Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012

Luiz Artur dos Santos CESTARI, UESB - Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Brésil

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Luiz Artur dos Santos CESTARI, UESB - Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Brésil

This work makes part of a thesis in a doctor’s degree that has called in question the problem about the circulation of ideas in Brazilian Educational Field in order to understand the frequent announcement that an idea is in vogue. This announcement arises when an idea came to be a focus to analyze the problems in education or schools by intellectuals and became a discursive regime, using the same words to identify and say what the things are. On the one hand, I have affirmed the fad is identified when an idea becomes more important than others at a given time. On the other hand, its understanding is made by means of analyzing its diffusion when the same idea came to occupy the concerns on teachers, professors or researchers. The fads are immediately realized by repetition, in other words by the announcement of the same repetitious grounded in locus of dissemination such as scientific journals, in programs to learning teachers, in educational policies or in thesis that came from the post-graduation programs. So, the repetition of the idea is an expression way of the fads. Nevertheless, the reason to the repetition is not the same as the appropriation because the repetition of the idea in an epistemology context happens at the same time with different process. For instance, my result researches about circulation of ideas supported in my thesis in 2009 put emphasis on the repetition of autobiographical idea as an experience of formation that came from The Research-Formation Movement, arising in Europe 80’s; and how it was appropriated in many domains in Brazilian Learning Teacher Studies during 90’s and 2000’s in specific domains such as Didactics – language, mathematics, natural and society sciences – in studies concerns about identities – Gender and Ethnics issues – or in studies of disabilities, etc. Thus, I have realized researchers worried about themselves in a socialization-formative process, and speaking about the history of their lives each others. Therefore, I have two questions about it: Why does an autobiographical idea became more important than another at a given time? And, what is the reason to the diffusion of the idea in a specific scientific field? In order to answer these questions, this paper will be presented in two points. First, I will discuss the reasons to study the educational fads through the following paradox: intellectuals announce the fads in education but have the epistemology fear to include the phenomenon in their researches. This announcement came to the intellectuals’ perception of the fads in Educational Field because they were concerns about the fads but it did not sufficiently become the source to lead researches about educational fads. So, I have only found in these intellectual‘s perceptions the sentiments that have been set among the lamentation, the scorn and the indignation. Second, in order to overcome the epistemology fear I have presented an outline about the circulation of ideas in three contexts: emergence, reception and dissemination. These contexts mean that an idea arises in local, historical and epistemology context (emergence), migrate to and is received in other context (reception), and, consequently, it spread as a fad in a specific domain of knowledge (dissemination), discussing how that educational approaches and their concepts, perceptions and notions have been transferred between different historic, local and epistemological contexts.

Time and learning: a historical perspective

Fabio PRUNERI, Università degli studi di Sassari, Italy

The relationship between education and time, in its theoretical, methodological and historical aspects is a crucial aspect of the history of Western world. In comparison with social, economic and anthropological studies which have attempted to capture the importance of the passing of days and seasons, time remains a lacuna in the history of education. The lack of a deep reflection on this topic is surprising. I will examine the concept of time in relation to the history of education, to explore the different ideas of time that educationalists and teachers have expressed, across national borders. Attempts to standardize the education, organization of life, schools, and students’ timetable have emerged over centuries. These models have crossed national borders and, because of their effectiveness, they have had a wide international reach. I would like to present just some samples. The most interesting case is that of the Jesuits. Actually Ratio Studiorum purpose was to organize school days and working times using a very accurate timetable that kept students busy throughout the year, according to the Church calendar. This pattern effectively has become a model for the creation of colleges around the world. Later, the ideas of J. J. Rousseau conditioned the educational debate in all European countries. He rejected any form of accelerated education and suggested to treat the scholar according to his age. If children must be brought up in accordance with their age, “the most important, the most useful rule of education” becomes “Do not save time but lose it” . In the “constellation” of the Education nouvelle movement, between the nineteenth and twentieth century, there was the idea that the change of school meant not only transforming subjects and contents, according to students’ needs, but also modifying timetables preparing workshops and places suitable to children's lives. According to The Montessori method Orari prolungati sono necessari per esercitare una azione diretta sulla crescenza , and in The children's houses (Casa dei bambini) there was extended time, since the timetable included lessons, rest and meals. The "colonization" of leisure time, according to better and faster learning outcomes, is a contemporary historical theme. This trend is common to all developed countries as evidence of globalization and internationalization in educational styles. The school, which etymologically in ancient times was called scholé and otium, that is idleness and freedom from the troubles related to everyday life, it has become obligation, work, duty.

