Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012

Victoria SCHMIDT, Masaryk University, Czech Rep.; Libor MUSIL, Masaryk University, Czech Rep

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Victoria SCHMIDT, Masaryk University, Czech Rep.; Libor MUSIL, Masaryk University, Czech Rep.

The exploration of teaching child development in the retrospective context encourages the revision of past as a factor of contemporary treatment with families and children which is restricted of path dependency especially in countries in transition. Alongside, current connection between training of helping professionals and their activity is able either to reinforce the path dependency or to maintain the path departure. And the elaboration regarding the formation of path dependency advances a positive of options. In the first part of the 20th century, the concept of development legitimized criteria and procedures of intervention with families and children, and the teaching of child psychology had become the mainstream strategy of its dissemination (An introduction…, 2009). Child development had monopolized the area of expert knowledge because of its origin from the conventional discourses. But in 1970s in Western countries, the crucially changed composition of actors stipulated the critical redefinition of developmentalism towards the interdisciplinary concept of child not only becoming but being (James, 1998). The refined notions of child safety and family autonomy applied the Human Rights discourse (Donzelot, 1979) as well as new sociological approaches towards the social temporality of childhood (Honig, 1999). Relevantly to this, the engaging in critical thinking planted new goals of training for helping professionals. The Czech case demonstrates quite different trajectory of the formation regarding the notion of child development. While in some countries, philosophy produced basic frames for the common notion about child care, the Czech Rep. being affiliated with the Austro-Hungarian empire, based upon the medicalist model of child. This simplified notion was continued during the First Republic, over the expanding influence of eugenics in many Eastern Europe countries, what led to the common outcome, the focus on the biological prerequisites of development in contrast to the Western psychology which advanced towards more sophisticated measures of efficient parenting (Promitzer, 2011). The target group of applying eugenics was special educators. The reform of training for them (1935) tried to introduce more social oriented disciplines, but it was not completed. During the Protectorate period, the systems of special education as well as its many leaders were annihilated, what made them untouchable. This trend prevents any association of eugenics with fascism. Next period during the socialism the Czech theory of child development formed under the obvious contesting between the pro-eugenic approach and the imposed by Soviet psychologists pro-social understanding. This battle was won by the first of trends: the longitude survey of child deprivation in residential units by Matejček and Langmayer (1974) became the pattern for the similar investigation in the USSR, and the book by Czech authors was included into the list of core reading for students of psychological faculties. Despite different criteria Czech and Soviet trends stayed within the developmentalist approach and until now cover the discussion regarding child development. It prevents the distribution of new approaches which are beyond the pre-sociological notion of childhood. Modern curriculums are still focused on developmentalism and miss the social construction of parenting and childhood.

Westward bound: cultural transfer and the case of child rearing in the Netherlands

Nelleke BAKKER, Department of Education, University of Groningen, Netherlands

Around 1900 in the Netherlands parenting manuals and magazines took their inspiration, apart from religious principles, primarily from German philosophers and educationalists, like I. Kant, and J.F. Herbart. Half a century later religion was much less important as source of inspiration and theory was drawn mainly from the work of (child) psychiatrists and psychologists from the United States, like A. Gesell, or Britain, like A. Adler, A. Freud and J. Bowlby. This shift of perspective of Dutch child-rearing experts, from looking eastward to looking westward for inspiration, has had far-reaching effects on the advice given and the issues raised in this body of literature that set a standard of normality for both parenting and child behaviour. This paper discusses the steps that were taken between the 1920 and the 1950s away from philosophy as source of an ethics of the aims of child rearing and of acceptable parent behaviour to child psychiatry and developmentalism as sources of standards of normal (healthy) development and normal (acceptable) child behaviour. Parenting, as a consequence, became determined by the requirements of development, health and normality according to the dominant or chosen psychological or psychiatric theory, replacing earlier emphases as on instilling obedience, responsibility, and self-control in a child. A small number of the steps that will be identified will be analysed in terms of cross-national circulation of knowledge, using the concept of cultural transfer, which goes beyond imitation as it also includes transformation of the original model and making it fit the receiving context.

