Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012

András NEMETH, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary

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András NEMETH, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary

The reform of teacher’s training as a part of the Bologna process of the higher education is one of the key questions of the educational reforms in the European Union today. One of the most important elements of the Hungarian reform, that started to become faster and faster from 2003 is that the two main branches (kindergarten - elementary school teachers and secondary school teachers) should become a part of the Bologna process in a way that none of them should be redundant or arrive at a dead-end street. This reform however aims to transform the historically shaped pattern of teachers’ training model, that followed the patterns of the European trends that were formed inbetween the beginning of 19th century and the middle of 20th century - with some time-lag of course in the different regions. Our research aims to follow the process of the institutionalization of Hungarian teachers’ training which was characterized by the above mentioned ’dual system’. This process passed off under the influence of the national traditions as well as the central European tendencies. In the centre of our research stand those elements of the progression of teachers’ profession in which the two different professional knowledge (elementary and secondary school teachers’) was formed, and also the contents of the theoretical reflection which appeared in the fields of science. Our lecture focuses on this very complex process and analyses the events of the late 19th and early 20th century.

Legal Aspects of the History of Education in the normal course in Minas Gerais and in Brazil (1927-1971): the internationalization of "sciences of education"

Geraldo GONCALVES DE LIMA, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU) / Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Triângulo Mineiro (IFTM), Brazil

This article is meant to examine the legal aspects of the introduction and consolidation of the presence of the History of Education in the curriculum of the Normal School in Minas Gerais, in the range of the Francisco Campos Reform (1927/1928) and the Primary and Secondary School Reform (Law 5.692/1971). This process is an expression of a movement called internationalization of "sciences of education", among which we highlight the sociology of education, educational psychology and the history of education. In general, becomes the impact of the development process of the human sciences in the late nineteenth century in Europe (sociology, psychology, anthropology, economy and history). The consolidation of this knowledge can also be seen to apply their knowledge in the fields of teacher’s education, especially by normal courses. Gradually, the National Education Systems and organizational structures of education in different countries incorporate such actions and projects as part of the expansion of public and private schools around the world. Among other disciplines, History of Education becomes part of the normal course through the reforms of Francisco Campos, to meet the needs of systematic training of primary school teachers. The profile program and the goals of the History of Education are denoted in the form of presidential decrees, which assimilate the advances of pedagogical studies and educational science, under the influence of the ideals escolanovistas. The History of Education course meets the training not only content but also to methodological issues of education. In the 1940s, under the influence of the measures adopted by Gustavo Capanema, are published the Organic Laws of Teaching. The Law of Guidelines and Bases of Education 4.024/1961 was only enacted after a long discussion about bill, marked by disputes between opposing groups, especially those linked to movements for public education, as well as representatives from the private sector, especially by the Catholics. The educational reforms during the military period, turn the Secondary School in vocational qualifications required, including teacher training focused on the performance in the early levels of schooling, and then created, among others, the "Specific Qualification for Teaching" (Law 5.692/1971). The arguments are based on the work of authors in the literature review of the general historiography and education and analysis of legal texts (government regulations). Aims to understand the determinants of the formation of school subjects, especially History of Education, part of the curriculum of teacher education in Minas Gerais, from the late 1930s until the Primary and Secondary School Reform (1971). Therefore, the consolidation of training courses for teachers and the appearance of subjects as the history of education are related only in order to provide training in terms of theoretical concepts related to the sciences in general, but also with the teaching methodology, in order to guarantee part of the expansion of primary education, focusing on the formation of skilled labor for the labor market in Brazil and in the world.

