Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012


Cristina ALARCON, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Chile /Germany



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Cristina ALARCON, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Chile /Germany

This paper deals with a unique cultural transfer process between Chile and the Second German Empire that took place between 1885 and 1920. In the complex dynamics of the search and construction of models in which Latin American elites engaged as perspective to modernization and progress towards the end of the 19th century, Chilean liberals, unlike most of its neighboring countries, instituted the Second German Empire as a “reference society”. Following the “state reformism form above” the aim of liberal reformers was to consolidate an inclusive nation-state through the reception of German models, discourses and practices. The so called “German educational reform” introduced by these reformers resulted not only in an expansion of the public education's physical, human and technological resources and in the introduction of a universal curriculum reform in accordance with the principles of the German philosopher and pedagogue Johann Friedrich Herbart, but also in the foundation of a Secondary Teacher Training Institute (Instituto Pedagógico). This institution, aimed at the “instruction of instructioners”, served not only as a catalyst for the process of professionalization of state secondary teachers but also represented a “multiplier effect” of the reform principles. The paper focuses on the constitution process of this institution – first of its kind in Latin America. The selective reception of German models and practices by the Chilean Reformers and German Teachers, that considered the specificity of national needs, led to the invention of an institution with a clearly hybrid flavor. Firstly, because of its academic character, as it was part of the Faculty of Philosophy and Humanities of the national university; secondly, because of the configuration of a curricula centered on natural sciences, humanities as well as letters, that was closely linked to the concentric curricular reform being implemented in secondary schools; thirdly, because of the innovative conception of a training-model which aimed to train specialized “Subject-Teachers” (Fachlehrer); fourthly, because of the configuration of a practice-based teacher training model with inclusion of an Herbartian “model school”; fifthly, because of the singular examination model that include scientific work like the production of a diploma-thesis; and finally, because of the introduction of a unique secondary teacher diploma called “State teacher” (profesor de Estado). The “Instituto” also established “Pedagogy” and “Experimental Psychology” as academic disciplines in Chile and turned also into a center of progressive political thought. The thesis of this paper is that regarding the secondary teacher training the reception process of German Models in Chile was not primarily of reproductive, but mostly of productive character. An institution was founded that would represent a unique synthesis - a “sui generis” Teacher Training Institution, not simply a “bad copy” of a European model. At a Latin-American level, the creation of the Institute also originated a circular flow of knowledge and practices, since it was constructed as continental “model of reference” itself. This paper, based mainly on primary sources of Chilean and German archives, seeks to reconstruct this Reception-Process using the methodical categorization of Jürgen Schriewer (2001) and Steiner-Khamsi (2003): Externalization, Recontextualization and Internalization.

Voices and glances of the history of education in mexico to the Light of new primary sources: the polemic Miguel F. Martínez and Enrique C. Rébsamen about normal education in Mexico and its internationalistic Fundamentals



Belinda ARTEAGA CASTILLO, Universidad Pedagógica Nacional, México; Siddharta CAMARGO ARTEAGA, DGESPE (SEP), México

The DGESPE through the Community of Historical Education (CONEHI), allows today in our country to preserve and circulate not only the historical archives of the normal schools but also the private archives of some mexican teachers. In this way, were organized 15 historical archives in normal schoools and 10 private archives. The paper we present is based on documents that are part of the Miguel F. Martínez archive kept and protected until now by his family. And the ones that refer to Rébsamen they can be consulted in the historical archive at Benemérita y Centenaria Escuela Normal Veracruzana. The paper is centered in the debate (1890 – 1910) between Enrique C. Rébsamen and Miguel F. Martínez about the normal schools and its importante in the formation of the mexican teachers. It is specially important for us to rescue the referentes to the International models that both intellectuals did as key fundaments of their own proposals.



Lettres d'Angleterre - Echange éducationnel entre l'Angleterre et le Portugal

Aurea Esteves SERRA, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia de Birigui, Brasil