Jeudi / Thursday 14:30 - 16:30 Room: 4393

3.4. Education des femmes: modèles et idéaux transnationaux dans un monde global / Gendering education: transnational models and ideals of women education in a globalized world

Chair: Ruth WATTS

Western influences and national characteristics of the 18th century Hungarian women education literature

Katalin KÉRI, PTE - University of Pécs, Hungary

The presentation gives an overview of the influence of the western european countries’ works and discussions in the 18th century Hungary and Transylvania, supporting cultural rights and education of women, written then and earlier. In Hungary during the Enlightnement movement, a number of works were published affecting female education, women’s educational needs and opportunities. Although their number has fallen far short of the French, English or German works of the era, analysis shows that their meanings and intellect did not differ from the writings of the western areas. This was not only due to the “spirit of the age”, but also to those influences that became part of the Hungarian educational perspective, which influences originated from western european books that became rather known in Central and Eastern Europe as well. Even a small number of the remaining sources prove that among the Hungarian authors there were some, both Catholic and protestant, who showed a predisposition toward the problems of women education. Of these, several writers were acquainted with the Spanish, French, English and German ideas of their predecessors and contemporaries, such as Vives, Fénelon, Halifax, Nettesheim, Campe and others. Their works on women and female education are often reflected in the sources of the 18th century Hungarian education, and in many cases one will also encounter partial or complete translations of these. Our research focuses on the exploration, interpretation and analysis of the the Hungarian resources and on comparing the content of the text to foreign works. Among others we also looked at Letters from Turkey, the work of Kelemen Mikes (who was exiled together with Prince Ferenc Rakoczi the second), from which Fenelon’s and Madame de Maintenon’s impact is clearly discernable through texts from 1719 and 1725. We analyzed the writer and bodyguard of the Habsburg court in Vienna, Gyorgy Bessenyei’s work Maternal education, published in 1777, which is a transcription of Marquess of Halifax’s work The Lady’s New-Year’s Gift, or Adice to a Daugther, published in 1688. We also studied the Jesuit, Ferenc Faludy’s work, written in 1748 addressing the women. The preview of this work was Darell’s book, A supplement to the first part of the Gentleman instructed with a word to the ladies published in 1708. The Hungarian translations of foreign authors’ work about women education enjoyed special attention. For instance, such a transplantation was made by the Hungarian priest Istvan Nagy Szerencsi about the German Andreas Meyer’s work in 1783, as well as by Samuel Andradi about the German Campe’s work, Väterlicher Rat für meine Töchter. Putting in an international context those Hungarian works about women and women education that were published in the age of Enlightenment, and studying them based on a gender approach helped in understanding and clarifying what kind of intermediary channels, and through which subjects and works the European ideas were obtained in Hungary concerning the subject. Using content analysis and comparative studies we were also able to obtain a more accurate picture of the typically and characteristically Hungarian ideas and issues about female education, derived from Hungary’s social and national development. The presentation gives a summary of these effects and interactions in the history of women’s education in the 18th century, and of both the internationalism of thoughts as well as their national characteristics.

Globalisation, Gender and Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

Nkechi OKOLI, University of Port-Harcourt, Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

The study highlights the fact that globalization is heightening gender in ways female education is being hindered. In view of theoretical frame work the paper looks at globalization as a process by which the capitalist West system spreads across the actual globe giving rise to world economy where states are bound to compete, world system theory (Wallerstein 1998). Modernisation theory whereby traditional countries can be brought to development is considered. In relation to education, globalisation has given rise to economic restructuring for efficient economic development and efficiency. The paper posits that economic restructuring works for the west and (NICs) but not for African nations especially (SSA) region. It is of the opinion that economic restructuring has reflected deep fiscal crisis and budgetary reduction affecting public sector reducing welfare especially education and at the same time led to model of exclusion that leaves women living in poverty and un-educated in the region. Globalisation has created tension between the global and local, between economic and cultural dimensions. Economic restructuring has resulted in fragmentation and divisions of subordinate groups. The ultimate goal of post-colonialism is combating the effects of colonialism on cultures, how the world can move together towards a place of mutual respect. Historically modernization principle could be derived from idea of progress which emerged in the 18th century Age of Enlightenment with the idea that people through education could develop and change their society as propounded by Marquis de Condorcet. Today globalization processes are threatening the autonomy of the national education system and the sovereignty of the nation, and the consequences are of concern to all stake holders in education. Findings show that women intensive participation in education remains the single most important investment that SSA can make, translating into better conditions.

