Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012


A.J. ANGULO, Winthrop University, U.S.A



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A.J. ANGULO, Winthrop University, U.S.A.

When it comes to foreign influences on American higher education, the historiography has largely focused on two dominant models: British and German. British patterns of collegiate instruction dominated how and what early Americans learned in college. The earliest colonial institutions, such as Harvard, Yale, and William and Mary, reflected the values and traditions that colonists brought with them -centered on discipline, morals, character, and a great deal of Latin and Greek- and set the standard for institutions that followed. The historiography suggests that this British, classics-centered monopoly began to erode in the nineteenth century. Germanic traditions of research and Wissenschaft started to make inroads by way of individual scientists who studied in Berlin, Leipzig, Gottingen, and Heidelberg and who returned to the United States ready to reform educational practices at home. The crowning achievement for this line of reformers appeared with the founding of a graduate-level, research-oriented institution - Johns Hopkins University in 1876. With the opening of Johns Hopkins, the story of European influences on American higher education often comes to a close. Reformers, from that point forward, took up the task of grafting graduate-level studies (German) upon the established undergraduate college (British). This gave rise to the American university. Missing from this story as it's often told is the French influence on American institutions. This is an oversight largely born out of a scholarly blind spot. The size, number, and significance of liberal arts colleges and research universities has cast a long shadow in the literature over the formation of specialized institutes of science and technology. In other words, attention to British and Germans models of education has in effect crowded out interest in the French. Despite the oversight, French models of higher education had a profound impact on nineteenth century American higher education. This paper will explore this understudied influence by first examining the science-centered reform fervor that gripped antebellum colleges. The reform fervor and the strong backlash that followed allowed for the rise of alternative, French-styled technical institutions. This study will then consider four case studies--West Point, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Clemson University - that offer a starting point for assessing how elements of the Parisian Ecole system, especially the Polytechnique, were transplanted in America. These four case studies either came into being as a result of a direct French influence or took on French patterns of science instruction that significantly characterized the nature of the institution's work. They did so within a context marked by dramatic change in terms of the classical college as well as public attitudes toward science instruction.



University academics: Between cultural Protestantism, studies of culture and education. Ideas of the sacred and the cultural sphere traveling between science and education across North European states 1890s-1930s

Mette BUCHARDT, Dept. of Media, Cognition and Communication, Division of Educational Theory, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

The liberal theologian movement, cultural Protestantism or new Protestantism, originated in German universities in the late part of the 19th century and became an inspiration among university theologians in the Nordic universities. In Denmark, Sweden and Finland this meant new ways for theologians to approach societal question, e.g. the question of education. Here as well as in relation to the question of science and religion, concepts and ideas where exchanged across states through network of transnational acting scholars, who where lecturing and publishing cross North European states. As an academic theologian movement the liberal theology aimed at developing new forms of Lutheranism, based on a scientific turn towards humanities and social studies in the university theology; Christianity should be studied as a historical and cultural phenomenon. The scientification and culturalization of Christianity and the Bible aimed at removing the so-called tradition-made irrational obstacles from the gospel, and instead paving the way for new forms of a scientifically cleaned Christianity suitable for modern society and the modern human being. Christianity should be dispersed within the culture by forming an active part of ‘the culture’ and as such engage in social and societal questions in the cultural sphere. The liberal theologian interest in e.g. education can be understood in such a light. This paper analyses how liberal theologians in the Nordic states engaged in questions of education for the population in compulsory schooling as well as popular education in a broader sense, in e.g. the question of religion, of women and of labor in education and from the last part of the 1910s in peace keeping through international education. All questions which are related to the development of what can be called the Nordic welfare states in its many historical layers and forms. The paper discusses how religion, science and culture is reshaped and transformed in the scientific and educational ideas developed by two collaborating liberal theologians and historians of Religion, namely the Swedish scholar and Bishop Nathan Söderblom and the Danish scholar Edvard Lehmann. This is done with special regards to their ideas on how schooling should contribute to developing state and culture and how this can be understood in light of their transnational network and activities, e.g. collaboration with Finish and German pedagogues, theologians and with non-theologian scholars of culture. The paper argues that on the one hand the liberal theologians acted on and contributed to the division of society in a sacred sphere and a worldly cultural sphere and as such to the process of secularization. On the other hand, it is argued that what is developed is a broader thinking of culture, society and nation state as sacred, where particular nations and cultures are celebrated, and where education in its many forms is seen as a central tool. And furthermore: that this body of ideas of a sacred particularity of the state which should be learned in school is to be seen as a transnationally developed body of knowledge.

