travers lesquelles les réformateurs français produisent un savoir sur l'étranger et mettent en place des connexions qui transcendent leur propre cadre national. Missions pédagogiques, congrès internationaux, expositions universelles et réseaux de correspondance sont utilisés pour constituer des faisceaux d'expertise qui accompagnent les profonds remaniements du système scolaire, notamment au niveau primaire et secondaire. Si les circulations sont multidirectionnelles et non hiérarchisées, ce papier se concentre toutefois sur un cas précis, à savoir les rapports et les contacts avec l’«Allemagne scolaire». Après la défaite de Sedan de 1870, les réformateurs français attribuent en effet à l'instituteur prussien le mérite de victoire. Il s'ensuit un vaste processus d'enquête et d'expertise de ce système scolaire qui exerce un effet structurant les débats domestiques jusqu'à la Première Guerre mondiale. Si le système scolaire allemand devient un modèle qui exerce une profonde fascination chez les réformateurs français, son application se confronte néanmoins à une série d’écueils qu’il convient de mettre en exergue. La retraduction du modèle d’outre-Rhin trouve dans le contexte politique et culturel français des obstacles dont les réformateurs sont eux-mêmes conscients. D'un point de vue méthodologique, ce papier propose une histoire sociale des acteurs qui construisent l'internationalisation de la réforme scolaire. En suivant le multipositionnement des individus à la fois sur l’échelle nationale et internationale, son objectif est d’évaluer le rôle de l'expertise internationale en tant que variable exerçant un impact sur les réformes françaises de la fin du XIXe siècle.

La pédagogie comme transfert culturel dans l'espace franco-suisse. L'itinéraire d'Alexandre Daguet (1816-1894)

Alexandre FONTAINE, Université de Fribourg et de Genève (ERHISE) & ENS-Paris, Suisse & France

L’historien et théoricien des idées éducatives Alexandre Daguet (1816-1894) personnalise un point de passage central dans les transferts pédagogiques qui s’opèrent entre la Suisse et la France au XIXe siècle. Dans l’Éducateur, l’organe de la Société des instituteurs de la Suisse romande, Daguet et ses proches collaborateurs diffusent une méthodologie métissée, conséquente des fortes rivalités comparatistes qui structurent les marchés scolaires transnationaux naissants. Si l’École primaire européenne s’érige d’abord collectivement, les spécificités sont de plus en plus exaltées lors des Expositions universelles, et les modèles «exotiques» bientôt dévalorisés au profit d’un certain génie national. Lu, consulté et primé par l’élite scolaire française, un réseau se dessine autour de ce creuset romand qui fait autorité, et dont la revue publiée en Europe fait l’objet d’emprunts et permet une large circulation des concepts hors des frontières nationales. Inversement, l’Éducateur se veut un ample réceptacle au sein duquel Daguet «essaie tout pour ne retenir que ce qui est bon». C’est donc l’essentiel de la théorie éducative du moment qui est traduite, exposée ou refoulée – formant par là même une mémoire interculturelle de la pédagogie européenne – qui sera par la suite partiellement réinterprétée pour s'assimiler au contexte d’accueil français. Dans cette contribution, nous déconstruirons quelques pans de ce réseau transnational, en nous basant sur les revues et sur la large correspondance échangée entre Daguet et la plupart des cadors de l’École de la IIIe République (F. Buisson, J. Steeg, G. Compayré, F. Pécaut, etc.). Nous éclairerons la dynamique de la circulation des idées entre les deux espaces lors de la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, en insistant sur les mécanismes d’emprunt et de resémantisation des concepts dans une perspective de transferts culturels.

The French and Belgian Education Leagues: “Transnationally National Organisations”

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