"If the girls learn, the rains will stop": The story of old Yemenite Jewish women in Israel who were banned of literacy as girls in Yemen

Yonah KATZ-DAR, The Hebrew University, Israel; Shiri KATZ-GERSHON, Wayne State University, USA

"If the girls learn the rains will stop" was a common saying in the Jewish community in Yemen 60-70 years ago. It banned academic teaching to Jewish girls; while Jewish boys were regularly taught to read and write. The big majority of these girls immigrated to Israel in their 20s, and had to read and write in order to mediate between their family and the Israeli institutes. This study interviewed 20 of these women, 60-70 years after their immigration to Israel (age range 85-95, average 89). Its major objectives were to learn what were the perceived reasons for the banning of literacy in girls, what was the effect of this intentional illiteracy on the women’s perceived adjustment to the Israeli society, as well as their attitudes to education. The methodology included unstructured interviews (in Yemenite) focusing on the individual stories of these women with regard to the prohibition of education. The major findings were that 1) all of the women were eager to tell and publish their story, and they perceived it as a collective story of the girls of Yemen (Muslim girls were included). 2) the majority of the women were angry, frustrated, and despaired in regard to their lack of education (it was as if the prohibition of education occurred at the time of the interview). They envied men and women in their age who were able to read and write 3) all women mentioned that the necessity to function in a literate society forced them to try to learn to read and write, and that Israel offered them free education. However, they mentioned that their familial and economic status (large families, poverty, and the need to work outside the home) made it very challenging to participate in the free literacy classes offered by the state of Israel. 4) a small number of women accepted their lack of education as the will of forces beyond their control (G-d and the leaders of their community). 5) all participants concluded that the damage is deep and irreversible. Several women expressed it as an acquired disability that cannot be fixed. 6) Out of the 20 women only 4 knew to read and write. Their literacy was limited to the biblical dialect of Hebrew and to a specific font (non cursive letters). 6) Finally, most stories revealed a conflict between the need of the women to be literate in order to function in everyday life in Israel and the negative attitudes toward education in women in the local (usually religious) Yemenite community in Israel. It is striking that the transfer of young women from a society that ban literacy to one that formally encourages literacy did not ameliorate education. The story of old Yemenite Israeli women may enable us to see the real forces that prevent a change in education.

Feminists, Citizens and Educators: Internationalism and Empire in the National Union of Women Teachers in Inter-war Britain

