Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012

Lígia PENIM, Instituto de Educação da Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

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Lígia PENIM, Instituto de Educação da Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

Along the XIX and XX centuries there were author’s excerpts that have been used in the high school education of the Portuguese Language and Literature, in Portugal and Brazil. They are the canonic masterpieces of these two national literatures. The historical and colonial link between Portugal and Brazil led them to cultural exchanges. However, my focus is the post-colonial period. My goal is to reflect on the permanence of some Portuguese literature authors in the canon of the Brazilian school education; and, in the opposite direction, to understand how the Portuguese language curriculums, in Portugal, embraced the Brazilian literature authors, the authors of its former colony. Some Portuguese writers are also part of the Brazilian literary canon, to the extent that their masterpieces were written in the Brazilian territory and they are part of its history, even though as a colony. After the Brazilian independence, several literary works and Portuguese writers had a major importance in the Brazilian cultural context, like Eça de Queirós or Fernando Pessoa, and have been promoted in their schools. During the XX century, with the cultural borders totally defined, the Portuguese literature kept being studied in the Brazilian high school education. The Portuguese literature seemed to represent a curricular heritage recognized and considered, in large scale, as the historical matrix of the Brazilian literature itself. While the cultural roots of the Brazilian people were searched in the Portuguese literature, the Brazilian literature started to reveal itself as a national cultural heritage. The Brazilian authors and their works revealed themselves as a literary canon, leading to historical and national coherent narratives, organized into periods, styles and literary movements. Besides the variety of writings, they have been projected as a strong national cultural unit, for which the high school had been used as a vehicle for promotion. The cultural exchange of literary works and Brazilian authors in the Portuguese high school wasn’t so significant and undertaken. They had a sporadic character and appearance in the Portuguese literature books. However, there were historical moments (such as the late XIX century or after the reform of 1947-48) in which some sections of the Brazilian literature became part of the high school education in Portugal and some Brazilian authors, like Machado de Assis, appear in literary school books. Understanding the reasons for the neglect and / or the appreciation of the Brazilian literature in the Portuguese education are the goals of my work. I believe that the positions assigned to the literature curriculum of the Other, the ancient metropolis or the ancient colony, weren’t purely esthetic options. These choices of literary taste were crossed by the powers that organized the cultural and educational fields as well as the political relations between the two states, Portugal and Brazil. I intend to discuss how this literary exchanges and appropriations have been done and their influence in the Portuguese and Brazilian politics.

Jeudi / Thursday 14:30 - 16:30 Room: 5193

3.6. Universités dans des pays en développement: adapter des standards étrangers / Universities in developping countries: adopting foreing standards

Chair: Peri MESQUIDA

The Adaptation Question Education in Africa: A study of the role of British Universities in adapting Secondary Education to Local Environment in Colonial Nigeria 1916-1936

Israel OSOKOYA, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

The Adaptation Question in Education in Africa A study of the Role of the British Universities in Adapting Secondary School Examination to Local Environment in Colonial Nigeria 1916-1936 The debate on the unsuitability of western formal education to the African environment was quite fierce in the first three decades of the 20th century. This invariably gave rise to the widespread discussion on the question of adapting western education to suit the local needs particularly in the British Colonial African territories In Nigeria, a leading critic of the western school system was Walter Miller; a medical doctor turned a missionary. Miller noted that the educated Nigerian was usually a spoiled, degenerated creature, vicious, unreliable and immoral. He therefore condemned the British system of education implanted in Nigeria which he claimed promoted bribery and corruption in the society while stealing became universal in the Nigerian hospitals. In a similar vein, Henry Carr, a Nigerian official with the Department of Education in August 1915 wrote to lament on the products of the Nigerian schools. He remarked that the products of western education in Nigeria were not reliable, and not fitted for positions requiring independent judgement or resourcefulness. The first governor of Nigeria, Lord Lugard, shared similar views and despised the products of the school system in Nigeria. He frequently referred to the unfavorable comments on Nigerian elites and agreed that Nigerian elites were usually unreliable, lacking in integrity, discipline, self-control and without respect for authority. He concluded that education had brought to young men in Nigeria discontent, suspicion of others and bitterness and thus were unfitted to hold post of trust and responsibility where integrity and loyalty are essential. This was the background to the adaption philosophy advanced between 1916 and 1936. The philosophy was centred around the need to design a different educational system, curriculum and examination for Nigerians and generally to adapt the existing system of education to suit local needs. The adaptation argument appeared persuasive, was given full official backing, massive publicity and received considerable support in Britain and Nigeria. This paper would attempt to critically examine the Origins of the adaptation question during the early decades of the 20th century. Since examinations controls the curriculum and whoever controls a country’s examination system controls its education, the paper will also critically examine the roles of the following English universities on the adaptation questions. They are the Cambridge University Syndicate for local examination, the Oxford Delegacy for local examination and the university of London Matriculation Board which controlled secondary school leaving certificate examination in Nigeria during the period under study. It will finally evaluate the difficulties posed to an adapted education by British Government and her institutions in the colonial Nigeria.