Vendredi / Friday 11:00 - 13:00 Room: R150

5.10. Symposium. Théosophie et anthroposophie: réseaux internationaux et promotion d'une réforme globale de l'éducation. Leur impact sur l'expansion du mouvement d'Education nouvelle (1880-1939) / Theosophy and anthroposophy: international networks and the promotion of the global reform of education. Their part in the expansion of the New Education movement (1880-1939)

Coordinator(s): Béatrice HAENGGELI-JENNI; Kevin J. BREHONY

Discussant: Béatrice HAENGGELI-JENNI

At the turn of the 20th century, several pedagogical movements such as the New Education (Education nouvelle – Reformpädagogik) promoted global school reform in order to adapt teaching to the child and to modern society. Among the actors of this movement theosophists, and anthroposophists who split from them, were numerous and constituted a large network of teachers and education reformers. The New Education Fellowship, founded in 1921 by Beatrice Ensor, Adolphe Ferrière, Elisabeth Rotten and others “pioneers of education” grew rapidly during the 1920’s aided by several international networks. Among them, the Theosophical Society’s branches which were present in various countries such as England, India, Australia, Spain, Italy, Germany and France contributed to the diffusion of the New Education. Several leading figures in the movement, such as Montessori, Ensor, Sadler, Solà de Sellarés, Steiner and Baillie-Weaver were theosophists or anthroposophists. This panel aims at studying the part of theosophy and anthroposophy in the expansion of educational reform movements at an international level. Through the analysis of central figures, the study of the various sources such as journals or correspondence, and a comparison of New schools such as Waldorf Schools in Spain and England, this panel aims at a better understanding of the part of theosophy played in the New Education movement: how did it allow or prevent the expansion of the New Education movement in various countries during the 1920’s and 1930’s?

What was the nature of the international connections between the Waldorf school and the New Education Movement?

Patricia QUIROGA, Universidad Complutense Madrid, Spain

In 1919, parallel to the expansion of the New Education, called Reformpädagogik in Germany and Éducation Nouvelle in France, the Waldorf school opened its doors in Stuttgart (Germany), aimed at the children of the workers at the Waldorf-Astoria Zigarettenfabrik factory owned by Emil Molt. Rudolf Steiner, the leader of the recently created Anthroposophical Movement, was the ideologist and who helped Molt to accomplish this project. Year by year the school became more and more famous and the number of children who attended it steadily increased. Meanwhile other schools were created in Germany and in Central Europe. The New Education and the Waldorf schools, inspired by Romanticism and German Idealism, share many theoretical aspects. The aim of this paper is to clarify whether there are connections between both educational practices, or if the Anthroposophical Movement followed its own unique Sonderweg. Steiner first school remained open till 1938, and some others were created by that date in Germany and neighboring countries. This increasing process will be also analyzed, and even though the number of schools continued to expand until today when there are more than 1000 Steiner schools in the world, the research will cover till the beginning of the Second World War. The methodology used to prepare this paper is documentary analysis based on several archives in England, Germany and Spain. Rudolf Steiner’s conferences during the period 1905-1925 form a very important source. His discourse will be examined in order to find references to the educational initiatives undertaken by the New Education Movement. On the other hand, the journals published during the flowering influence of the new pedagogical tendencies as Education for the New Era and Revista de Pedagogía now located in archives at the Froebel Archive (at University of Roehampton, London) or Museo de Historia de la Educación Manuel Bartolomé Cossío (Universidad Complutense, Madrid), will be analyzed. They will be essential sources for affirming or denying the connections between the international movement of the New Education, and the Steiner Waldorf schools.

