Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012

Tamara DELUIGI, University of Bern, Switzerland

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Tamara DELUIGI, University of Bern, Switzerland

During the 19th century the question how children who deviated from a certain norm should be educated was a central and persistent topic in the field of education. The schools at this time had to face the problem that they had to create solutions for the problematic children and develop special forms of schooling and adapted contents of teaching. In 1898 the headmaster of the “Hilfsschule” (special needs school) in Bremen/ Germany A. Wintermann published a sumptuous collection of data from numerous schools in Germany and Switzerland as well as some single examples of other European countries which were either specialized on children with “special needs” or primary schools that provide different forms of more or less institutionalized practices to deal with non-conforming children. His intention was to present an overview of the institutional situation and educational possibilities to deal with “problematic”, “abnormal” or “soft-headed” pupils. Besides the information about the schools, their organization, school enrolment and the employed teachers he also collected data about the pupils, their behavior, symptoms and family background. This paper presents an analysis and evaluation of this tabulated set of data relevant to the questions presented below and compares those aspects between the listed countries to describe eventual similarities or differences in the focused development. The paper centers two main-sets of questions: Referred to Wintermanns survey, what kind of institutionalized “special-education” can be determined at the end of the 19th century and on what kind of tradition do they build on? And what criteria are relevant to segregate or displace children in those forms of schooling? Furthermore, the paper seeks to point out the closely related aspects of teacher education which gained significance by the institutionalization of the new modes of schooling. The question will be answered if teachers who worked with the so called “soft-headed” and “abnormal” passed a specific training or course to develop corresponding competences. If so the paper analyses how these courses were organized and what the contents of teaching were about. The “raw data” of Wintermanns publication will be incorporated into the surrounding educational discourses and contexts of the different countries.

From Geneva to Belo Horizonte: the model of European special classes in Brazil, in the 1930’s

Adriana ARAUJO PEREIRA BORGES, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil; Regina Helena FREITAS-CAMPOS, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil

Primary school regulations of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, issued in 1927 included the organization of homogeneous classrooms by intellectual levels as mandatory. Their implementation started with the arrival in Belo Horizonte of the Russian psychologist Helena Antipoff, who assumed the direction of the laboratory of psychology of the local Teachers’ College and initiated studies aiming at the measurement of children’s mental development using psychological tests. At the same time, special classes, present in Europe since the end of the nineteenth century, were also established. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the process of implementation of those special classes as disclosed in the periodical Infância Excepcional, published in the bulletins of the Public Education and Health Secretariat of Minas Gerais government during the 1930’s and 1940’s, and in other articles published about the theme at the time. It also intends to verify how the special classes were organized in the Brazilian context, under Helena Antipoff’s guidance. Born in Russia, Helena Antipoff lived in France and was a trainee in Binet`s laboratory in 1911, and then proceeded to Geneva to attend the Jean Jacques Rousseau Institute (1912-1914), where she later became a researcher and educator as Édouard Claparède’s assistant (1926-1929). The hypothesis is that the multicultural formation of Helena Antipoff influenced the way in which the special classes were setup in Minas Gerais and, eventually in Brazil, contributing for the creation of an original model aiming at the treatment and education of handicapped children that was latter disseminated in the whole country. At the same time, the context in which she was inserted influenced the way Helena Antipoff systematized her model for the special classes and proposed the education of exceptional children in a rural school, the Fazenda do Rosário. Present historiography of science considers that knowledge has to become local to function as knowledge, in a process of hybridization. It is from this standpoint that the implementation of special classes in Brazil will be discussed, more specifically in Belo Horizonte. Although deeply marked by her trajectory in Europe, from which she brings significant contributions, it is only from the knowledge of the Minas Gerais cultural context and its specific characteristics that Antipoff could propose an alternative to special classes: the rural school.

