Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012

Gargi GANGOPADHYAY, Rama Krishna Sarada Mission, India

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Gargi GANGOPADHYAY, Rama Krishna Sarada Mission, India

In many ways, the colonial nineteenth century represents a time that saw the birth of a modern Bengal. Through the length of the Bengal renaissance – as the myriad socio-cultural revolutions are often collectively termed – children passed from the older methods of education at the village pathshala [indigenous school] with its oral lessons and writings on plantain or palm leaves to a completely different pedagogy of sequentially graded primers, readers and moralities in the form of printed textbooks. Along with the momentous reconstructions transforming the public world of schools and formal education, the child in nineteenth century Bengal was also a part of the less-visible reformations happening within the private domains of the home and the family with their new ideologies of child-rearing and the development of reading as a form of leisure. While the impact of such tectonic shifts in the public sphere of education have been studied in critical historiographies (Acharya, Viswanathan, Seth, Bandyopadhyay) the effect of the subtler changes transforming the private environment have hardly been considered in histories of Bengali education and childhood. The paper proposes to study the aspects and nature of the Bengali child’s education and growing up in the private domain of the home through the late nineteenth and early twentieth century period. I approach this area of internal education of the child from two perspectives – first through the lessons naturally acquired from familial traditions, customs and practices and second, through the ideas generated by a non-school, recreational literature – from books that were read at home and for pleasure. Both of these areas of the family and the recreational print culture were undeniably affected by the great reformations in the wake of a new colonial modernity. On the other hand, in an era of a growing nationalist consciousness, the private space of the home, along with its familial traditions and recreational elements, was deliberately projected as an indigenous and a sovereign space, as a space that being assuredly one’s own, could ideologically circumvent the colonial domination of the public sphere. Thus, in nineteenth century Bengal, the ideas and identities of child, childhood and children’s education were recast and remoulded in the socio-cultural flux ensuing from the debates between the ‘old’ and the ‘new’ world orders: between popular culture and elitist reformations, oral traditions and technologies of print and indigenous practices and Western ideologies. This reformation and radical change, Ashis Nandy notes, was fraught with complex anxieties that infected both children and their guardians (Nandy, 65). In this context, the paper inspects the ‘homely’ education of Bengali children and considers its position vis-à-vis the public, ‘English’ education in schools. In conclusion it assesses the impact of the changing private domain in the formation of modern Bengali childhood. In keeping with the dual perspectives of the study, my primary sources will constitute firstly of documentations of childhood as found in nineteenth century memoirs and autobiographies and secondly, of the contemporary story books and juvenile periodicals that made up the gamut of children’s recreational reading at home.

Politique internationale et petite enfance: La lente naissance du jeune enfant (1937-2007)

Astrid THOMANN JEANNERET, Ecole supérieure d'éducatrice et d'éducateur du jeune enfant, Switzerland