Transfert culturel, mobilité et exil dans la genèse de l’Université de Zurich (1833-1839)



Moisés PRIETO, Universität Zürich, Suisse

La fondation de l’Université de Zurich en 1833 se situe dans le contexte de la régénération, mouvement libéral qui s’opposait à la restauration des forces réactionnaires. Impulsée par des politiciens libéraux et radicaux et voulue par le peuple, la nouvelle université deviendrait non seulement un instrument de modernisation et sécularisation de la société zurichoise mais aussi une voie par laquelle tous les citoyens pourraient grimper socialement, abolissant ainsi les privilèges du lignage ou de l’état. En outre, l’Université de Zurich substitua les trois instituts consacrés à la formation des prêtres protestants (Carolinum), des médecins et chirurgiens (allem. Medizinisch-Chirurgisches Institut) et des juristes (allem. Politisches Institut) par la création d’une faculté théologique, une de médecine, une de droit et, en outre, une faculté de philosophie, comprenant les sciences humaines et sciences naturelles. La mauvaise qualité et l’obsolescence de ces vieilles institutions avaient auparavant obligé ses étudiants à émigrer à l’étranger pour perfectionner les connaissances dans une vraie université, soit allemande ou française, comme le médecin Johannes Hegetschweiler, le juriste Johann Caspar Bluntschli ou le théologien Alexander Schweizer le firent. Par contre, le climat hostile qui régnait depuis les décisions de Karlsbad (1819) – d’où le regard critique des libéraux sur les universités de la Confédération germanique –, força beaucoup d’intellectuels allemands à émigrer en Suisse, comme les frères Ludwig et Wilhelm Snell, le médecin Johann Lukas Schönlein et le philosophe naturaliste Lorenz Oken, qui deviendra le premier recteur de l’Université de Zurich. Le nombre des immatriculations universitaires dans la première année de sa création nous montre que cette jeune institution attira aussi beaucoup d’étudiants allemands, car sur 209 étudiants inscrits en 1833 161 provenaient de la Suisse et 43 des principautés de la Confédération germanique. Cette affluence de capital intellectuel vers l’Université de Zurich – considérée de plus en plus un bastion du libéralisme et de la démocratie – déplut spécialement aux gouvernements prussien et bavarois qui décrétèrent la nullité des titres académiques obtenus à Zurich pour accéder à des charges politiques en Allemagne. En outre, la nomination en 1839 du théologien hégélien allemand David Friedrich Strauss, auteur du traité extrêmement polémique «La Vie de Jésus», comme professeur de la chaire de dogmatique, provoqua la colère de l’église protestante et des élites conservatrices qui mobilisèrent la population rurale contre le gouvernement cantonal. Même si Strauss fut mis à la retraite avant de fouler le sol zurichois, cette mobilisation culmina dans le «Züri-Putsch», une révolte qui provoqua la chute du gouvernement libéral. Toutes ces considérations nous invitent à focaliser notre attention sur les aspects transnationaux de l’histoire de l’université zurichoise, aspects conditionnés par les efforts d’améliorer le système éducatif supérieur, par la répression intellectuelle en Allemagne et par l’échange des étudiants zurichois. Ce pays n’exporta pas seulement des excellents académiciens mais aussi des intellectuels libéraux, démocrates et nationalistes qui eurent une répercussion importante dans la vie politique de la Confédération helvétique et dans la formation d’une république libérale en 1848.