Test Prime-circulation of knowledge in education between France and Brazil in the early 20th century

Carolina Silva BANDEIRA DE MELO, École de Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris, France; Regina Helena de FREITAS-CAMPOS, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil

The appropriation of French psychology applied to education in Brazil is analyzed, based on the adaptation of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Test by psychologist and educator Helena Antipoff (1892-1974). In 1911, Antipoff was a trainee at the Laboratory of Psychology founded by Alfred Binet at the Sorbonne, and participated in the first essays for measuring intelligence in children at the time. In 1931, as the chair of the Laboratory of Psychology at the Belo Horizonte Teachers College, in Brazil, she made one of the first adaptations of the Binet-Simon tests for Brazilian children, aiming at the assessment and measurement of children’s and youngsters’s intellectual capacities. The instrument was named 'Test Prime'. Three groups were evaluated: a group of illiterate children between 6 and 8 years old, a group of fourth graders aged between 11 and 12, and a group of illiterate girls working in domestic service. From the results of her Test Prime, Helena Antipoff obtained a database to develop a concept of intelligence that was different from what she had learned in Binet’s Laboratory in Paris, since it included the influence of social environment in the development of cognition. The influence of Binet’s work on Antipoff’s practices can still be perceived when, following the prescriptions made by the 1927 Regulations of Primary Education issued by the state government in 1927, she proposed the organization of special classes for retarded children in the same model recommended by Binet to French schools in the beginning of the 20th century, with the introduction of “mental orthopedics” exercises and of specific programs of study for the development of basic skills in language and arithmetic. Alfred Binet is one of the ten most cited authors in the five volumes of the Coletânea das Obras Escritas (Collected Works) of Helena Antipoff. Contemporary researchers of the history of science have been privileging the study of works in which can be identified the emergence of an hybrid knowledge, originated by the exchanges made between different researchers worldwide. In Antipoff´s formation a scientific attitude and the belief that through science it would be possible to solve problems and improve education were emphasized. This was a lesson that she brought from the contact with researchers from other countries, including the work of Alfred Binet and Théodore Simon in Paris.

Vendredi / Friday 11:00 - 13:00 Room: 5389

5.6. Pestalozzi comme prototype du phénomène de globalisation / Pestalozzi as a prototypical global figure


William Maclure and Pestalozzian Education at New Harmony, Indians: The Trans-Atlantic Transfer of an Educational Theory (1818-1830)

Gerald GUTEK, Loyola University Chicago, U.S.A.

The paper examines Maclure's (1763-1840) selective transfer of elements of Pestalozzi's educational theory and method to Robert Owen's utopian experiment at New Harmony, Indiana. It analyzes: (1) the trans-Atlantic encounters of three educational actors - Pestalolzzi, Maclure, and Owen; (2) Maclure's scientific and utilitarian rationale for selecting and implementing some but not other elements of Pestalozzi's theory; (3) the problems raised by selectivity; (4) conflicts between Maclure's focused utilitarianism and Owen's communitarian socialism; (5) issues about the broader diffusion of the method. While engaged in geological explorations in Switzerland, Maclure visited Pestalozzi's institutes at Burgdorf and Yverdon. He was impressed with the possiblities of the method for educating the working classes in useful applied scientific knowledge and skills. Thie utilitarian education would improve their economic as well as political condition. Maclure subsidized the immigration of Joseph Neef and other Pestalozzian educators from Europe to the United States so they could introduce the method. Maclure joined his Pestalozzian educators with Owen's utopian experiment on the American frontier. Maclure's introduction was selective in its emphasis on Pestalozzi's sensory and empirical epistemology ande object lesson but neglected the theory's broader humanistic aspects. Maclure's utilitarian and scientific emmphases generated conficts with Owen's utopianism that relate to general issues about education and social change. Although Maclure established a school press and a center in which educators and scientists could interact, he failed to adequately institionalize his version of Pestalozzian pedagogy in schools and teacher preparation.

The Dance of Ideological Transmission: Pestalozzi and the English Infants' School

Pebble BAKER BROOKS, Curry College, U.S.A.