Cette communication vise à décrire l’émergence, la définition progressive et l’évolution de la notion de petite enfance pour parvenir jusqu’à sa désignation actuelle et conventionnelle dans les textes officiels des organisations internationales, à savoir: la désignation d'une tranche d'âge, allant de la naissance jusqu'à l'âge de la scolarité, pouvant faire l'objet d'une politique spécifique tant sur le plan des modèles institutionnels et des types de professionnels qui lui sont destinés que des options pédagogiques visées. Fonction d’un lieu, d’une organisation sociale et d’une époque, les définitions de cette tranche d’âge et ses découpages internes n’ont cessé d’évoluer. «Prime enfance», «seconde enfance» «petite enfance», «jeune enfant», ces signifiants fluctuent en l’occurrence en même temps que les significations. Si aujourd’hui, tant au niveau national qu’international, la recherche scientifique, les discours politiques mais aussi les pratiques institutionnelles et professionnelles ont contribué à baliser et délimiter cette période de l’enfance, celle-ci est demeurée jusqu’à la première moitié du 20e siècle dans un flou de définition qui lui confère une existence aléatoire et partielle dans les discours en matière de politique internationale. L'opacité des définitions et des discours s'accompagne également d'une opacité de la caractérisation des pratiques qui se réfère au jeune enfant: «éducation préscolaire», «puériculture», «garde», «éducation», «socialisation», autant des termes qui instaurent des différenciations mais dont les frontières demeurent incertaines. Incertitude du public à qui l'on s'adresse, incertitude des types de pratiques, mais aussi incertitudes des professionnelles: nurses, jardinières d'enfants, institutrices, éducatrices. Si, comme le démontre plusieurs historiens de l’enfance et de l’éducation, l’enfant en âge préscolaire devient, tout au long du 19e siècle, l’enjeu de pratiques sociales et culturelles, le jeune enfant demeura encore longtemps de l'ordre de la sphère privée, en marge du champ politique. A travers l’étude de textes et de débats issus des principales organisations internationales productrices de discours en matière d’éducation, telles le Bureau international d’éducation (BIE), l'Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’éducation, la science et la culture (UNESCO) et l'Organisation de coopération et de développement économique (OCDE), cette communication se propose d'analyser et de comprendre l’émergence et le renforcement de cette tranche d’âge en tant qu’objet et enjeu de politique publique internationale, l'éducation et l'accueil de jeune enfant (early childhood care and education) s'inscrivant aujourd'hui comme une priorité sociétale, dans un continuum éducatif de la naissance à la scolarité. Au vu de ces constats, cette communication parcourra les étapes saillantes de cette évolution, partant de la première Conférence de l’instruction publique portant sur l’organisation de l’éducation préscolaire (BIE, 1937) juqu’au rapport produit, en 2007, par l’OCDE (Petite enfance, grands défis II: éducation et structures d'accueil) qui envisage l'éducation du jeune enfant comme un «bien public».

Vendredi / Friday 14:30 - 16:30 Room: 5193

6.1. Réformes récentes des universités: normalisation et résistances / Recent reforms of universities: between normalization and resistance

Chair: Paula FASS

Issues and Challenges in Cross-Border in Higher Education: The Sub-Saharan African (SSA) Experience

Nkechi OKOLI, University of Port-Harcourt, Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

Quality education has suffered in the Third World countries from the colonial period and further deterioration occurred in universities in Africa, Latin America and Asia since the 1980s as a result of globalization. Obanya (2004) pointed out ”whatever indicators we use, be they macroeconomic or social variable the situation in the continent has been one of significant and sometimes precipitous retrogression”. Our balance payments deficits have accelerated while inflation and debt and debt servicing obligation have escalated. By way of theoretical framework, the study posits that despite the colonialism theory which some saw as paternalistic practice of government that exported civilization, African education problems date back to the colonial period of the 19th century but suffered further deterioration as a result of forces of globalization. Human capitalist theory in the 1970s led African leaders to plough huge percentage of their resources into education, especially higher education. Globalisation gave it a final blow. The concept of globalization is expressed as the flow of technology, economy, knowledge , people, values ideas… across border (Kritz 2006) while Cross border is used as education services that extend beyond borders. African nations are marginalized from global economy. The flows of globalization do not benefit SSA. Economic restructuring led to debt payment. The issues of participation, mobility, finance and administrative capacity, the growth of private institutions and quality are historically analysed. Findings reveal that participation and mobility are one sided. African talented brains are selected, they leave and never come back. No students come for studies and research in SSA. The growth of private institutions has been on the increase and the implications are far reaching: exorbitant fees are charged and there are inequalities. The paper recommends accommodation of the countries not benefiting from the process.