A European Conversation: Five Educational Study Travels to Belgium and the Netherlands, 1838-1840

Jasper JANS, European University Institute, Netherlands

Throughout the nineteenth century, states in Western Europe set up and reformed national systems of education. In order to improve their education regimes, officials travelled across the continent and beyond to study other countries’ schooling systems. These studies constitute an indispensable source in the history of education in Europe. They display national histories’ interrelatedness, the circulation of knowledge and ideas, and invite comparative analyses of national educational histories. The present study explores this topic by comparatively investigating five studies produced by officials from five different countries of the education regimes in Belgium and the Netherlands combined in the two years between 1838 and 1840. It is remarkable that so many men (not women) travelled to these two countries in so brief a period of time. Together, they present an excellent opportunity to explore the internationalisation of educational knowledge, the circulation of ideas, interactions, translations, and adaptations that accompanied and affected the creation education regimes across Europe in the nineteenth century. The men whose reports shall be studied are the following: Friedrich Thiersch (1784-1860), an educationist in the service of the Bavarian romantic king Ludwig I; Edouard Ducpétiaux (1804-1868), a Belgian journalist, government official and reformer; Ramón de la Sagra (1798-1871), a Spanish anarchist and liberal parliamentarian; Thaddeus O’Malley (1796-1877), an Irish priest; and W.E. Hickson (1803-1870), an English educational writer. These men wrote about the same thing in the same period, but from very different backgrounds and to very different audiences. What aspects of the education systems did they describe? Did they only concentrate on the institutional framework, or did they comment on school subjects, teaching, the buildings, the students, etc.? What schools did they visit? Whom did they speak to? What was their judgment of what they encountered? How did these men present the same thing to their different audiences? Put differently, how did they relate what they saw to their own countries? How can we explain differences in focus, visions and evaluations? This type of innovative investigation can reveal the entanglement of education systems in three ways. Products of study travels and comparative studies, these works themselves attest to the international setting of the emergence of school systems across Europe during the nineteenth century. Furthermore, the individual representations must be elucidated with respect to their backgrounds and audiences. Consequently, our analysis invites comparison between the Low Countries and the other states. Finally, in order to explain differences among the authors, we need to investigate the differences between, say, Ireland and Spain. The result is a snapshot of Europe’s history of education that combines comparative and transnational approaches. Thus, we can create a point of view that shows the idiosyncrasies of the individual polities while sewing them together in a European landscape by means of the circulation of educational ideas. It draws attention to the establishment of local education systems as an international, Europe-wide, entangled process.

Hard to Theorize. Employability Discourses in Higher Education in Germany and the United States in the 19th and 20th Centuries

Patrick RESSLER, Humboldt University Berlin, Institute of Education Studies, Germany