The Dance of Ideological Transmission: Pestalozzi and the English Infants’ School Pebble Baker Brooks Curry College This paper examines transnational influences on the child-centered practice of teachers in infants schools (for 5 to 7 year olds) in state-sponsored institutions between 1930 and 1970 in England. I focus in particular on the impact of the educational thought of Swiss writer and educator, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-18267) on teacher-writers Alice Yardley, and Dorothy Glynn, students of his educational theories during their teacher-training in Cambridge and London in the early 1930s. Analysis of Pestalozzi’s two best-known German texts in their English translations, Leonard and Gertrude (1885) and How Gertrude Teaches Her Children (1894), almost a century after their original publication in German (in 1781 and 1801 respectively), reveals as much absence as presence of child-centered themes. However, a third text, Pestalozzi’s Letters on Early Education to J. P. Greaves, published in English in London in 1827, and reprinted in 1898, seems likely to have been an important source for Pestalozzi’s considerable educational influence in England. In this work Pestalozzi expresses his views on early education with a force and clarity absent from his more effusive and wide-ranging writings. The Englishman J. P. Greaves, who had spend several years with Pestalozzi at his school in Yverdon, between 1817-18, and to whom the letters are addressed, coached Pestalozzi to direct his pedagogical message towards the enlightenment of young mothers, potential recruits for a new approach in Britain to domestic education. This readable volume brought Pestalozzi to the forefront of nineteenth century English popular discourse on the psychology and pedagogy of the young child. Looking at these three texts, and other writing cited by his biographers and students, I locate several themes that lie at the center of Pestalozzi’s nineteenth century pedagogy which are later found reflected in the tenets of the mid-twentieth century English Infants’ School Movement. The most important of these themes are: valuing spontaneous ideas and exploration, observing and learning from children themselves, and building strong relationships with children. Taken as a whole, Pestalozzi’s written texts, together with his work as a teacher and builder of educational institutions, left a significant legacy in the history of child-centered approaches to education. He succeeded in pulling down the curtain between theory and practice long enough to catch a glimpse of the real life of children, bringing to the center of educational thought a nexus of powerful ideas that challenged the authoritarian, elitist, and adult-centered views prevalent during his time. These ideas sparked a dance of ideological transmission across countries and continents that contributed to the reform of elementary education in Germany, the US, and in England. His work helped shape the teaching practice and approach of both Alice Yardley and Dorothy Glynn, leaders of the English Infants’ School Movement. In the spirit of “following the child”, their work continued what Pestalozzi had begun, a movement towards a radical reevaluation of the aims and methods of education for young children.

The educator who applied the social education conceptions of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and Georg Kerschensteiner in Turkey: Ismail Hakkı Tonguç

Betül BATIR, Istanbul University, Turkey

The 18th century Europe was struggling for equality with the impact of the Age of Enlightenment. The mottos liberty, equality, and fraternity, which were realized in France in 1789, had their effects around Europe in a short time. The most significant of these rights was the right to receive education. Being a country with similar political and economic inconsistencies, in Turkey these problems had their most severe effects on the public. The education ideology of the country which struggled for life-or-death at the start of the 20th century developed as public education and social education during its construction. In this sense, one of the educators to support the ideas of Pestalozzi and Kerschensteiner on public education and industrial school and to establish these ideas in Turkey by his translations is Ismail Hakkı Tonguç. His difference from other educators who made translations and contributed to the country is that he was the one to put these ideas into practice. To compensate for this deficiency, in 1935 Minister of Culture Saffet Arıkan appointed Ismail Hakkı Tonguç as the General Director of Elementary Education (1935-1946). There were many reasons to choose Tonguç for this duty. Tonguç was a graduate of Istanbul Male Teachers School in 1918 and he had attended the seminars on teacher education and work education given at the Ettlingen Teachers School and Leipzig Pedagogy Institute in Germany. Between 1925-1938 he was sent to Europe (Germany, Italy, Swiss, France, England, Bulgaria, Hungary and Austria) several times by the Ministry of Culture in order to study rural education in these countries. He also wrote and translated books about the training of village teachers and instructional method. As a result of these influences, Tonguç prepared the regulations for his planned Village Institutes. He also presented a proposal and the justification for the creation of the Village Institutes in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in 1935. Based on the data of the national census of 1935, only 23.3 per cent of the males and 8.2 per cent of the females were literate. Though attendance at the elementary level was compulsory by law, and 80 per cent of the children in urban areas were being educated, only 26 per cent of those in villages were able to attend school. He founded the Village Institutes along with Hasan Ali Yücel. In this study, within the scope of Pestalozzi’s and Kerschensteiner's ideas of social education and industrial school, we will seek to evaluate the applications in Turkey based on Tonguç and the main sources.