Academic Diaspora – Western Knowledge and Post-Soviet Expectations in the Development of Higher Education in 1990s

Aija GRAVITE, University of Latvia, Latvia; Aija ABENS, University of Latvia, Latvia

The Soviet occupation of the Baltic states in 1940, the Second World War and Stalin’s deportations in the 1940s and 1950s destroyed Latvian academic society that had been established during the first period of independence (1918-1940). Hundreds of university professors were fired, died in concentration camps of both fascist and communist regimes, or emigrated to save their lives. As a result of these turbulent events the Latvian academic diaspora began to emerge in the Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. Simultaneously the vacancies in higher education institutions of the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic were filled with reliable personnel, appointed or approved by the Communist Party officials, who were bringing up next generations of Latvian academics. Thus two academic communities existed with little or no professional contact until the end of the Soviet period. Initial changes occurred as a result of Gorbatchev’s glasnost and perestroika when the political thaw made contacts between Western and local Latvian scientists and academics possible once again. In 1989 the first agreements on academic cooperation between Latvian and Western universities were signed. After the regaining of independence in 1991 contacts between academics in Latvia and Western countries increased rapidly. Latvia also experienced a major expansion of higher education. New study programmes and higher education institutions were established to fill the sudden gap in knowledge, professional skills and competencies created by the political, ideological and economic break. This necessitated a connection and communication meeting point for Western and post-Soviet educators. This article examines the academic connections between Western and post-Soviet societies and its impact on the processes of the expansion of higher education in Latvia. The main focus is on the role of the Latvian academic diaspora as a driving force of these connections. The main sources are publications and discussions about the higher education found in the mass-media, as well as interviews with both academic personnel from the West Latvian academic diaspora and local Latvian academics who were actively involved in the development of Latvian higher education in the 1990s. This paper hopes to discover which aspects of higher education were the major concerns to be addressed; in what ways were the Western academics involved in the processes of the development of higher education in Latvia; what were the expectations of both Latvian and diaspora academic communities from this cooperation and whether these expectations were met; what were the elements of change, or new beginnings generated by this cooperation; and how sustainable were these changes and beginnings.

Globalization of the Society of Latin American Education History (SHELA): A Historiographical Approach and tools to the History of the Comparative Education

Pascual MORA GARCIA, Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela

The Society of Latin American Education History (SHELA) has had an extensive experience since 1994 when it was founded during the celebration of the Second Iber American Congress of historians of the Latin American Education, it had been carried out in UNICAMP (Campinas City, Brazil,) in September from the 11th until 15th. This society got the Legal Registry number 145-250 June-1995. At the beginning, we determine to show a balance about the Globalization process related to The History Society in Latin American Education (SHELA), during the first years, through the differents Iber American Congress of Latin American Education History celebrated in some venues such as: Bogota, Colombia-1992; later, Campignas, Brasil-1994; Caracas, Venezuela-1996; Santiago de Chile, Chile- 1998. However, this process was divided in two important historiographical tendencies by internal fissures. In our case, this Globalization is followed by the SHEILA Congress in Piura, Perú-2002; Guadalajara-Mexico, 2007; Sao Paulo,2009; y Manizales-Colombia, 2011. Also, the previous study includes analysis about simposiums, congress and other events in different places around the world: Liverpool (England); Moscow (Russia); Barquisimeto (Venezuela); Macau (China); Bratislava (Slovakia); Tamaulipas, Guadalajara (Mexico); Córdoba (Argentina);Varsovia (Poland); Sevilla (Spain); Cartagena (Colombia); San Cristóbal (Venezuela), amongst others. In a second place, we emphasize the development of a historiographical tendencies to study and to understand the Iber American Education History; taking into account, as a refrent, the Latin American Education History Magazine (RHELA), ISSN 0122-7238. In the third place, we present the results of editorial line which was made by differents groups of researchers attached to SHELA, for example: HISULA (Colombia), HEDURE (Venezuela) and The Center of Investigation VENDIMIA. In the fourth place, we analyzed the emergent historiographical tendencies through publications in RUDECOLOMBIA and others International Institutions, and the editorial Project about Latin American educators. This editorial effort is promoted by COLCIENCIAS, Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia, DIN, RUDECOLOMBIA, University of León-España, University Nove de Julho, Fedarl University of Ouro Preto, UFOP - Brasil, National University of Córdoba, Argentina, University of Cuenca-Ecuador, University of Los Andes, Venezuela, Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, SHELA- Group of Investigation:" History and Prospective of the Latin American University" (HISULA). Finally, we present the results about the formation of a relay generation through major degree syllabus, doctorates, and prizes for working groups of researchers, specially “The Latin American Young Researcher Award Elvira Soto Arango”.