Internationalization of Higher Education in Malaysia and the Philippines: A Comparative Analysis of Mission and Vision Statements of Universities

Francisco DUMANIG, University of Malaya, Malaysia; Maya Khemlani DAVID, University of Malaya, Malaysia

Higher education plays an important role in developing and producing new experts in various fields. To produce experts is not easy but it has become the common thrust of many universities. Such an aim is reflected in the mission and vision statements of most universities. Although in the past the concept of internationalization was not given importance by many universities, with the emergence of globalization the goal of internationalization has become a major aim of most universities. It is therefore the focus of this paper to examine the goals of internationalization of higher educational institutions as reflected in their mission and vision statements. More specifically, this paper compares the mission and vision statements of Malaysian and Philippine universities and shows how these have changed in the last ten years. Twenty missions and vision of public and private universities in Malaysia and the Philippines were analyzed using both a macro and micro approach. The framework to analyze the data includes the analysis of textual, discourse, and social practice. In analyzing the data at the micro level, the paper examined textual practice which includes vocabulary, grammar and text structure. The genre and style of text and social practice were also analyzed. The findings indicate commonalities in the mission and vision statements of universities in both countries as far as the concept of internationalization in education is concerned and will be discussed.

From "Praxe" to "Trote": academic representations of Portuguese culture in the rites of entry in the Law School of Sergipe (Brazil, 1953-1968)

Marcia CRUZ, Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil; Anamaria FREITAS, Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil

The term "Praxe" in Portugal and its correlate in Brazil, "Trote" (Hazing), are practices that were built historically by senior veterans that imposed punishment to beginners in view of the original sin of been freshmen or unripe with regard to knowledge. They also had the goal of testing adaptability, bullying conduct and impose sacrifice, through a set of procedures that characterizes theses practices as an initiation rite. Despite maintenance and variation of theses practices through the history of Universities, it is possible to see a kind of erasure with respect to educational historiography on this topic, due to power relations that, in written history, secularly privilege institutions and teachers, relegating to the background studies of student practice. Founded on February 28thm 1950, in Aracaju-Sergipe, in northeastern Brazil, by a group of lawyers and other local intellectuals, in a period marked by an economic development, political democratization and the priority for the internalization of primary school, as well as deployment of higher education, Law School was the third education institute of this kind founded in Sergipe, preceded by the Institute of Chemistry and Faculty of Economics. Although it was an pioneer institute in legal education for approximately 20 years, until its merger with the Federal University of Sergipe, which occurred in the late 60s, few studies have been devoted to unveil its history, of organizational processes, usage of time and space, and mainly, the point of view of their academic practices. This article discusses the rites of admission of students in the Law School of Sergipe, from 1953 to 1968, period of time during which it was possible to obtain the only records of this practice. Its goal was to determine approaches, departures and possible hybridism between the academic practices of the Law School of Sergipe and those adopted in the Law School of Coimbra, reference for the establishment and operation of the Brazilian Legal Courses. From the comparative method, printed sources were used from bibliographic nature and oral sources represented by the testimonies of former students of the Law School of Sergipe, to enable not only the historical survey related to the "Praxe" and "Trote" (Hazing), but also, to show representations of academics who have experienced these rites of passage. The results point to the maintenance of some practices from Portugal and also provided an understanding of how scholars of the Law School of Sergipe, decades from 1950 to 1960, perceived the political system and customs of the society to which they belonged.