A Time for Reform - Pestalozzi's Immediate Impact on Education Policies in Switzerland, Prussia and England

Niko GÄRTNER, Institute of Education, London / Hansa Gymnasium, Hamburg, United Kingdom / Germany

The early internationalisation of education needed impulses of pioneers like Swiss reformer Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827), who remains one of the great visionaries in the History of Education. His work had an immediate impact on educational debates in and beyond Europe; hugely influencing what we now know as nursery and primary education. This paper assesses how his local educational knowledge and practices influenced policies in differing societies during the period of revolution and reform that was the early nineteenth century. The comparison of the reception of his ideas in Prussia, England and his native Switzerland focuses on the historical context rather than the content of Pestalozi’s work - his varying impact is used to exemplify the different stages of nation building in Europe. The paper offers explanations why Pestalozzi’s revolutionary ideas made it into mainstream policy in conservative Prussia, while having only a minor effect on policies in progressive England and Switzerland. It concludes that the historic moment is more relevant for the success of reform ideas than their intrinsic quality.

Pestalozzian Theory, Teacher Training, and Special Education in the United States to 1930

Robert OSGOOD, St. Norbert College, De Pere, WI, U.S.A.

The exchange of ideas regarding educational institutions, structures, and practices constituted a significant feature of intellectual cross-fertilization between Europe and the United States during the 1800s and continued into the 20th century. American figures including Horace Mann, Calvin Stowe, John Griscom, Alexander Bache, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, and Samuel Gridley Howe made frequent visits to Europe to study various approaches and operations of primary and secondary education located throughout Europe. In return, European visitors regularly came to the United States to explore and critique the steadily growing public school system there. One particularly popular topic for American visitors to Europe was the work of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, the Swiss educator noted for a child centered, nurturing approach to teaching young children in a variety of schools during the early part of the 19th century. His developmental, child-centered, activity-based, positive and supportive view of the pleasurable possibilities for learning among younger children captured the imagination of many American educators who had begun to question the traditionally rigid and draconian approaches to teaching and learning that underpinned American educational theory and practice during the colonial and early national eras. This manuscript will examine the essential aspects of Pestalozzian theory and explore the reasons it became a popular and respected approach to teaching and learning in two specific areas: the formal training of teachers, and the advent of special education for children with disabilities. During the latter half of the Nineteenth century Pestalozzi’s concept of “object learning” became a centerpiece of teacher training in the United States. Commonly referred to as the Oswego Movement, such efforts played a central in the formal education of newly minted teachers throughout the nation: object learning emerged as a key feature of the training of teachers for the vast array of schools then extant. The manuscript will consider the reasons for its adoption and adaptations, the ways in which it was employed in the teacher education curriculum, and public and private reaction to its use. As “special education” for students identified as disabled increased dramatically through the late 1800s and early 1900s in both residential institutions and public schools, object learning and other features of Pestalozzian theory proved most attractive to teachers, administrators, and curriculum developers involved in special education’s development. This manuscript will investigate the reasons behind this attraction and discuss a select variety of curricular plans and models used in schools and institutions that incorporated Pestalozzian features. By the early 1920s special education programs had become a noteworthy arm of public and residential education in the United States, and teacher training had become much more firmly entrenched. Thus the manuscript will also examine any linkages between teacher training and special education that Pestalozzian theory and practice may have nurtured. Ultimately, the manuscript should lay a firm ground work for further comparative studies in the histories of teacher education and special education by establishing patterns of mutual influence in program development between Europe and the United States.