Le centralisme des carrières académiques: analyse historique d’un processus de résistance à l’internationalisation de la recherche en histoire de l’éducation française

Emmanuelle PICARD, ENS de Lyon, France

La professionalisation des carrières académiques s’est effectuée depuis un siècle, en France, dans un contexte d’organisation centralisée, fondée sur un clivage très fort entre les disciplines et induisant la mise en place de communautés scientifiques étanches et verticalisées, peu ouvertes aux circulations internationales. Cette situation est particulièrement sensible dans le domaine de l’histoire, discipline qui occupe traditionnellement en France une place élevée dans la hiérarchie universitaire et qui s’inscrit dans un marché fortement national, mais concerne toutes le secteur des humanités. Depuis les réformes universitaires de la fin du XIXe siècle, les instances nationales en charge de la profession universitaire ont développé des pratiques et des cadres formels rendant difficiles la valorisation des parcours internationalisés. En induisant une forte spécificité du cadre français, elles n’ont que rarement autorisé la circulation des chercheurs, étrangers en France et français à l’étranger, dans le domaine des SHS. La première des limites est incontestablement celle qui, jusqu’au dernier quart du XXe siècle, s’oppose à l’intégration des étrangers dans les cadres de l’enseignement supérieur, en leur refusant l’accès à toute position statutaire. Seules des positions temporaires, en nombre limitée leur étaient offertes, et elles furent dans l’ensemble peu utilisées. L’ouverture du recrutement n’a cependant pu se faire réellement par la suite, dans la mesure où les attentes en matière de formation initiale (en particulier l’agrégation, en tant que préalable indispensable à toute carrière universitaire) a souvent rendu les candidatures peu recevables selon les normes françaises. Par ailleurs, la faible prise en considération des compétences acquises à l’étranger par les doctorants français a constitué un autre frein à la circulation des hommes, à l’exception notable des ceux qui ont suivi un cursus dans les institutions nationales extra-territorialisées (écoles françaises de Rome et d’Athènes par exemple). Enfin, les cadres disciplinaires contraignant, imposant comme préalable à toute carrière universitaire la qualification par une instance centrale (aujourd’hui le conseil national des universités), a joué un rôle de frein dans un contexte où l’histoire de l’éducation, par exemple, se trouvait scindée entre deux champs concurrents et non forcément interpénétrés, l’histoire et les sciences de l’éducation, et soumise fortement à un cadre national de définition des parcours. Cette communication se propose de s’intéresser aux modalités de professionnalisation des universitaires français au XXe siècle, dans le domaine des sciences humaines, et de mettre en évidence les contraintes qu’un tel mode d’organisation impose au développement des échanges internationaux; elle repose sur l’étude des critères mobilisés dans les opérations de jugement, qu’il s’agisse du recrutement ou de la promotion des universitaires français ainsi que sur l’analyse des instances de gestion des carrières et de leur fonctionnement.

Vendredi / Friday 14:30 - 16:30 Room: 4193

6.2. Education internationale des élites: entre cosmopolitisme et cadre national / International education of the elite: bewteen cosmopolitanism and national context

Chair: Leonora DUGONJIC

L'Éducation de l'élite entre internationalité, supra-nationalité et cosmopolitisme - la mission politico-sociale de la Schule Schloss Salem et l'École d'Humanité