Jeudi / Thursday 14:30 - 16:30 Room: 3393

3.7. Modèles pédagogiques voyageurs / Travelling pedagogical models

Chair: Jeroen J.H. DEKKER

The Exchange of Handwriting Systems Between Great Britain and the United States, 1830-1850

Richard CHRISTEN, University of Portland, U.S.A.

This paper will examine the circular exchange of handwriting systems between Great Britain and the United States during the 1830s and 1840s. Handwriting is increasingly irrelevant today, its cultural functions nearly exhausted. But penmanship was a prized skill during the nineteenth century, essential to commerce, government, education, and personal correspondence as well as a means of fashioning identity. With handwriting styles often carrying different levels of prestige and suited to certain occupations, the choice of script was an important way of positioning oneself within society. And handwriting pedagogy, which regulated access to these styles, was a practical manifestation of collective values, a method for distributing social and economic opportunity. Accordingly, this study of the mid-nineteenth-century handwriting transfer between Great Britain and the United States will contribute to a deeper understanding of the character of the two nations and of the process of international cultural exchange. British penmanship practices monopolized American handwriting during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. When the first American handwriting manual, John Jenkins’s The Art of Writing, debuted in 1791, the text actually promoted a British script, the unlooped round hand. Jenkins did add a uniquely American twist to his system, however, outlining a “plain and easy” pedagogy that he hoped would make a common script available to all Americans and foster unity in the infant United States. The Jenkins method inspired other American writing teachers and became the standard method taught in schools. But there is no evidence that it had any influence in class-conscious Britain. The first American writing master to successfully market his handwriting manuals in Great Britain was Benjamin Franklin Foster. Foster’s system began as a British import, based on a method developed by Joseph Carstairs, an early nineteenth-century London penman. Seeking a model that would appeal to an elite West End clientele as well as “clerks engaged in real business,” Carstairs merged looped, slanted, slim and angular letters with a swinging arm movement conducive to speed and endurance. The Carstairs approach never caught on with London’s practical businessmen, who felt uncomfortable writing what they considered to be a fashionable, effeminate, and aristocratic script. Foster recognized, however, that these perceptions would not transfer to the United States, that American merchants and clerks would see Carstairs’s method simply as a faster, more tireless method of writing. He replicated the Carstairs approach in his 1830 manual, Practical Penmanship being a development of the Carstairsian system, even adopting the curious recommendation to tie the third and fourth fingers to the wrist and the first and second digits to the thumb in order to force the desired arm movement. Practical Penmanship quickly became a big seller in America, and in the later 1830s and 1840s, Foster began to successfully market his method to commercial types in Britain where it was referred to, ironically, as “the American system”. Freed of the class-based assumptions attached to the forgotten Carstairs, British commercial types were able to appreciate the mercantile advantages of Carstairs and Foster’s muscular method.

Rural School Mato Grosso in the 1920’s

Marineide OLIVEIRA DA SILVA, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso - UFMT, Brasil

