Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012


Gilvanice Barbosa Da Silva MUSIAL, Faculté de l'Éducation de l'Université de l’État de Minas Gerais - FAE/UEMG, Brésil



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Gilvanice Barbosa Da Silva MUSIAL, Faculté de l'Éducation de l'Université de l’État de Minas Gerais - FAE/UEMG, Brésil

Ce travail se fonde sur une recherche dont l’objectif général est d’étudier l’émergence de l’école rurale dans l’état du Minas Gerais, au Brésil pendant la période de 1892 à 1899. Les objectifs spécifiques sont d’identifier et analyser les représentations produites sur les espaces sociaux ruraux, l’école rurale et ses sujets pendant les années 1890 et d’identifier les rapports et contradictions entre le projet éducatif dans l’état du Minas Gerais et les referénces au modèle français, dans la même période. Nous trouvons la dénomination école rurale utilisée, par la première fois, dans la législation éducationnelle de Minas Gerais dans la Loi nº 41, du 13août 1892. Pour comprendre l’émergence de l’école rurale dans le Minas Gerais pendant la période étudiée, nous avons travaillé avec la législation scolaire, les données statistiques (démographiques et scolaires) – comme le recensement démographique de 1890 et des répertoires de salle de classe des écoles d’instruction primaire – les rapports des Inspecteurs Scolaires, des Secrétaires des Affaires de l’Intérieur et des Présidents de l’État, des journaux et aussi avec quatre romans publiés par Antonio Avelino Fóscolo, né à Sabará, Minas Gerais. Les fondements théoriques et méthodologiques de l’étude sont les présupposés de l’Histoire Culturelle, notamment le concept de représentation selon la perspective de Roger Chartier (1990, 2009). Le développement de la recherche et l’élaboration du travail ont permis d’identifier, tout au long des années 1890, la construction d’une représentation de l’école rurale comme le lieu du rustique et de la rusticité, de l’inefficacité des professeurs, de l’absentéisme des élèves et du manque d’intérêt des parents par rapport à la scolarité de leurs enfants et qui a justifié certaines pratiques, ainsi comme la «suppression» des écoles sous la responsabilité de l’état de Minas Gerais, en 1899, par la Loi nº 281, du 16 septembre. Au début des années 1890, l’état de Minas Gerais a transformé le système éducatif, marqué certes par une distinction entre les écoles publiques urbaines et rurales. À la fin des années 1890, ce modèle change et le gouvernement adopte une politique plus restrictive pour les population des endroits ruraux.



Notes on the Adoption, Adaptation and Reformulation of the Monitorial System of Education in Post-colonial Chile: Reassessing the Birth of Primary Schooling

Andrés BAEZA RUZ, University of Bristol, United Kingdom

As part of my doctoral research project, this paper aims to explain some of the initial historical problems that need to be solved regarding the organization of primary schooling in post-colonial Chile, specifically during 1820 decade. Considering that the 1820s was a period of political reconfiguration after the struggles of independence, this paper explores the role of the implementation of Monitorial System of Education under this context in Chile. This paper challenges the idea that the organization of Chilean educational system was only possible after the end of political reconfiguration that followed the struggles of independence. In general, Chilean historiography has overlooked the 1820s due to the apparent ‘chaos’ and political instability that seems to be characteristic of that decade. If the 1820s is analyzed it is basically to stress the supposed subsequent stability that was begun with the authoritarian regime of the Minister Diego Portales and the continuity of his ideas during the nineteenth century. Following these assumptions, one of the most accepted ideas is that the organization of educational system was only possible in a context of political stability and economic expansion. In Chilean case, that was more evident since 1840 decade, when several elite secondary and higher educational institution, including University of Chile, were founded. Regarding to primary schooling system, it was only since 1860 when it could be definitely organized. That implies to overlook some earlier educational projects such as Monitorial or Lancasterians schools that were founded in the ‘chaotic’ 1820s. It has been assumed that due to the precarious economic context and the inherent political disorder of the period, any attempt to organize an educational project was inevitably fail. Challenging the prior assumptions, this paper reassesses the implementation of Monitorial System of Education in Chile. In my opinion it was the very same context of political uncertainty – rather than ‘instability – that fostered the necessity to organize a primary schooling system. The ‘British’ system of education appeared as a suitable model to shape the new type of citizen required for the new republic. In that model, concepts such as order, discipline and merit were considered as some of the referents to shape the new citizen. However, the protestant ‘origins’ of the system and the identification of James Thomson – who spread the system in Chile – with the principle of religious freedom could be seemed as a threat by the Catholic Church, that was very influential within the elite. Consequently, if the system was officially ended in 1833 –while in other countries it lasted until late nineteenth century– it was due to the discrepancies generated by its main characteristics in the Conservative sectors, and not for the impossibility to organize an educational system in supposed chaotic period. In a nutshell, in order to reassess the birth of primary schooling system in Chile it is necessary to consider the local condition in which a foreign model was adopted.