Vendredi / Friday 11:00 - 13:00 Room: 4193

5.2. Réseaux religieux et construction de systèmes éducatifs nationaux / Religious networks and the building of national school systems

Chair: Marcelo CARUSO

The International Seminar on Religious Education and Values: John Hull and the mission of liberalising religious education in schools



Stephen PARKER, University of Worcester, United Kingdom; Rob FREATHY, University of Exeter, United Kingdom

The International Seminar on Religious Education and Values (ISREV) held its founding meeting in July 1978 in Birmingham, England. It was attended by participants from North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. It was co-founded by two contrasting personalities, John Hull (described as a charismatic Australian immigrant to the UK) and John Peatling (described as a reserved American). Meeting biennially at various locations around the world, ISREV has grown in membership from some 40 original members to around 200 members, along with an additional number of associates. This paper will trace the origins of ISREV at a time of significant change in Religious Education in England, and discuss the religious and academic backgrounds of the key intellectuals involved, specifically John Hull. Hull provided a theoretical framework for curriculum changes in Religious Education in England that were responses to the impact of insights drawn from cognitive psychology and increased religious plurality in English cities. ISREV’s function in transmitting and internationalizing liberal Christian ideas and discourses about Religious Education, specifically the extent to which the utopian norms of multi-faith Religious Education in English schools were distributed and circulated, will also be examined. The aims of the seminar were stated in intellectual and educational terms alone, but to what extent did it become a conduit for valorised notions of inter-religious and inter-cultural understanding elsewhere?

Catholic educational networks, modern pedagogy and politics in Western Europe between the World Wars (1918-1939)

Till KOESSLER, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany

Historical research has long been interested in the transnational dimensions of the educational reform movements as they developed around 1900. However, for the most part the scholarship has focused on a small avant-garde group of “progressive” pedagogues and educators. Other important transnational educational actors have been overlooked. This holds especially true for Catholicism. In my paper I will explore what educational and political implications the dialogue between Catholic pedagogues across national borders had in the years following World War I. I will particularly look at the Spanish and German Catholics. The Catholic Church and its teaching congregations were a major pedagogical force in modern Europe. It can even be argued that in countries like Belgium, Italy, Ireland, Poland and Spain Catholic education was far more important than any other educational milieu. In other countries like France, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland it at least played a significant role. Catholic education was especially sought after by important segments of the middle- and upper-classes. However, despite its influence there exists only a very limited amount of scholarship on the Catholic educational thought and practice. A main reason for this neglect is the general but false assumption that Catholic education did not participate in the overhaul of educational discourse and practices after 1900. Scholars have rarely paused to look at changes in Catholic pedagogy and education in more detail. My paper tackles two interrelated questions. First, I want to learn how integrated Catholic education was conceptually and organizationally across national boundaries in the first half of the twentieth century. Did there exist a closely-knit transnational network of Catholic pedagogues and teachers with a clear-cut pedagogy or is it more accurately to speak of a plurality of Catholic educational milieu with scarce contacts and different educational and political agendas? And how did transnational contacts develop over time? Were the first decades of the twentieth century marked by a new cohesion of formerly divergent Catholic traditions or did a pluralization of Catholic education took place? Second the paper explores the ways Catholic educational discourse participated in the international debates on educational reform. I will show that Catholic pedagogues closely followed the international reform debates, and in an intense transnational dialogue tried to develop their own version of modern education. Catholics spoke the international language of New Education with a special “Catholic accent”. A last section of my presentation will dwell on the political dimensions and implications of these developments. Did the new transnational contacts of Catholic educators lead to a liberalization of Catholic education? Or did they, on the other hand, strengthen intransigent positions of anti-democratic Catholicism?