To Letchworth via India: The Transformation of the Theosophical Education Trust

Kevin J. BREHONY, University of Roehampton, United Kingdom

The Theosophical Society (TS) was founded in New York in 1874. From the beginning, its ‘Wisdom Philosophy’, which held there was truth in all religions, was inherently internationalist and eclectic in outlook and encouraged the exchange and recombination of beliefs especially between West and East. This process was further enhanced in 1878 when the founders of the TS went to settle in Bombay. Subsequently, when Annie Besant became leader of the TS in 1907, its headquarters were established at Adyar. Besant gave to the TS a programme of social action, an example of which was her foundation of the Central Hindu College at Benares in 1898. In 1913 Besant founded the Theosophical Educational Trust in India. This body was to pursue the educational ideals of the Central Hindu College. By 1914 fifteen schools were managed by the Theosophical Educational Trust in India. Ada Hope Russell Rea first proposed the establishment of the Theosophical Education Trust in England. Together with a number of women theosophists, she produced an appeal in 1913 for support for ‘a school definitely and openly on Theosophic lines’. In 1914 a committee including Haden Guest, Ransom and Hope Rea had been established to open a Theosophical School at Letchworth. A Principal Designate, Dr Armstrong Smith was appointed and the school opened in 1915 and was called the Garden City Theosophical School. Soon this was soon changed to the Arundale School and subsequently, St Christopher School. Schools in other Anglophone countries followed, such as Vasanta House opened in 1919 in New Zealand and three schools in Sydney Australia. Alongside this educational activity, Beatrice de Normann (later, Ensor) founded the Theosophical Fraternity in Education in 1914. For its first few years, this organisation met within the auspices of the Conference of New Ideals led by the Buddhist ex-Chief Inspector of Elementary schools, Edmond Holmes. This had been set up to organise conferences to bring, ‘together not only representatives of the Montessori movement but of all kindred movements...’. De Normann joined this committee and was an enthusiast for Montessori, as were other TS members. But the Theosophical Fraternity in Education, through its organisation of the Calais Conference in 1921 was to achieve an international status that in the guise of the New Education Fellowship soon eclipsed the Conference of New Ideals. This paper considers the educational theories and practices entailed by the beliefs of the TS during the period prior to the take-off and expansion of the New Education Fellowship and whether they were universal or adapted to local conditions. It looks also at the extent to which there was any exchange of practices and principles between the schools and organisations identified here and how an education, intended to produce leaders of a new India, could have emerged from the same milieu as that which produced the pedagogical radicalism of the New Education Fellowship. Theoretical perspectives adopted in the paper include Weberian sociology and Cosmopolitanism.

Éducation, sociabilité et Théosophie en Espagne (1891-1939): le dialogue éducatif entre l’Occident et l’Orient

Joan SOLER, Université de Vic - Faculté d'Education, Espagne

Cette contribution a pour but d’analyser, dans le cadre du contexte européen et international, la diffusion des principes pédagogiques contemporains au sein du mouvement théosophique, la fonction sociale et de socialisation de la théosophie et ses racines dans le premier tiers du XXe siècle en Catalogne et en Espagne. Le développement du mouvement théosophique au niveau international est significatif à partir de la fin du XIXe siècle et pendant le premier tiers du XXe siècle. Son introduction en Catalogne et en Espagne a été étudiée et analysée dans les travaux de Jordi Pomés (2006) et Joseba Louzao (2008) à partir de différentes perspectives. Ces historiens nous ont apporté des clés pour comprendre l'importance du mouvement et la proximité de ces espaces sociaux avec le spiritisme, l'ésotérisme moderne, le végétarisme, le féminisme, le naturisme, l'hygiénisme et la franc-maçonnerie. Leur influence s'est également reflétée dans l'école et plus particulièrement dans les principes de l’Education nouvelle. La création de l’École Damon à Barcelone par la section espagnole de la Fraternité internationale de l’éducation, sous la direction de Mme Maria Solà de Sellarés et M. Ricardo Crespo en est un exemple. Ils y ont appliqué des principes pédagogiques issus de la théosophie et de l’Education nouvelle européenne. Outre les deux éducateurs mentionnés, cette présentation s’intéressera aussi aux contributions d’autres personnalités de la théosophie espagnole (Attilio Bruschetti, Federico Climent Terrer, Manuel Villa Treviño, etc). La biographie de Mme Solà de Sellarés, seule participante espagnole au congrès de Calais (1921), exilé en Amérique centrale après la guerre civile (1936-1939), nous permet d'établir la continuité d'un projet pédagogique et théosophique pendant la seconde moitié du siècle en rapport avec l'anthroposophie de Steiner et la pédagogie Waldorf. En Espagne, où existe une solide tradition catholique, «être théosophe» représente l’intérêt pour le renouveau spirituel, la rupture avec la tradition familiale religieuse, la découverte de la pensée orientale et la croyance aux valeurs dérivées de l'univers surnaturel. La vocation éducative du mouvement théosophique se manifeste à travers l'organisation de cours et de conférences, édition de livres et de brochures, publication de revues, création d’espaces de socialisation et propagation des croyances théosophiques (par exemple, la Chaîne d’Or et l’Ordre de la Table Ronde pour les enfants et adolescents, l’Association des Idéalistes Pratiques pour la jeunesse) et fondation de quelques écoles qui ont essayé de faire le lien avec les mouvements européens du renouveau pédagogique tout en s’inspirant du spiritualisme oriental. Les relations internationales sont toujours sur la base de l’expansion de ce mouvement dans le contexte espagnol. La recherche part de l’analyse des sources orales (famille des théosophes et personnes liées au mouvement théosophique) et sources écrites (directes et indirectes) des archives diverses: Bibliothèque de Catalogne (Barcelone), Bibliothèque privée de la Rama Arjuna de Barcelone, Centre National de la Mémoire Historique de Salamanca et Archives historiques de la municipalité de Sabadell (Catalogne).