Higher education (HE) is not among the “hot topics” in the history of education. This is a pity, because the rapid expansion of HE is intertwined with paradigmatic shifts in the education sector as a whole, the labor market, and other areas of society in numerous countries across the globe. In order to better understand the nature of these highly political developments, it is essential to know more about their evolution. Thus, the presentation digs into the history of a particularly controversial topic in the current debate: the employability discourse, i.e. the broad discussion about whether, to which extent and how HE should prepare students for the assumed needs of the labor market – and about what these needs are. The presentation attempts a comparative look at the employability discourses in the two countries that have probably made the strongest impact on HE over the last two centuries: Germany, whose concept of the research university provided an almost universal reference point well into the 20th century, and the US, whose elite institutions are now the focus of international attention. The presentation will concentrate on periods of massive HE expansion in both countries, for this is when employability matters usually attract particular attention. In a theoretical perspective, it will draw on – and critically appreciate – the rich literature on the theory of world society and educational transfer, considerable parts of which claim a worldwide homogenization of national education systems. Questions to be addressed are: What is the discursive weight of employability at different points in time? Which employability concepts are discussed and promoted or rejected by whom and why? Are there any long-term patterns (e.g. trends towards convergence)? The presentation reveals a rather complex image. Both in a historical and in a contemporary perspective, it is hardly possible to characterize the employability discourses in Germany and the US in their entirety in terms of any of the concepts cited in the CfP (“nationalism” – “internationalism”, “homogeneity” – “hybridization”, “universalism” – “particularism”). For example, while some employability concepts can be found in both countries, others exist only in one of the two. However, even the same concepts often circulate under different names, while the same names are frequently applied to different concepts. Moreover, depending on the context, the same concepts can acquire entirely different meanings, while different concepts may perform similar functions. This is not only true for Germany and the US as a whole but also for different areas within the HE sectors in both countries. The presentation therefore suggests that the nation state alone is no sufficient analytical frame for the employability discourse. Rather, we should consider other units as well, such as different types of HE institutions (universities, colleges etc.) and different stakeholders (politicians, administrators, business representatives, students, professors etc.)? Findings vary depending which of these units – or combinations of them – we look at. All in all, the presentation seeks a) to promote an important topic for historic research and b) to inform the theory debate both within and beyond the history of education.

Vendredi / Friday 14:30 - 16:30 Room: 5389

6.7. Missions pédagogiques et congrès d'enseignants / Pedagogical misions and teachers' congresses

Chair: Caroline BERTRON

Education in International Congresses (late XIXth-early XXth centuries)

Moysés KUHLMANN Jr., Universidade São Francisco / Fundação Carlos Chagas, Brazil

From the mid of the XIXth Century to the first decades of the XXth Century, professional congresses, often within International Exhibitions, had multiplied in several countries, including Brazil. This text will present and analyze these meetings aiming to understand their roles in the historical process, especially related to education and childhood. These sources will be considered: the Congress of Instruction (Brussels, 1880), the 3rd Latin-American Scientific Congress (Rio de Janeiro, 1905), the Brazilian Congress of Childhood Protection (Rio de Janeiro, 1922), among others. In this analysis, one may question the meaning of these meetings in order to situate them historically and denaturalize a characterization of these congresses, as if they have been essentially a scientific activity, or even a practice of scientists that have reverberated in other spheres. The congresses not only had discussed scientific specialties, but also technical or social issues about industrial property, weight and measure agreements, labor and criminal laws, hygiene, education, childhood protection, among others. International relationships, industry and agriculture, labor and market, science and technology, policy and organization of the state and social institutions, groups and social classes, power relations were present in the debates. In this sense, science was a subsidiary, although it was represented as a protagonist: all proposals to acquire legitimacy, qualified themselves as scientific. The experts gathered aimed to deal with proposals and standards for policies, legislation and social institutions, pointing to organizing the modern state and to configuring idealized urban societies and its institutions. Health, welfare and educational cares to childhood were highlighted in many fields. Crèches, kindergartens, primary schools, object lessons, beside vaccines, hygienized milk, family rights, child labor are some of the issues of these meetings. The education – its deficits, profits, meanings and products – had gained prominence as a factor to building the “modern” society. The Congresses can be seen as a way of marketplace of ideas, which occur at the international and national levels, along with other forms such as the creation of associations of a scientific nature, political or religious, or the dissemination of newspapers and the specialized press, involving a wide range of social sectors. The circulation of ideas involves specific social relations among people engaged in intellectual functions into administrative and political institutions in different places. At the same time, its diffusion happens in a widespread sense to the population, to whom the new products, institutions and cultural patterns would be earmarked.