Education and Faith: Luther ideas, German immigration to Brazil and the Establishment of Community-Organized Schools (19th-20th centuries)

Ademir Valdir dos SANTOS, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - UFSC, Brazil

The Lutheran Protestantism exists in Brazil, permanently, from the early 1900s. During that period and in the first decades of the 20 th century were settled in Southern Brazil thousands of German immigrants. Part of them brought Luther writings and ideas. Various aspects of Lutheranism were transmitted: faith was present in the Bible (LutherBibel), in hymnals, through preaching, in the religious teaching as well as in the mental representations of Lutheranism. It’s essential to highlight that were opened up community-organized schools associated with Lutheran churches. These institutions – the German schools – have their importance in a historical period of absence of public schools maintained by the Brazilian government especially in rural regions. This research is based on schools documents. It is assumed that through elementary schools the immigrants have applied that principle advocated by Luther: “on keeping children in school” as an important means of producing responsible citizens and people of faith. In those schools the teaching was a responsibility of pastors and of the people from the communities and it was held in German language, based on a curriculum that focused on European culture. In despite of this were studied some aspects of the Brazilian culture and Portuguese language. Those pedagogical practices have contributed to the perpetuation of an ethnic identity in contrast to the Brazilian environment. In those early times the solidarity and social cohesion were reinforced based on the maintenance of attitudes and cultural traditions from Germanic origins. For those reasons German immigrants and their descendants were persecuted and viewed as a threat during a nationalization campaign of the dictatorial government of Getúlio Vargas (1937-1945), a period called “Estado Novo”. In 1938 the German schools were prohibited by federal decrees. It was banned the use of German language and functioning of all kind of German cultural institutions (churches, clubs, shooting associations, e.g.). However the foundations of "Germanity" and Lutheranism have already taken deep roots. After that period of repression some social institutions continued their activities, including some schools. Currently, there is a system of schools and universities associated to Lutheran churches that are scattered throughout Brazilian territory which is sustained by Luther ideas in an ecumenical context.



Academia Juarez – A Case Study in Religion-Led International Education

Scott ESPLIN, Brigham Young University, U.S.A.; Barbara MORGAN, Brigham Young University, U.S.A.

For centuries, religious institutions have recognized the power of education to both resist and effect change. Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists, and scores of other faiths have used education to transmit values from one generation to the next. However, they have also used its power in international expansion to proselytize civilizations, transform society, and unite people of different backgrounds. In its own brief two centuries of existence, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (more commonly known as the Latter-day Saints or Mormons) has used global education for many of the same purposes. As a microcosm of educational change, the faith has undergone periods of educational isolationism, imperialism, and unity. This paper will analyze the international education system of the Mormon Church, using its longest operating international school, the Academia Juarez in Colonia Juarez, Mexico as a case study. The Academia Juarez, located in the northern Mexico state of Chihuahua, was established in 1897 as an outpost for Mormons fleeing the United States in the face of federal anti-polygamy legislation. Though the faith has long abandoned the practice of plural marriage, the settlers and the secondary school they established survive as an educational oasis in northern Mexico. Initially serving the children of English-speaking Mormon settlers, the school today educates more than 400 students annually, roughly three-fourths of who are members of the sponsoring faith. However, unlike the schools first decades of existence, the student population is dominated by Latin American students who are taught and expected to become bilingual. While the school thrives, it exists as an anomaly in Mormon educational practice. Church leadership discontinued more than twenty similar schools across the United States and Canada in the 1920s and 1930s, replacing them with an expansive supplementary religion program that serves more than 700,000 students worldwide today. In doing so, they generally relinquished secular education to the public sphere, focusing instead on religious instruction. However, select elementary and secondary schools remain in established locations like Mexico, Samoa, Fiji, Kiribati, and Tonga, where the faith operates schools for more than 7000 students. Among these schools, Academia Juarez has become the flagship. For more than one hundred years, the Academia Juarez has gone through various educational phases. Originally serving an isolationist purpose, it educated Anglo, English-speaking children sequestered in northern Mexico. As the faith grew globally, it eventually used schools like the one in Colonia Juarez to reach native populations, introducing local children, and eventually their parents, to the English language, American-style schools, and the tenets of the Mormon faith. A history of the school illustrates interesting examples of cultural transfer and exchange. Moreover, economic, political, cultural, and geographic barriers between the U.S. based faith and this Mexican school highlight issues of class and race in international education. The story of Academia Juarez demonstrates successes and failures in administering a religion-led global education system.