Les théosophes français au congrès international de Calais (1921), des fondateurs occultés de la Ligue internationale pour l’éducation nouvelle

Antoine SAVOYE, Université Paris 8, France

Le congrès international d’éducation, tenu à Calais en 1921, est considéré comme le moment fondateur de la Ligue internationale pour l’éducation nouvelle. Encore mal connu –bien que constamment cité, tant par les historiens de l’éducation nouvelle que par ses militants d’aujourd’hui- ce congrès a été en partie conçu et animé par des représentants de la théosophie internationale. Ceux-ci y ont vu une occasion d’agrandir leur audience et de donner une assise élargie à leur projet éducatif lequel avait déjà reçu un début d’application, sous formes d’écoles nouvelles, spécialement en Angleterre et en France. Dans cette communication, nous nous proposons de mettre en lumière cette contribution occultée en restituant qui furent les théosophes français présents au congrès, le rôle qu’ils y ont joué et les idées éducatives qu’ils y ont défendues. Nous replacerons également leur participation à ce congrès dans la dynamique d’ensemble du mouvement théosophique confronté à la question de l’éducation. Outre l’analyse des actes du congrès et de différents comptes rendus auxquels il a donné lieu, nous appuierons notre communication sur un dépouillement des périodiques théosophiques en langue française et sur des recherches biographiques concernant les théosophes «calaisiens» qu’on peut y repérer.

Vendredi / Friday 11:00 - 13:00 Room: 1140

5.11. Symposium. Internationalisation des pédagogies formelles et informelles: développement de l'éducation technique et des opportunités d'emploi pour les enfants pauvres, orphelins et à besoins spécifiques (1700-1950) / Internationalizing formal and informal pedagogies: developing technical education and employment opportunities for disabled, poor and orphan children (1700-1950)