Primary education in Mato Grosso in the 1920s showed no homogeneous contours, educational institutions were treated in different ways. To urban schools, considered by governments as the core of attention, there was concern about the provision of physical infrastructure, curriculum, school supplies and teacher graduates. Contradictorily, for the individual schools, because there is no supervision by the government, the conditions of education and work were extremely precarious, and most teachers had no formation.The isolated schools had the objective of minister primary education for children 7 to 12 years of age, were located in more than 3k of capital - Cuiaba and behaved on average per class up to 60 conducted by a single teacher and were considered as part education which did not produce results. For this reason, Dr. Mario Correa da Costa, president of Mato Grosso in his office in 1927, not satisfied with the framework public education primary in Mato Grosso represented, especially in what was referred to isolated schools, formed a committee to elaboration of a new regulation of Public Instruction. The President of the State wanted from the new regulation, to equip schools remote from urban centers so that they have more visibility to the front of the school authorities. The regulation was sanctioned by the Decree No. 759 of April 22, 1927. It is considered as the principal changes coming from the approval of the new regulation of public primary education Mato Grosso, the breakdown of individual schools in: isolated rural schools, isolated urban schools, isolated schools and the creation of night schools together (meeting of three individual schools). In this way, it is intended with this work to analyze the educational changes resulting from the Regulation of 1927, as well as the effects of these changes in daily of rural schools in Mato Grosso. The research is located in the area of historiography, with analysis of documentary sources, such as reports of presidents of the state of Mato Grosso, Inspectors of Education and Directors of Public Instruction, available in major holdings and archives of Mato Grosso: the Public Archives of Mato Grosso (APMT), the Center for Historical Documentation and Information Fund (NDIHR) and the File of the house Barão de Melgaço (ACBM). The delimitation temporal was chosen because it contemplates the period of "creation" of the modalities proclaimed school in the Regulation of Public Instruction of Mato Grosso, 1927. It is observed by means of analyzes of the sources that the regulation was an important victory, brought improvements in education for urban schools and school groupshas created schools to collect, however seems to have changed qualitatively, the picture of rural schools in Mato Grosso, because they continued deprived of investment. The data point that the Decree No. 759 of 22 April 1927 was in force until 1952, when it was organized the Organic Law of Primary Education approved by the Brazilian Federal Government.

Pedagogical contributions of La Salle Schools in Europe during the 19th and 20th centuries: between the exile and the expansion

Davila PAULI, Université du Pays Basque, Espagne; Luis M. NAYA, Université du Pays Basque, Espagne

One of the main features of a religious order or congregation, which is devoted to education, is spreading its ministry mission to the maximum of the population by using the school as a Christianizer agent. The reason why the “Brothers of the Christian Schools” also known as “La Salle Brothers” expanded their mission out of France was the secular policy carried out by the different French governments throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. In this way, and apart from the expanding policies which are present within other religious institutes, this congregation chose among other possibilities an exile because of its expulsion from France. As a consequence of this policy, the congregation took advantage of the situation, directing its activity towards the establishment of schools, not only in the countries closed to France but also in a great number of countries and continents. In this work we will analyze the numerical importance of this expansion as well as its pedagogical contributions taking into account that its educational activity which goes back to the 17th century. It must also be highlighted the work this congregation made within the educational field organizing school space and time, new teaching methods, vocational education, etc. Thus, the “La Salle Brothers” managed to introduce a new effective pedagogical model within the traditional schools of the 19th and 20th centuries providing a popular and a Christian school. The Lasallian pedagogical contribution meant, in many contexts, a great valued modernization because its teaching methods and goals were adapted to the social actors and professionals’ demands. Apart from this general outlook about the pedagogical role of the “La Salle Brothers” in Europe and other continents, we will focus our attention in the case of Spain because since their arrival to Madrid in 1878 up to the present it has been the male order that has established the greatest number of schools and vocational schools getting an important social recognition. Through the analysis that has been carried out, we can conclude that the case of La Salle can be a valid example to understand the process of implementation of a private school model, guided by a ministry mission and following the main criteria of the Catholic Church. All this makes possible the achievement of a settlement and a popular recognition mainly based on the adaptation, flexibility and success of its school offer. Therefore it can be also deduced some fields of influence which cover from the internalization of the French culture, the production of school textbooks, the vocational recruitment, etc.; up to the exercise of power in some organizations and religious or political institutions.