Vendredi / Friday 11:00 - 13:00 Room: 5189

5.3. Emergence connectée des systèmes scolaires II / Connected emergence of school systems II

Chair: Nadine FINK

Dans l´attente d´un “miracle”: l´organisation du temps autonome et moderne des écoles primaires de São Paulo et le rôle des fêtes dans la célébration de leurs «progrès», sur le modèle des pays «civilisés» (1870-1920)



Rita de Cassia GALLEGO, Faculdade de Educação da Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil; Renata Marcilio CANDIDO, Faculdade de Educação da Universidade de São Paulo/UNIBAN, Brasil; Vivan Batista SILVA, Faculdade de Educação da Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil

Au long du 19ème siècle, l´expansion d´une école que l´on voulait accessible à tous (gratuite, obligatoire, publique et laïque) était en cours dans différents pays comme l´Angleterre, l´Allemagne (la Prusse), l´Autriche, la France, l´Espagne, le Portugal et les Etats-Unis. La référence constante à ces pays dans les documents officiels et pédagogiques de cette période nous permet d´affirmer que le Brésil s´inspira de leur modèle pour organiser ses propres systèmes publics d´enseignement dans les diverses Provinces. En effet, au Brésil, entre la moitié du 19ème et la première moitié du 20ème siècle, le défi consistait à mettre en place un modèle d´école inspiré des pays dits «civilisés». Bien qu´il y ait déjà un certain nombre d´écoles primaires en fonctionnement et la diffusion progressive d´un temps scolaire fondé sur un modèle «moderne» de l´école, c´est en 1893 que la création des groupes scolaires est décrétée dans l´état de São Paulo. Un temps proprement scolaire est alors généralisé à toutes les écoles primaires, qu´elles soient catégorisées «groupes scolaires» ou non. Ce modèle, comme l´illustre la multiplication des actions officielles (réformes, lois, orientations et matériaux pédagogiques) mais aussi celle des fêtes scolaires, alliées dans la légitimation d´une institution encore en construction, représentait le «miracle» à atteindre. Notre communication vise à montrer comment les groupes scolaires se sont constitués dans l´état de São Paulo, et, plus particulièrement, comment s´est établi un temps proprement scolaire entre 1870 et 1920, inspiré par les changements éducatifs en cours dans d´autres pays considérés comme plus modernes et dont les héritages dépassent le 19ème siècle, l´école primaire et l´éducation en elle-même. Les questions qui l´orientent soulignent le souci de lier nos recherches de «mestrado» et de doctorat, à savoir: quel fût le rôle des fêtes scolaires et en quoi contribuèrent-elles à la modernisation de l´enseignement? Que fallait-il célébrer et comment dans l´école graduée (mass schooling) du monde occidental? Nous avons réuni des sources telles que: législation, rapports des inspecteurs et professeurs, revues pédagogiques, manuels pédagogiques. Ces documents montrent l´existence d´une harmonie discursive et d´actions entre le Brésil (São Paulo, en particulier) et les différents pays servant de référence. On peut aussi noter la création d´une culture des écoles primaires (Julia, 2001), ayant des aspects communs mais aussi des aspects particuliers, liés aux dynamiques locales. Cette dimension locale a demandé des adéquations et (ré) inventions, ce qui a rendu possible la production de cultures scolaires (Frago, 1995).

L’émergence de l’école rurale dans l’état du Minas Gerais, Brésil et les rapports au modèle français d’enseignement primaire (1892-1899)



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