L’Émergence de l’Enseignement Secondaire Public au Brésil et au Portugal: une “histoire connectée”



Ana Waleska POLLO CAMPOS MENDONCA, Pontifice Université Catholique de Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Brésil

Ce travail se rapporte à une recherche que je développe actuellement sur la genèse des professeurs secondaires de l’enseignement public au Brésil; elle trouve aussi son origine dans une recherche antérieure, en collaboration avec des chercheurs portugais, liée à un programme tenu par les gouvernements brésilien et portugais (CAPES/FCT), sur le processus de professionnalisation des enseignants dans un approche comparative. Dans ce contexte-là, j’ai étudié la Réforme Pombaline des Études Mineures et mis en évidence la fragmentation que cette réforme a provoquée, dès le XVIIIème siècle, non seulement sur le processus de professionnalisation des enseignants, mais aussi sur l’enseignement secondaire lui-même et la manière dont ce type d’enseignement s’est institutionnalisé au Brésil coome au Portugal, tout au long du XIXème siècle.

La présente intervention a pour objectif de réfléchir sur la contribution de l’approche comparative pour l’étude de l’enseignement secondaire (encore peu étudié par l’historiographie de l’éducation au Brésil), en mettant aussi en évidence les analogies et différences entre le cas brésilien et le cas portugais. Deux modèles d’organisation pédagogique sont repérés: le collège, dont la principale influence procède de la France, et le modèle des classes “avulses”, propre de la tradition portugaise qui s’est constituée dès la Réforme Pombaline qui a organisé l’enseignement publique dans le monde luso-brésilien. Le sous-titre proposé “une histoire connectée” se rapporte à la proposition de Gruzinski (2001) de partir d’un champ d’observation (ici, l’enseignement secondaire), pour repérer les circulations qui s’opèrent entre des différentes sociétés “connectées” (concept qui réfère à Subramanyam), permettant de rompre avec la perspective comparée encore dominante confrontant des phenomènes de part et d’autre d’une frontière nationale.

Vendredi / Friday 11:00 - 13:00 Room: 4393

5.4. Images, expressions orales: nouvelles approches de l'histoire des circulations internationales / Images and orality: new approaches for the history of internationalisation in education

Chair: Gary MC CULLOCH

Children of Empire, transnational imaginings and representations



Peter CUNNINGHAM, Homerton College, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