Ce texte est issu de fragments de la recherche doctorale achevée en 2010 auprès de l'UNESP, Marilia / SP sous la direction de la Professeure, Dr. Ana Clara Nery Bortoleto (UNESP) ainsi que le co-directeur de l'étranger, Dr. Joaquim Chardonneret (Université de Lisbonne), axée sur les pratiques (éducatives) dans les écoles normales de São Paulo (Brésil) et du Portugal. De tels procédés étaient destinés à former le normaliste pour les applications pédagogiques et collégiales afin d'être développées dans les écoles primaires. Ainsi cette intervention présente les “Lettres d'Angleterre”, des contributions rédigées par Frédéric Duarte, un résident portugais à Manchester qui s'est transféré en Angleterre vraisemblablement en 1911 pour suivre le cours en génie textile à l'Université de Manchester et, en décembre 1912, a reçu l'invitation de son ami Justin Vasconcelos afin d'écrire des lettres qui seront publiées dans la quinzaine “O Alvorecer (L'Agitateur?)”, organisée par les normalistes de l'Ecole Normale de Porto sur l'éducation en Angleterre avec l'intention de motiver les futurs enseignants des écoles primaires au Portugal, une fois que Frédéric Duarte était devenu collègue d'école des normalistes à Porto. Le journal O Alvorecer constitue un bimensuel pédagogique, littéraire et scientifique. Organe des normalistes de Porto publié du 25 avril 1912 au 25 avril 1914, il se compose d'un journal de quatre pages avec parution tous les 15 jours. Duarte rédige, au total, sept lettres publiées entre la fin de 1912 et les premiers mois de 1913. Dans ses publications, l'auteur aborde divers aspects très hétéroclites à cette époque de l'éducation, objet de diffusion (circulation) et d'échange entre l'Angleterre et le Portugal. L'utilisation de tracts comme une source de recherches en éducation est remis en question par Marta Carvalho (1998) lors d'une tentative de transformation visant à reconfigurer l'Histoire de l'éducation, dont l'issue est l'histoire culturelle, en particulier sur la base des écrits de Chartier et Certeau. L'auteur décrit les considérations autour de ces changements qui viennent d'«abolir la démarcation des frontières rigides» entre l'histoire des institutions scolaires et l'histoire des idées pédagogiques. Donc, pour l'analyse, l'on utilise les discours véhiculés dans l'histoire culturelle, en tenant compte des notions de représentation, avec Chartier (1990), et de la stratégie de Certeau (1982). Selon l'analyse des lettres susmentionnées, diverses relations peuvent être établies par les sujets exposés par l'auteur, instruments de l'affirmation et propagation des idéaux culturels, éducatifs et politiques en vigueur en Angleterre dans le début du XXe siècle. Les lettres dans leur ensemble, d'une richesse extraordinaire, favorisent la compréhension de la constitution de l'éducation au Portugal, ainsi que la perception de son extension, les affrontements et les conflits entre les étudiants, les enseignants et les administrateurs, enfin, les lignes directrices tantôt internes concernant la formation, tantôt externes, comme le professeur en exercice. Les "Lettres d'Angleterre" peuvent être considérées comme un moyen de transmission d'idées sur l'éducation dans lequel circulent des connaissances éducatives de l'Angleterre dans une autre culture, en l'occurence le Portugal une fois que la quinzaine O Alvorecer était diffusée dans toutes les écoles normales du Portugal.

Complementary and Normal Schools Of Piracicaba - Brazil (1897-1921)



Tony HONORATO, State University of Londrina, Brazil; Carlos MONARCHA, Paulista State University, Brazil

This article is the result of a completed PhD research about the history of Complementary and Normal School of Piracicaba, figures modeled in training primary school teachers within the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The research dealt with the historical process of Complementary and Normal Schools of Piracicaba (1897-1921). It was aimed to interpret the constitution of the Schools of Piracicaba as figurations, to characterize teacher training as a reference and demonstrate civilizing power relations based on the elements of school culture. The theoretical and methodological procedures fell on the proposal of Norbert Elias, particularly Figurational Sociology and Theory of Civilizing Processes. It was elected, as a primary source, historical manuscripts, printed papers and legislation relating to schools surveyed. The period defined between 1897 and 1921 justifies its inception in 1897 by the introduction of Complementary Piracicaba and its end because its transformation into Normal School, which was considered as a reference in the context of the Reformation of 1920, given its educational and cultural effervescence caused by a group of teachers and intellectuals linked to Sampaio Doria. Teachers from the School of Piracicaba alluded to in the theoretical formulations of Pestalozzi, Froebel, Spencer, and Calkins, who were agents representing a model of education internationalization. It was concluded that, in addition to producing the image of modern man and civilized society in Republican figurations Piracicaba lived along its historical balance of power in a network of schools to train teachers, thus implying a further reduction of power the prestigious Normal Capital School of São Paulo.