Carmen LETZ, Université de limoges et Fau Nürnberg-Erlangen, France et Allemagne

La Schule Schloss Salem (créée en 1920) en Allemagne et l’École d’Humanité (1934) en Suisse, sont des internats privés, issus de l’éducation nouvelle. La formation politico-sociale internationale, voire supranationale, est un des éléments majeurs de leurs concepts pédagogiques globaux profondément ancrés dans la pensée de l’humanisme, du néohumanisme et, depuis ce millénaire, de l’humanisme écologique. L’objectif initial de ces écoles est de rapprocher les nations, créer une sorte de Völkerbund kantien, voire une communion des Nations, tout en préservant l’identité culturelle de chaque pays. L’éducation politique se traduit dans l’organisation hiérarchique et spatiale des écoles. La Schule Schloss Salem, se définissant comme un Schulstaat (école-État), reproduit des modèles de démocratie parlementaire particuliers au sein de ses structures d’accueil, fortement hiérarchisées et verticalisées. La mission initiale de Salem est de former une élite aristocratique, tandis que l’École d’Humanité, qui se définit comme une Schulgemeinde (école-commune), milite pour la démocratie directe et délivre une éducation d’élite censée diffuser les bienfaits éducatifs au monde entier. La contribution propose une analyse comparative de ces écoles qui ont formé des hommes politiques de premier plan. La discussion sur la vision de l’internationalité, la supranationalité ou même le cosmopolitisme, portera spécialement sur les différences et similitudes de la philosophie sociopolitique des internats, leurs concepts pédagogiques et leurs mises en pratique. Il s’avère que si les écoles ont un but final identique - humaniser la société - les déclinaisons pour y arriver donnent à voir paradoxalement des oppositions à discuter et comprendre. Carmen LETZ Université de Limoges et Friedrich Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

The influence of internationalization in the first elite schools in Catalonia in the 19 Th. Century. The Colegio Valldemia

Montserrat GURRERA LLUCH, University of Barcelona-Faculty of Pedagogy /and/ Societat Catalana d'Història de l'Educació als Països de llengua catalana, Spain

The 19th century in Spain was full of changes in all levels, especially on the social, political and economical aspects, but transformation and development were neither lineal nor homogeneous. In Catalonia, with an important commercial activity with foreign markets, those changes started between the end of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century. They affected first Barcelona (the capital of the region) and, by the middle of the century, some of the cities with efficient transportation, like Mataró, Terrassa, etc. In urban areas with a great industrial and commercial development, the new middle class and the wealthy classes had to look for private education to find the instruction they needed, because they could not find it in the existing educational structures. During the 18th century, in Barcelona, the nobility and elite families had particular instructors or went to Colegio Cordelles. By the middle of the 19th century, the bourgeoisie class had its own private schools: Colegio Carreras in Barcelona (opened in 1835) and Colegio Valldemia in Mataró (established in 1855); and a few years later, Colegio Terrasence in Terrassa (1865) and Colegio Miró in Barcelona (1869). They were secondary schools, and had also primary levels. Among religious schools, the Escolapios sons excel from the 17th century (they organized a school in Mataró as soon as 1737 and in Barcelona in 1815). On the paper, we study the foundation process of Colegio Valldemia. The founders aimed to educate the sons of Spanish noble wealthy and influential families (and residents in countries beyond the sea). They organized a school like the ones existing abroad, because they thought it better that, for personal and national reasons, the children study in their country rather than abroad, and they guaranteed a Christian education, educational renewal and a boarding school. Although it was a secular school, religion and moral were adapted to Spanish customs, and it was considered one of the most prestigious religious schools in Catalonia. Their three founders: Coll de Valldemia, Ferrer and Cuspinera studied in the novitiate of Escolapios sons in Mataró. In 1835, because of the secularization, they went to Cuba and they founded and managed schools in Puerto Príncipe, Santiago and La Habana. These schools had excellent educational results and they reached a high renown. Moreover Coll went to visit some schools is United States. In 1852, after the Concordat between Spain and the Holy See, they returned to Mataró. They wanted to practice their pedagogic and didactic experiences setting up the Colegio de Cataluña (known as Valldemia, because the director’s reputation). Coll was in charge of the school organization and he had a very ambitious project with the aim to get the excellence. Because of that, he visited the most prestigious schools and colleges in England, France, Belgium, Holland and Germany and he included international and new ideas to his project. He reflected them in: educational project, programme, building, gardens, team professors, etc. In the paper, we can see them in detail with the data we have in the prospectus of the school, his review, the reports on the newspapers and the observation of the building (since it still exists), and also the elite education in Catalonia in 19th century.

The influence of English elite education on Spain during the first third of the XXth century

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