‘…when Hindus reach age 8, 10 or 12 years they almost leave off playing. … There is something sad and unchildlike in their appearance, and it seems to Europeans … very unnatural that they should be so solemn and staid.’ ‘All their religion helps to make them gloomy, and must fill young hearts with fear.’ But Christian children might learn a good lesson from Hindu children: ‘Taught to regard God, their mother and their teacher as equal… they therefore treat them with respect and obedience.’ (Anonymous, 1868, 16, 31) The Royal Commonwealth Society’s archive of literature and photographs provides an extensive though barely used source for transnational histories of childhood. Whilst colonial children became objects of conversion by Christian missionaries, they also served the missionaries’ purpose as object lessons for children back home. The children of India, written for The Children of England by One of their Friends [Annie Marston] (1883, 1891) was a call to action, ‘a little book for little people, with little chapters and little words’ but encouraging its readers to do big things in the end. Literary texts of this genre embody constructions both of colonial children and of European child readers. They invite micro-studies of discourse and identity, of empire in the life of the imagination, of the two-way flow inhering in intellectual transfer. This paper sees the ‘nations’ involved as ‘fragile, constructed, imagined’, identifying through these texts the psychological interdependence of subjects, whether metropolitan or colonial. (Seigel, 2005, 63) Visual imagery is a key feature of texts to be discussed. (Holland 2004) Celebrated missionary author Amy Carmichael was egregious in her intense psychological and poetic studies of Southern Indian young children and their behaviour, accompanied by fine photographic portraits aspiring to high art. Her classic publication Lotus Buds (1910) can be considered as a material object in its own right, in addition to its place in a literary genre. It was produced in a limited luxury edition, gold-tooled binding and laid vellum paper, with images reproduced as fine photogravure plates. The book may be explored as a site of consumption, and following Myers’ loose adoption of Althusserian interpellation we might speculate about its role in shaping subjectivity. (Myers, 2005, 37, 54) Material presented derives mainly from the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, focusing principally but not exclusively on India within the British empire. But the ‘zone of contact’ is seen as not only spatially but chronologically flexible, recognising the ‘width and thickness of time’. (Nóvoa 2009). Needing to confront the interconnections of different times that inhabit ‘empires’ and ‘colonies’, the paper draws also on publications about the British Commonwealth in the 1970s, up to and including the International Year of the Child in 1979. In the course of this paper images and texts of children, both disabled and non-disabled, will be used to ask questions about perceptions and definitions of childhood, and their representation. Seminar participants will be invited to propose answers and interpretations from their own experiences and perspectives.

La construction de la mémoire des congrégations françaises au Brésil: circulation des images (XXème siècle)



Paula LEONARDI, Universidade São Francisco, Brasil

Cette communication discute de la construction de la mémoire dans le catholicisme au début du XXème, au Brésil, au moyen de l´étude des images de sanctuaires et de religieux répandues par le biais de photographies et de narrations dans quatre congrégations françaises formées par des hommes et des femmes, créées à une époque – le XIXème siècle – qui est celui des apparitions de la Vierge: Les Sœurs de Notre-Dame du Calvaire, les Sœurs de la Sainte Famille de Bordeaux, les Missionnaires de Notre-Dame de la Salette et les Missionnaires de Notre-Dame de Sion. Au début du XXème siècle, les congrégations sont venues au Brésil dans le cadre du projet de l´Église, d´évangélisation et de diffusion de ce que l´on considérait comme étant la religion universelle. Prêtres et sœurs ont ainsi été, comme les commerçants et les conquérants, bien que de forme distincte, participants à la circulation internationale des idées. Ils ont assuré la promotion de l´éducation dans la doctrine catholique, basée sur la culture de leur groupe et de leur pays d´origine. Ils comptaient pour cela avec une organisation interne spécialisée, la Congregatio Propaganda Fide, ou Congrégation pour l´Évangélisation des Peuples, pour coordonner toute l´activité missionnaire de l´Église et propager la foi catholique dans le monde entier. La coopération internationale qui s´est intensifiée après la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale n´était pas une nouveauté pour l´Église, spécialement pour certains ordres tels que les jésuites, qui ont développé des missions dans le monde non-européen durant quatre siècles. Les congrégations catholiques créées au XIXème siècle, du fait qu´elles possédaient une structure différente des ordres anciens et qu´elles s´apparentaient à des entreprises modernes, avec des succursales disséminées dans le monde entier, disposaient d´une grande mobilité. À côté des livres didactiques et périodiques qui faisaient circuler les modèles et les pratiques pédagogiques, les congrégations étudiées ici faisaient circuler les images de prêtres, de sœurs, de la bonne et du bon catholique et de lieux de mémoire. En comprenant la réalité éducative comme un produit de construction culturelle liée à sa dimension sociale, la critique des sources, leurs conditions de production, de diffusion et de circulation, tout comme les idées et les sentiments qu´ils pouvaient mobiliser, on peut affirmer que s´élaboraient des stratégies de construction de la mémoire et d’éducation. Pour répondre aux questions de cette communication – comment les images créées sur l´origine de ces congrégations, sur les religieux et sur leurs lieux de mémoires ont été utilisées pour la construction de la mémoire? Quelle a été l´usage de ces images dans les congrégations d´hommes et dans les congrégations de femmes? – diverses sources seront utilisées: les narrations relatives à la fondation des congrégations (chroniques manuscrites) et les photographies diffusées au Brésil. Ces images, créées par la narration ou la photographie, révélaient des informations, mobilisaient les sensibilités et étaient utilisées de mode différent selon que les congrégations étaient formées par des hommes ou par des femmes.