Vendredi / Friday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 4389

4.3. Idées et travaux d'acteurs individuels: la diffusion de réformes éducatives par-delà le temps et l’espace / Global individuals actors' ideals and works: the diffusion of educational reforms over time and spaces

Chair: Pierre-Philippe BUGNARD

Le pasteur-pédagogue Louis Frédéric François Gauthey (1795-1864)



Anne RUOLT, CIVIIC, Université de ROUEN, France

Avec Louis Frédéric François Gauthey (1795-1864), pédagogue aujourd’hui oublié, notre communication s’inscrit dans l’histoire des idées éducatives au XIXe siècle en Suisse romande et en France. Ancien pasteur et ami de Pestalozzi, la carrière de Gauthey s’orienta vers la formation des maîtres: il fut le premier directeur de l’École Normale du Canton de Vaud de 1834 à 1845, avant de diriger celle fondée par la Société pour l’Encouragement de l’Instruction Primaire parmi les Protestants de France à Courbevoie de 1846 à 1864. Ami aussi d’Alexandre Vinet, ses choix politiques le poussèrent à démissionner de son poste, avec 160 autres pasteurs, en 1844, lorsque les radicaux accédèrent au pouvoir dans le Canton de Vaud. À partir de ses écrits, et en particulier de son triangle pédagogique, nous montrerons quelles furent les caractéristiques principales de la pédagogie «pananthropique» qu’il fonda sur son anthropologie. Sa proximité d’idées avec celles de Guizot en France nous servira de second indicateur pour situer Gauthey dans le réseau des acteurs protestants ayant adopté les idées du Réveil de Genève versus ceux qui adoptèrent le libéralisme théologique comme Ferdinand Buisson, artisan des lois Ferry (1881-1882) en France. Dans la cartographie des idées pédagogique, Gauthey serait-il le type d’une «pédagogie du mômier» oubliée, qui fut pourtant aussi celle du mouvement des Écoles du Dimanche, précurseur de par la Société pour l’Encouragement de l’Instruction Primaire parmi les Protestants de France, reliée sans l’expliciter formellement aux théories du Galilée de l’Éducation: Comenius?

Internationalization, Marxism and the History of Education: Brian Simon and Mario Manacorda

Marisa BITTAR, Institute of Education (IOE), Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Brazil

This paper focuses on the thought of two European Marxist intellectuals of the twentieth century and their contribution to the history of education. The Italian Mario Alighiero Manacorda (1917- ) and the Englishman Brian Simon (1915-2002) lived and worked in the same period and shared many of the same intellectual networks. They both turned to Marxism in the 1930s as a response to the escalating Nazi-fascist threat, and after the war they engaged in political struggles for education as one of the forms required for democratization. Both were committed to developing a Marxist approach to the history of education, and they were both active in promoting international connections in the field. In both cases their work had an affinity with the Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci. However, there were some significant differences between them, including those of language and culture, and their international networks were also different from each other. Brian Simon had a large international network, including as a founding member of ISCHE, and became the most important historian of education in England by criticizing the liberal vision, rejecting the traditional historiography, which praised as "pioneers" of British education reformers of the nineteenth century. For him, on the contrary, the true "pioneers" of education were the workers and their political organizations (Simon 1998, McCulloch, 2011). Manacorda became one of the greatest interpreters of Gramsci but developed a different international network. Well known in Brazil, he is unknown in the United Kingdom, where his books are not translated into English. Inspired by the Gramscian conception and in the context of education reforms in the second half of the twentieth century in Italy, he defended single school for all, fighting the distinction between humanistic education for the elite and preparatory school for the world of work (‘scuola unica’). He insists on the need for a new humanism integrating these two formative moments (Manacorda 1995, 2005). It is possible to conclude that the two authors understood education as a possibility of change, emphasizing the flexibility and complexity of the interrelationship between education and society, a Gramscian principle. They have made significant contributions to the internationalisation of the history of education and to international Marxist thought, while operating in distinct and largely separate networks.

How has a local educator become an international master: the legacy of Jan Hus leaving Bohemia