Modernism as Hope and Threat. Secularism as an Educational Vehicle: Galilee Settlements, 1882-1939

Yair SELTENREICH, Tel Hai College, Israel

Modernism was one of the over powering ideas of fin-de-siècle, particularly as it bore vague but tempting promises of progress and self fulfillment. But what some saw as better chances, others considered as lures and illusions. One issue of the modernizing processes was a new human being, which bore differing features from one culture to another, but had nevertheless one common factor: an abrupt change from older customs and creeds, a rejection of the past for a new and better future. Promising, yet unknown, modernism became suspicious and threatening in various traditional surroundings. Educational activities reflected and emphasized different aspects of the fascinating encounters between modernism and tradition, as they embodied active and direct efforts to lead rapid and brutal changes, to remodel souls, to make regeneration a reality rather than a mere idea, the more so in peripheral regions, where teachers and parents alike tended to be less sophisticated and more passionate. This superficial approach was focused on sensibilities rather than intellectual analysis of ideas, and therefore often placed religious creed at the heart of conflicts and discontents. Basing on a specific test case I shall try to formulate more general ideas concerning the evolution and the possible issues of such conflicts. Those conflicts are still vivid today, for instance in the thorny encounters of Moslem populations with traditional European environments. I shall examine the educational efforts to modernize the younger generations of rural traditional Jewish settlements in peripheral Galilee in the period 1882-1939. I shall try to prove that those efforts clearly made secularism as the necessary basis for the transformation of the young local Jew into a modernist Hebrew. This process was not a mere series of spontaneous responses to coincidental stimuli but a pre conceived strategy. I shall then examine the educational dynamism in relation to two elements: sensibilities of the elder local society, which the teachers identified and deliberately manipulated, and symbols, which were created as an alternative set of collective emotional anchors. Finally I shall try to elaborate more general conclusions concerning educational dynamics employed in conflictual cultural situations.

Les Écoles du Dimanche: un mouvement d’éducation populaire, précurseur des écoles primaires et promoteur du modèle d’éducation lancastérien en France?

Anne RUOLT, CIVIIC Université de Rouen, France

Cette communication porte sur l’histoire du mouvement des Écoles du Dimanche en France, par leurs acteurs de 1815 à 1829, et leurs apports au sein des réseaux éducatifs français du XIXe siècle. Les spécialistes de l’histoire de l’éducation britannique désignent le publiciste Robert Raikes (1736-1811) comme le pionnier en matière d’éducation populaire dès 1780, année où il créa les premières Sunday Schools anglaises (GREEN, 1875, p. 721, BOOTH, 1980, p. 133, MALLINSON, T. 2, 1981, p. 104). À l’instar de leur «grandes sœurs» anglaises, les premières Écoles du Dimanche françaises ont-elles eut le même impact en France ou ont-elles toujours été centrées sur l’instruction religieuse comme c’est aujourd’hui le cas? Où situer ce mouvement sur une cartographie des mouvements éducatifs du début du XIXe siècle? Le primat de la compréhension sur l’apprentissage par-cœur que l’on relève dans ces premiers dispositifs est-il particulièrement un fruit des idées protestantes? À partir des premiers témoignages publiés dans l’Ami de la jeunesse, et des écrits de David César Chabrand (1817), du baron de Staël et de Philippe Albert Stapfer du Comité d’Encouragement des Écoles du Dimanche (1826-1828), du pasteur François Martin fils, du baron de Jaucourt, de Guizot de la Société pour l’Encouragement de l’Instruction Primaire parmi les Protestants (1829) puis quelques écrits postérieurs de la Société des Écoles du Dimanche (après 1852) sur l’histoire du mouvement français, nous montrerons comment les premières Écoles du Dimanche ont progressivement contribué à l’alphabétisation des enfants de famille protestante, favorisant une meilleure maîtrise de la langue française par le moyen de la méthode d’éducation mutuelle, puis ont été à l’origine de la fondation de la Société pour l’Encouragement de l’Instruction Primaire parmi les Protestants de France (1829) avant de se diversifier en d’autres dispositifs.

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