The quest for recognition or a simple thank you? (Ghent orphan houses 1945-1984)



Lieselot DE WILDE, Ghent University, Belgium; Bruno VANOBBERGEN, Ghent University, Belgium

The city of Ghent has a long history of orphan houses, the first one dating back from the 13th century. In this research we focused on the last period in the history of the orphan houses, running from WWII until 1984. Throughout this period 1234 children were labelled as orphan and admitted in orphan houses organised by the bureau of social welfare of the city of Ghent. The archives reveal more than ¾ of these institutionalised children had at least one parent alive and in most cases had contact. Besides an extensive research in the archives of the Ghent Bureau of Social Welfare, 50 interviews with both former institutionalised orphan children as well as former employees of the orphan houses were conducted. Our key research goal was not to reconstruct ‘live as it was: the Ghent orphan houses’, but rather to gain insight in what it means to be orphaned. During these interviews it became clear that daily life within the orphan houses was often characterised by degrading activities. Most of the respondents tell a troubled life story and struggle with mixed feelings concerning their childhood in the orphan house. Numerous of them express some kind of a frustration concerning their residency in the orphan house. Today we notice, in Western societies a heightened sensitivity to all forms of violence against children in institutions. Evaluations of past governmental interventions appear necessary, with a focus on sexual or physical abuse of minors within the context of residential facilities and foster care. For instance in Norway, Denmark, Sweden and New Zealand the government established in recent years truth commissions to investigate the nature and extent of child abuse. Considering this recent trend the following question pops up: do these former orphans consider themselves as victims of a system and do they feel the need for any kind of recognition? An important guiding principle here is ‘the politics of apology’. This means that truth commissions should result in a policy of recognizing concerning the violence inflicted on the former institutionalised children. These truth commissions base their judgement on the stories, memories told by the alleged victims. It is a movement in which the dividing lines between politics and research are very thin. This recognition can be on an individual level (as in Norway, where victims receive financial compensation), or on a collective level (as in Sweden). We want to reflect on this recent trend - that originated in the third world– drawn upon the oral history research of the Ghent orphan houses. We debate the possibility to find a way beyond the politics of apology discourse and consider if (and how) oral history can be a means to recognition.



Transmission of Traditions and Generation Conflict: Processes of Enculturation in Lithuania in the 20th Century

Irena STONKUVIENE, Vilnius University, Lithuania

Tradition is perceived as one of the fundamental notions of the culturology. It marks various mechanisms of fixation, reproduction of socio-cultural experience, culture forms, social institutes, norms and symbols and their transmission from generation to generation. Tradition is not only a cultural but also a pedagogical category, which has become an educational rule. Some Lithuanian educational scientists argue that the educational role of traditions is the most essential one. On the other hand, a number of scientists tend to state that such role of tradition as that of a moral category and an unquestionable educational rule is most frequently observed in homogenous cultures. Homogeneity is particularly characteristic of agrarian cultures. Traditional Lithuanian culture is not an exception. However, Lithuania underwent considerable changes in the beginning of 19th century and particularly in the 20th century: role of rural communities as main protectors of traditions decreased, institution of the family was modernised and relations among family members changed as well as attitude to traditions and their transmission. In fact, changes were observed in the process of enculturation itself. Naturally, this change resulted in diverse attitudes of different generations towards a big number issues and even caused conflict situations. Following the theoretical insights of the scientists (Lukšiene, 2000; Noyes, 2009; Meijer, 2009; Trinkūnienė, 2007; Trommsdorff, 2009; et al ) various aspects of change in enculturation and traditions, as one of the main mechanisms of cultural transmission, are discussed. The empirical foundation of the presentation includes data of the longitudinal researches. From 1995 to 2003 the author of the presentation conducted researches on education in the Lithuanian rural community and family. Over 100 of qualitative ethnographic interviews with elderly respondents were conducted in various Lithuanian regions. This research made it possible to comprehensively describe peculiarities of traditional life and education. The research ‘Identity, Cultural Transmission and National Education’ conducted by a group of VU researchers in 2010 contributed to identification of different attitudes of generations towards national and alien traditions and their role in everyday life. The formation of the sample of this qualitative survey was based on the choice of ten 11th formers from different schools in Lithuania and their educators who have a direct relationship with the them in their educational process, i.e. ten study nests were formed each consisting of four respondents (a student - his/her father or mother - his/her grandmother or grandfather - his/her class teacher/s). It has been revealed that natural expression of tradition has lost a broader communal component and is mainly linked with the family. The hypotheses that the vertical intergeneration culture transmission give way to horizontal transmission, that senior generations loose authority were not proved. It became clear that students value families and the culture promoted in it. Their relations with grandparents are more productive than with their parents. The generation of parents seems to be more at a loss, have no strong beliefs. The hypotheses that youth is uncritically taking on traditions of other countries, such as those of the end of 20th century like Saint Valentine's Day, Halloween, is not confirmed by data as well.