Thiago BORGES de AGUIAR, University of São Paulo, Brazil

Jan Hus (1369?-1415) is known in the History of Education as an “influence” on the ideas of Luther or a distant religious leader who “inspired” Jan Komenský (Comenius). In our doctoral dissertation, we showed that his legacy is more than religious, because it establishes the basis of a cultural and educational Czech movement whose main values are: use of vernacular, freedom of thought and action, defense of the truth and educating through an exemplar life. On this paper, we show the construction and remembering of this legacy throughout the sixteenth to twentieth centuries on an international expansion outside Bohemia. To do so, we follow the writings of those who have translated Hus’ letters or written about him. Based on Carlo Ginzburg historical approach, in which the cultural circulation is expressed in terms of a “flexible cage” inside which subjects interact, we perform text analysis on the documentation, looking for sings, clues and traces left by its authors that point out to an reinterpretation of that educational legacy. We begin by outlining that legacy from Hus’ letters and the report written right after his death by one of his followers, Petr of Mladoňovice (beginning of the 15th century), in which the bohemian priest is defined as a master. After we show how Martin Luther has adapted that legacy to perform a role in the Council of Trent, analyzing the preface he wrote to his edition of the bohemian priest’s letters (beginning of 16th century). From German to England we compare Mladoňovice’s report to the Book of Martirs, by John Foxe (second half of 16th century). We go, then, to France and see how the translation of Hus’ letters by Emille de Bonnechose (middle of 19th century) emphasizes the freedom of conscience. While Bonnechose wrote to the protestants, an article published in the Revue Spirite, only a few decades after, performs an approach of Jan Hus and the newborn Spiritism, calling him a predecessor of this new movement and a master, defender of the truth. Back to England, now in the first years of the 20th century, we will find an edition of Hus’ letters in English (Workman & Pope) in which the preface and notes tries to link the bohemian priest to Luther not just as an influence: they both taught the same. In the second half of the 20th century we may find Hus’ legacy rewritten in four different contexts: in the publications of the church historian Matthew Spinka (USA), in a doctorate dissertation of the teacher and preacher Renato Oberg (Brazil), in a M.A. dissertation of the history student Tim Chodan (Canada) and in a speech of the pope John Paul II, concerning a seminar set in Vatican. Each remembering action of Hus collaborated to the construction of a myth, a figure of a master, defender of the truth, mainly through a religious motivation. Religion worked as a means of internalization for a Czech educator, and both his letters and Mladoňovice’s account were the main sources for that.

Antonio da Silva Jardim and Circulation of the “Method João de Deus” in Brazil

Franciele Ruiz PASQUIM, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Brazil

In this text, are presented partial results of a master research in Education (CAPES) linked to the Gphellb – Research Group “History of Teaching Language and Literature in Brazil” and of the Integrated Research Projects “Brazilian Bibliography about History of Teaching Language and Literature in Brazil (2003-2011)” (CNPq). All of them were coordinated by Maria do Rosário Longo Mortatti in order to contribute to the comprehension of the thought of Antonio da Silva Jardim (1860 - 1891) about teaching of reading and writing. The paper is focused on the proposal presented in the document Reforma do ensino da lingua materna (1884), written by Silva Jardim (1860-1891), teacher in the Normal School of São Paulo. By means of historical approach, focusing on documentary and bibliographical research, using procedures such as locating, recovering, assembling, selecting and ordering documentary sources, it was elaborated a research guide that contains textual references written by Silva Jardim and by other authors who mention or cite Silva Jardim. The analysys of the document focuses on different aspects that make up its meaning, and has contributed to its understanding: the aspects that Silva Jardim considered most important for teaching of reading and writing, namely, the method of "palavração" proposed by the positivist poet João de Deus, born in Portugal; and that the Silva Jardim reform was part of his project to transform the Brazil into a republic,characteristic of the end of the XIXth century.



Tavares Bastos (1839-1875) and Education in the Empire: Dialoguing with European and North American Models

Juliana CESARIO HAMDAN, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto - UFOP, Brasil

This study aims to delve into the ways in which a set of notions proposed by a jurist from Alagoas, Brazil, Aureliano Cândido Tavares Bastos (1839-1875), articulated around relevant issues at his time and, focusing on education, contributed to the conception and widespread of an ideology of life in Brazil. The analysis of his writings suggests that his purpose was to bring together all those who lived in Brazil in order to form a modern idea of a Brazilian people. Thereby, the effort here is to have a more precise grasp of the ways he would use to express the understanding of what he would consider modern and what would make a difference in Brazilian society in order to overcome obstacles towards progress. At first, we found that the intellectual builds assertions in alignment with statistics, studies, and European and North American thinkers. We are considering that ideas, concepts and arguments deployed by Brazilian intellectuals when elaborating their views of what could become a modern Brazil express ambiguous ways of thinking, but are also coordinated and consistent towards the understanding that it is urgent to transform the present state of affairs, especially if comparing the achievements and the processes that enable the society to achieve progress with those being developed in Europe, in general, and the United States, in a particular way, especially in the case of Tavares Bastos. So, we explored how the intellectual mobilizes the set of ideas originated in those countries to build his proposition for instruction. We intend to promote the development of a theory regarding the role of Brazilian intellectuals in the construction of the public domain and reach the understanding of the notions of modern, modernity and modernization, with the appropriation of ideas in the parsed period. With that in mind, we defined some research protocols, from which research should be structured. So, we intend to identify and analyze the vocabulary and concepts present in the material of the intellectual in focus, noticing the strength that words have in certain contexts; to identify and analyze the ways that words and speeches are brought to existence, designed and appointed, relating them to the thinkers adopted by the intellectual; to relate the object /subject search with the construction of social thinking and the Brazilian public sphere, in general, and education in particular; to identify and analyze the sociabilities, the ambience, the dialogues, the tension in the debates , and among debaters, also as part of their repertoire, that is, identify and analyze the repertoire deployed by the subjects in the debates. As notes of an incipient path, we pointed out that in the thinking and ideas of what is modern for Tavares Bastos, education and the abolition of slavery would take up a place of absolute centrality. Through a well-defined, persistent and with funding provided by the state, the Brazilian nation would have all the requirements for getting closer to those seen as more progressive if political efforts in that direction would be gathered together.