Vendredi / Friday 11:00 - 13:00 Room: 4189

5.7. Théories de l'Education nouvelle: réception et appropriation / New Education theories: reception and appropriation

Chair: Anton COSTA

Circulation, appropriation and dissemination of pedagogical ideas of the New School Movement in the twentieth century: the (in)visibility of José Scaramelli

Merilin BALDAN, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil; Alessandra ARCE HAI, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil; Debora S. M ALFARO, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil

The theoretical study has as its object the pedagogical ideas in circulation among the twentieth century, especially in the movement of circulation and appropriation of the ideas of the New School in Brazil. The collection "Brazilian New School," by José Scaramelli, was published in 1931 in Brazil, containing five volumes. In each of the volumes, there is a careful appropriation of ideas of the New School, from which, the author proposed to renew the schools and teaching new school ideas in Brazil. It is also during this period, the editorial production in Brazil takes shape and collections, especially school of character, gain popularity in teacher training courses, and appropriation for the movement Brazilian authors and ideas coming from the European and American New School movement. The interest in such a character in our history, whether by their inclusion in collections of publications aimed at renewing the minds of teachers in Brazil in the period, even these volumes have been found in the Old Normal School of San Carlos. Moreover, adds to this interest, the fact that (in) visibility of this author in research and outstanding personalities of history education in Brazil. The theoretical reference used in this study refer to the individual works of José Scaramelli as a primary and secondary sources that allow us to understand this movement of the New Schools in Brazil and abroad, among which we highlight: Scaramelli, Monarca, Valdemarin, Saviani, Depaepe, Le Goff. The methodological procedures are guided work in the history of educational ideas, under which point the following categories of analysis advocated by Saviani (2007): The concrete character of the history of education, the prospect of long during, investigation analytic-synthetic of sources, the articulation between the universal and the singular and, finally, the principle of current historical research. The aim of the research gained to understand the circulation and appropriation of the ideas of international new school ideas by Brazilian authors, as well as down to specific objectives, identify the key concepts and references appropriated by José Scaramelli and how the author appropriates and disclose in its collection. Partial results have shown little research on this author in Brazil, and shows how the New School movement in Brazil was aware of the publication and circulation of fresh ideas in the field of education.

Internationalization and glocalization of progressive educational practices: the case study of the Spanish schoolteacher Justa Freire

Maria del Mar DEL POZO, University of Alcalá (Madrid), Spain

In 1925 the eleven members of the teaching staff of the school "Cervantes" from Madrid got an official grant for travelling in Europe during two months. They could visit the best known new schools of France, Germany, Switzerland and Austria, they were attending the third Conference of the New Education Fellowship that took place in Heidelberg and they participated in the Summer Course of the Institute Jean Jacques Rousseau in Geneva. All the schoolteachers were writing daily diaries of their experience and their personal observations. In this paper I will analyze, in first term, the hidden agenda of this trip that so well planned, in the light of the global context of the New Education Fellowship networks. In second term, I will study the discussions and thoughts of the group after listening the lectures of the leading psychologists and educationalists, like Carl Gustav Jung, Jean Piaget, Edouard Claparède or Adolphe Ferrière. In third place, I will find out the changes in the educational practices of the "Cervantes" the year after its teachers returned from their study trip. One of these travelling schoolteachers was Justa Freire. Together with her colleague Elisa López Velasco they were the only two women in the group and the only two women that were teachers in an state school for boys in Spain. I will follow the trip through her eyes, using as main sources her diaries and agendas. I will try to analyze the influence that this pedagogical trip had in the future work of Justa Freire as schoolteacher and headmistress of a state school for boys and girls in the thirties and in the construction of her pedagogical discourse about the theory and practice of the education. This experience will be considered as a case study for discussing the processes of circulation and appropriation of educational ideas and practices, the links between the internationalization and the nationalization of the progressive ideals and its transfer to the local areas. The "Cervantes" was an experimental school and was visited by thousands of village schoolteachers, that had learnt in its classrooms a peculiar model of pedagogical progressivism adapted to the Spanish context. The "Alfredo Calderón", the school that was led by Justa Freire, had experienced the tensions between the "old" traditional Spanish schoolteachers and the "new" ones, and it can be considered an interesting scenario for studying the difficulties in the implementation of the progressive educational practices. The Spanish Civil War was the moment in which Justa Freire, together with Ángel Llorca, the headmaster of the school "Cervantes", could developed and educational experience closely connected with the European ones that they knew from their 1925 trip, an experience that was considered in the pages of Pour l'Ère Nouvelle as the symbol of the new education in the Republican Spain and as opposed to the "new" education of the Francoist Spain.

Perspectives de mobilité intellectuelle: la confluence entre le Brésil et l’Argentine dans le projet d’éducation de Luis Reissig (1950-1960)

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