Vendredi / Friday 11:00 - 13:00 Room: 5141

5.5. Histoire de l'éducation spéciale: la fabrication internationale des concepts / History of special Education: international building of concepts

Chair: Catherine KUDLICK

Why Needs Special Education? A Study of the Early History of Education for the Visually Disabled in Taiwan (1891-1945)



Tasing CHIU, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan

What is the purpose of special education, and why was there special education in the beginning? Industrialization and mandatory education have been considered two main reasons leading to the emergence of special education in the West. The disabled were unable to make a living in traditional ways due to the changes following industrialization, and thus needed to be reeducated in a special educational system. Moreover, those who were unfit for the regular education system were sent to special education to keep mass education running smoothly. However, special education in Taiwan did not follow the same path due to colonization by Japan between 1895 and 1945. Colonial educators tended to impose their own cultural disability biases on colonized subjects. This study will adopt postcolonial theory to initiate a deconstruction as well as an alternative narration of the discipline’s past in Taiwan. Documentary sources, government legislation, and oral histories will be used in this study.

“Abnormality” as a concept of Modernity and control in the Brazilian Republic

Monica KASSAR, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul - UFMS, Brazil

At the beginning of the 20th century, Brazilian health and education professionals incorporated and diffused the concept of “abnormal child” based on European scientific studies. Concerning that period of the Brazilian Educational History, this paper intends to highlight the relationships between the discourse present in European academic works and Brazilian educational laws at the beginning of the Brazilian Republic (at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century). For this purpose, documents (scientific papers and legislation) from the period were analyzed, taking into consideration historical and economic elements. This paper shows that, despite the fact that Brazil has ensured education “for all citizens” since its first 1824 Constitution (the Empire Constitution), in fact this country has not yet built a tradition in this area. In the course of the Republic, mainly in the first years of the 20th century, Brazilian public education was formed to build the concept of Brazilian People/Nation. In the period, several theoreticians in Europe diffused scientific psychology and pedagogy in coherence with the concept of Modernity. Under the scientific perspective, the concept of “abnormal” was adopted by Brazilian health and education professionals who worked in public hygiene organizations and were responsible to evaluate children for schools. The concept was then incorporated in laws and practices to identify “abnormal” children in school population with two purposes: to organize homogeneous classrooms, and/or to forbid such children to attend schools. This population encompassed disabled children and others from the poor society layers, identified as “delinquent” and “indecent”. The evaluation was conducted by considering external aspects that identified the “intelligent type” and the “weak type”. During a long time, the practice justified the absence of a lot of children from compulsory schooling and the organization of a few specialized classrooms and institutions. In fact, along almost the entire 20th century, Brazilian public education didn’t enrol these children. In the 1950s, while most European countries had universalized fundamental education, in Brazil less than 25% children between five and 19 years attended schools. The universalization of fundamental compulsory education has only been ensured over the last 15 years, still with great exclusion marks. Even nowadays, in different Brazilian schools, it is possible to find non-formal practices of children identification and categorization, with similar characteristics to those registered at the beginning of the last century.

Inclusion or Exclusion? International developments of the education of non-conforming pupils in primary schools in the second half of the 19th century



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