Vendredi / Friday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 4393

4.4. Education à la citoyenneté et à la démocratie / Education to citizenship and democracy

Chair: Nadine FINK

School reform and education for peace: Wilhelm Lamszus (1881-1965), a Hamburg educational reformer and his fight against weapons of mass destruction



Andreas PEHNKE, Universität Greifswald, Germany

It was none of Germany’s eminent poets of that time but Wilhelm Lamszus, an ordinary teacher of a German Volksschule, who wrote the first children’s book against the forthcoming World War One. Das Menschenschlachthaus was published 100 years ago, two years before the outbreak of the war, in a time when war literature was considered a recommendable reading for children. The book was published in seventy editions and translated into seventy languages; it reached bestseller status. That the preface of the book was written by Henri Barbusse for the French edition, by Martin Andersen Nexö for the Danish edition and by Carl von Ossietzky for the German edition is proof of its significance. Das Menschenschlachthaus was soon used for peace initiatives. The Sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands, for example, decided to publish an inexpensive but unabridged edition of 20.000 copies for the working classes on a congress in September 1913. The book was also well received in pacifist organisation, on the 5. German Peace Congress in Berlin as well as on the 19. International Peace Congress in Geneva. At the same time it is well to remember the reprisals Lamszus had to face, reacting on the enor-mous effects of his anti-war literature that was even discussed in governmental circles. Reviled as ‘bad German’, ‘neurasthenic coward’ or ‘unpatriotic fellow’, Lamszus was soon dismissed from the teaching service. The great response to his visionary images of the imminent war made Lamszus continue his way. Even though Das Menschenschlachthaus was not able to fight the domination of mass literature glorifying war, it became one of the most-read anti-war books of its time. Its sequel, Das Irrenhaus, appeared as early as 1914 but could only be published after the end of the war. Der verlorene Sohn, a narrative also published in 1914, is the only work that gives a realistic impression of imperialistic colonial policy when compared to other German or French titles of this literary genre. At that time the policy of the former imperial Reichskolonialamt had to be officially followed. The majority of the government officials, also the conservative school bureaucracy, ambitiously followed this line. It is impressive to see how Lamszus found means to literarily deal with the experiences of war. On the occasion of the 10. anniversary of the first use of chemical weapons of mass destruction in the Belgian town Ypern (April 22, 1915) by German troops, Lamszus performed his play Giftgas in Hamburg. When an accident in Hamburg Harbour in May 1928, in which 12 people died and 200 were injured while loading phosgene gas, revealed that Germany produced war gas despite prohibition in international law, Lamszus wrote a new and more contemporary foreword in a reprint of his Menschenschlachthaus. He warns the reader against chemical as well as biological weapons of mass destruction. It was also in that time when he wrote Giftgas über uns. On the verge of the seizure of power by the National Socialists no publisher was willing accept the book. As a precautionary measure against Nazis, Lamszus decided to immure the manuscript and other texts that had become dangerous in his Hamburg tenement. Not until 2005 was it rediscovered and published in the following year. Lamszus’ anthology Der große Totentanz was written during the Second World War, in spite of a prohibition to write, performance and exercise an occupation, with which he was reprimanded by the Nazis. In his prose play Der Forscher und der Tod included in the anthology, Lamszus as the very first in the German-speaking area and under the impression of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, warns against

“Learn[ing] neatness, good manners, and American ways”: teaching citizenship in the schools on Ellis Island




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