Between transfer and resignification: the educational missions in the “Serena School” (Rosario, Argentina, 1935-1950)

María del Carmen FERNANDEZ, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Argentina

This paper analyze the particular adaptation of the Pedagogical Missions of the Second Spanish Republic by the so-called "Serena School", experience framed within the “New School” and developed in a public elementary school in the city of Rosario (Argentina) between 1935-50. The "School Serena" was characterized by generating different educational proposals in which highlights the participation of the students in their community. One of the educational proposals was the annual organization of the “Cultural Outreach Missions" in which participating teachers and students. In the missions it observed the influence of the Spanish missions, influence the school principal, Olga Cossettini recognized in one of his books. Cultural Outreach Missions were a pedagogical device that linked science, art and community, accounting for an original appropriation of cultural-educational experience held in another country, with other goals and other achievements.

Teachers participating in the Central American Congress of 1893

Amalia NIVON BOLAN, Universidad Pedagógica Nacional, México

In the case of Central American Congress, the forms of relationship between teachers and promoters of education reforms in primary education around were supported by a liberal and nationalist, whose bases are responsive to the pedagogical vision of school models in this Congress tries to answer how to civilize the indigenous race in the sense of inculcating ideas of progress and habits of civilized nations. For these Latin American intellectuals of the late nineteenth century, it is interesting to analyze the elements that favored his performance at the Pedagogical Congress of 1893, as well as the tissue of prejudices and biases debates, educational diagnosis made in the school education that guided the Indians. Through the educational press of the time and recent studies, it seeks to reconstruct the actions of the protagonists of this Congress, interweaving the stories of professional actors, emphasizing the international dimension in which they interact.

Les ligues de l’enseignement comme mode d’internationalisation d’une éducation laïque

Nathalie SEVILLA, IUFM de Lorraine - Centre de Recherche Universitaire Lorrain d'Histoire Université Metz, France

Les ligues de l’enseignement, mouvements d’opinion et associations parfois complexes (réseaux), sont des espaces de politisation. Elles sont destinées à incarner/légitimer un projet collectif dans la sphère publique, ici l’instruction et l’éducation laïques. S’affirmant bien souvent apolitiques, elles agissent comme un groupe de pression tout en jouant un rôle de laboratoire d’idées. Le projet de communication porte sur la circulation du modèle ligueur laïque dans trois pays européens (Belgique 1860, France 1866, Espagne 1932) où la question laïque a pu structurer la vie politique, pays dans lesquels ces ligues sont toujours actives, ce qui témoigne de leur capacité à s’inscrire dans la durée. L’idée est de repérer les exportations ou importations, de mesurer ce que les ligues de l’enseignement se doivent les unes aux autres. Comment les idées d’une instruction laïque circulent-elles? Quelles sont les conditions propices à ces circulations? Quels sont les emprunts: forme d’organisations, objets et objectifs, méthodes, écoles de pensée, rapports au politique? Quels sont les acteurs forts, agissant dans la sphère internationale, la nature des relations établies? Il s’agit aussi d’identifier les obstacles, échecs ou réussites d’une implantation ligueuse laïque à l’étranger, d’observer les transpositions effectuées au regard de la spécificité nationale et du degré de reconnaissance ou d’inclusion de la ligue dans le champ politique national. Les temporalités sont décalées, parfois concomitantes. Située dans une chronologie adaptée, en quoi la structure ligueuse semble-t-elle être la réponse associative la plus appropriée pour faire valoir l’idée laïque? L’analyse des bulletins respectifs des ligues, de leurs actions et débats lors des congrès, et les prosopographies des dirigeants, leurs voyages à l’étranger, leur pluri-appartenance associative, nous renseignent sur les circulations et leurs vecteurs. La Ligue belge a initié le mouvement, la ligue française l’a poursuivi. La constitution de la Ligue espagnole laisse entrevoir toute la richesse des imprégnations et des échanges notamment avec la France, par le biais des voyages, des études à l’étranger ou des écrits. Les emprunts s’inscrivent aussi dans la durée: la maçonnerie belge aurait exercé une certaine influence sur les membres de l’Institution libre d'enseignement dans les années 1870-1880. Le syndicalisme enseignant, les congrès internationaux de l’enseignement primaire sont autant de lieux d’échange et de circulation. Les congrès de la Ligue française accueillent les représentants de la Belgique – présents dès sa fondation –, de l’Espagne et d’autres nations, et inversement. Mouvement de masse en France, et dans une moindre mesure en Belgique, la ligue en Espagne reste un mouvement plutôt confidentiel. Le soutien de la Ligue française aux républicains espagnols se prolonge avec la renaissance de la Ligue espagnole, alors en exil en France, en 1945. La Ligue espagnole prend des contacts avec les pays hispano-américains pour y susciter des mouvements d’opinion. Si dans l’entre-deux-guerres, les ligues réaffirment l’idée d’une coopération internationale du mouvement laïque, déjà âprement défendue par Jean Macé, la Ligue internationale de l’enseignement, de l’éducation et de la culture populaire est fondée en 1946, à l’initiative de la Ligue française, au sein de l’UNESCO en tant qu’organisme non gouvernemental. Pour une laïcité universelle?