Coordinator(s): Mary Clare MARTIN

Discussant: Mary Clare MARTIN

This panel focuses on the conference theme of internationalization with a strong emphasis on different kinds of technical education, broadly defined, both informal and formal, and including educational and recreational opportunities for disabled children. It engages with contemporary theory about the arts and pedagogy relating to children and young people from different social backgrounds. These included speech and hearing impaired children taught by an innovative educator and science populariser in eighteenth-century England, Italian orphans in institutions in the Naples and Venice in the eighteenth century, students of dance, and the many adherents of the international Guide movement in the twentieth century. It considers how in previous centuries, targeted groups of children were prepared for public display and employment. Thus, from 1720-1760, Henry Baker guarded “secret” methods for educating speech and hearing impaired children in eighteenth-century London, while the Italian conservatoires developed musical education to promote the employment prospects of orphans, though some may have been subject to abusive practices such as castration. The international Girl Guide Association adapted existing practices of competition and badge acquisition to allow for the inclusion of disabled children in leisure activities, and to facilitate employability. Thus, Rossealla Delprete will argue that the explicitly welfare-based spirit that pro-moted the creation of the conservatories changed progressively during the course of the eighteenth century as they became more systematically organised. Charitable activities, which continued to have orphans and the needy as their target, were quickly joined by productive activities, trade, and opera productions. From the mid-dle of the seventeenth century, music teaching became the institutions’ main activity, and their source of support. Erin Whitcroft argues that in the eighteenth century, the philosophy of Sensualism as promulgated by Hume and Condillac changed the way contemporary critics thought about the arts including dance. Sensualism as a philosophy explains some of the issues that underpinned contemporary artistic debates and is a useful framework for considering the reception of dance in this period. The brilliant French dancer and ballet master Jean-Georges Noverre’s Les Lettres sur la Danse plays an important role in the context of eighteenth century aesthetics and the history of spectacle. His text approaches abstract philosophical questions such as the imitation of nature, the formulation of a genre theory, the expressivity of the dancer and the relation between pantomime and mis-en-scène. Noverre assumed it was important for the figures in a dance to ‘signify’ something. Clare Morgan will show how, from letters, snatches of memoranda and fragments of his pupils’ work books, it is evident that scientist Henry Baker used a combination of methods including signing, finger spelling, writing and drawing as well as speech training, as fellow Royal Society member, John Wallis, had done before him with speech and hearing impaired children. These insights into his pedagogical method reflect fascinating issues relating to educational philosophy in general and the teaching of profoundly deaf children in particular. In the scraps of exercise books that remain of his work with a boy named William Gwillym, the materiality of the educative process is also underlined by references to making the books themselves, to ruling lines upon the paper, to mending the pen, the transactional function of language reinforced through the process of writing. Martin will show how the practices and rituals of the international Girl Guide Association, such as badge acquisition and camping, were adapted to meet the needs of children with disabilities, both in residential and then domestic settings, and with the founding of a special “Extension” branch. She will also explore how this commitment was interpreted differently within different national contexts, drawing on a variety of case-studies. The panel draws on the work of new, as well as more established scholars, in this field.

Internationalizing frameworks for promoting the recreational and work opportunities of disabled children and young people: the Girl Guide Association, 1909-1950

Mary Clare MARTIN, University of Greenwich, United Kingdom

The Girl Guide Association, founded in 1910 shortly after the publication of Scouting for Boys, and the founding of the Scout movement of 1908, was an international organization which spread rapidly. While some girls started their own patrols and companies, the overarching structures of governance which existed at local, national and international levels provided some continuity of underlying principles and methods, while allowing for regional variation. Underpinning the whole was the inclusive mission statement, “A Guide is a sister to all other Guides” expressed in the Guide Law. This paper will explore the ways the Association developed in response to the perceived needs of disabled children and young people, with selected examples of practices around the globe. This will be located in the context of the Association’s little-known commitment to the promotion of career opportunities and female employment, as evidenced in its publications for girls.

Despite the spate of publications stimulated by the centenary celebrations of 2010, there has been little research about the Association’s practices and policies in relation to the disabled, and even less on pedagogy. Yet the commitment to enabling universal youth participation in Scout and Guide activities, within a structured framework, led to the development of a range of initiatives. By March 1940, The Guider was claiming that “Ours is the only youth movement which caters so well for handicapped girls”. The value attached to contact with nature, and of health and exercise made members particularly enthusiastic about promoting outdoor and physical activities with disabled children and young people. Guiding for the disabled expanded rapidly in the UK and overseas. Increasing numbers of residential institutions had companies, from 1909 onwards. From 1921, the “Extension Branch” was set up to enable “invalid, cripple, blind and deaf girls living in their own homes to become Guides”. Rules such as those for badge requirements were adapted to enable disabled Guides to achieve, and special camps were organized. The Handicraft depot, which sold handwork goods produced by disabled Guides and enabled them to earn some money, was considered to be extremely popular and continued well into the second half of the twentieth century. The paper also considers how the Association aimed to promote opportunities for friendship, support and peer-group mentoring.Whereas some Brownie packs for the under-elevens might exist in institutions, Rangers (the over-16s) were particularly urged to attend to the after-care of those who left at sixteen and might be lonely, or alternatively, just starting work. The complex boundaries between belonging, “difference” and normalization will be further explored in the paper.

The internationalization process of Musical Education: the Italian Conservatories of Naples and Venice as a European model of economic development (18th - 20th Centuries)

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