Vendredi / Friday 14:30 - 16:30 Room: 3393

6.8. Réformes pédagogiques dans l'Europe des Lumières / Pedagogical reforms in Enlightment Europe

Chair: António NÓVOA

Preconditiond for the influence of Prussian Pietism on Educational Reforms in Denmark-Norway during the 18th century

Tone SKINNINGSRUD, University of Tromsø, Norway

During the first half of the 18th century educational reforms in the dual monarchy Denmark-Norway were inspired by Pietist educational ideas that were originated in Halle in Prussia. Pietism was a movement among Lutherans, who wanted to revitalize faith to restore the general social morality at a time, which was marred by social problems after the Thirty Years War. The Piestists blamed Lutheran orthodoxy for having prioritized dogmatic disputes over the spiritual needs of the population, and they wanted a new emphasis on subjective faith. Pietists believed that every Christian was obliged not only to seek salvation for himself, but also to help others to do so. In Halle, August Hermann Francke built up a large educational centre, starting with a school for children of the poor, which was later diversified onto several different educational institutions: a separate elementary school for children of more prosperous families, a Latin school, an orphanage, or Waisenhaus, and an elite school for children of nobles and the wealthy bourgeoisie. By Francke’s death in 1727, the Halle schools contained more than 2000 pupils and 175 teachers. The pedagogy of the Pietists was closely tied to their religious convictions. The aim was to cultivate an inner spirituality and to produce a personal religious conversion, which they believed could only be acquired by reading of the Scriptures. The emphasis on each individual’s reading of the Bible made literacy imperative. The transmission of pietist ideas from Prussia to Denmark was facilitated by the cultural, scholarly and dynastic ties between Denmark and Germany. German was the everyday language of the Danish monarchs, Danish and Norwegian students attended German universities, and there were family ties between the Danish and the various German royal families. The royal family was among the first to adopt the Pietist faith in Denmark. Fredrik IV implemented Pietist ideas in his initiation of missionary activity and mission schools in the Danish colony Trankebar in India and among the Sami population in the north of Norway. Pietist educational ideas were also behind the establishment during the 1720s of religious elementary schools in the villages of the King’s cavalry estates in Denmark and the establishment of a Waisenhaus in Copenhagen. Fredrik IV’s son, Christian VI, in 1736, implemented universal confirmation and in 1739 ordered universal elementary schooling among Danish and Norwegian peasants. One may ask why, during the first half of the 18th century, the Pietist faith and educational ideas obtained such a strong influence in Denmark-Norway. Many of the educational initiatives were outright copies of arrangements in Halle. This paper highlights two mechanisms that seem to have contributed to the success of Pietist ideas in Denmark-Norway: 1) the adoption of Pietist ideas by the politically most powerful in terms of educational decision making, and 2) the selective adoption of reform ideas that did not undermine popular loyalty to the state and church combined with rejection of more radical and dangerous ideas.

L’éducation à la nature et l’internationalisation du savoir à la fin du 18ème et au début du 19ème siècle

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