Joyce GOODMAN, University of Winchester, United Kingdom

This paper will use a transnational approach (1) to analyse relationships in inter-war Britain between the women’s movement, the peace movement, internationalism, imperialism, (anti)-fascism and education rehearsed in the pages of The Woman Teacher, the journal of the National Union of Women Teachers (NUWT). Leading women teachers in the NUWT took part in international meetings of educationists and in debates in international teacher organisations about education for world peace and international understanding; supported women teachers in other countries as the situation in Europe deteriorated; and engaged with the super-international coalitions of women that linked international women’s organisations working for a liberal peace. The Woman Teacher demonstrates how understandings of international citizenship articulated by and for the professional women teachers of the NUWT shifted as ideas and practices flowed across national borders. The paper will focus first on ways in which relationships between feminism and pacifism were articulated in the journal. The NUWT was the most feminist of the women teachers’ organisations in Britain, having broken away from the National Union of Teachers in order to better represent the interests of women teachers (2). The paper will trace ways in which notions of solidarity were constructed with women teachers in the British Empire and with women teachers working for peace internationally (3). It will look at how feminist orientations drew the NUWT to particular educational organisations like the New Education Fellowship and to women’s organisations like the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. It will discuss how international teacher exchange, international travel (including to the League of Nations at Geneva), discussion of education for peace, and engagement in conferences of the international women’s movement linked the feminism of the NUWT with the cultural internationalism of the interwar period (4). The second part of the paper will discuss shifts in The Woman Teacher around the articulation of feminism and imperialism. In the 1920s the granting of suffrage to women in Britain led to a stress on women teachers responsibilities to empire and engagement with imperial education conferences. Initially, writers in The Woman Teacher tended to draw on notions of the ‘commonwealth of nations’ framed by Britain’s imperial rhetoric and particular national understandings of democracy. As increasing concern was voiced at the rise of militarism and especially at the impact of fascism on women teachers and the education of pupils in parts of Europe, the NUWT linked with anti-fascist organisations, through the British and International Committees for the Relief of German Teachers. The paper will unpack how as engagement with anti-fascism increased, relationships between empire and internationalism were recast in the pages of The Woman Teacher. The paper will end by drawing together the threads of feminism, pacifism, internationalism and imperialism represented in The Woman Teacher to look at how internationalism and empire inflected understandings of international citizenship for the professional women teachers of the NUWT.

Child and Childhood: International influences in Greece through the activity of pioneer Greek women educators (1900-1940)

Pasxalina CHATZIBEI, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

The developments in pedagogy that occur internationally during the first decades of the 20th century influence in a high degree the formation of the pedagogical theory in Greece, since the adaptation and the application of the principles of ‘New Education’ by the Greek educators, men and women, creates a friendlier school atmosphere for the child in which its needs and interests are placed in the center of the teaching procedure. During the same period the progress in scientific fields of psychology, child’s psychology and hygiene, promotes the discussion about the welfare of the childhood. Thus, the child and the childhood constitute the researching interest of several sciences. Referring to ‘New Education’ child is approached as an independent and autonomous entity, whose evolution based and defined by its needs and dynamics. According to this perception child’s education aims to its personal development. The idea that the child is an adult’s miniature is no longer effective; an idea which does not recognize children’s special features and promotes an education that improves adults’ skills and qualities. In this context the contribution of the Greek women educators in the promotion of the relevant discussion during the first decades of the 20th century is really multidimensional. The particular interest that they show about the welfare of the Greek childhood is being demonstrated by their authoring work (Reading books, child’s literature and tales), their participation in the publication of magazines about children(for example ‘Pedologia’ magazine), the foundation of associations and institutions for children and the organization of pertinent conferences (for example the 1st Conference of Motherhood’s and Childhood’s Protection’ in Athens in 1930). The aim of this paper is to bring out the multiple activities of Greek women educators and teachers towards the promotion of the welfare of child and childhood in Greece during the first decades of the 20th century. Especially, we intend to present how the international developments in pedagogy affected their pedagogical thought and theory and how this influence is being impressed in their educational work and action.

Jeudi / Thursday 14:30 - 16:30 Room: 5189

3.5. Réformes récentes de l'enseignement: dynamiques nationales et/ou internationales / Recent reforms in teaching: national and/or international dynamics

Chair: Blaise EXTERMANN

The Dynamic of Internationalization of Modern Mathematics Movement: the Process of Translation / Adaptation Of Smsg’s Textbooks in Brazil

Aparecida RODRIGUES SILVA DUARTE, Universidade Bandeirante de São Paulo, Brasil; Francisco de OLIVEIRA FILHO, Universidade Bandeirante de São Paulo, Brasil

In the 1960s, during the movement of Modern Mathematics, Professor Lafayette de Moraes provided services to the Brazilian Institute of Education, Science and Culture (IBECC). As an organ of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), the IBECC brought to Brazil a reform program of science education that was already underway in the United States and England. Thus, for this purpose, the IBECC translated educational materials produced by the American teams from PSSC (Physical Science Study Committee), CBA (Chemical Bond Approach), project CHEM (Chem Study Chemstry) and BSCS (Biological Sciences Curriculum Study). These teaching materials were translated and adapted to be used in Brazil since the 1960s, with financial support from the Ford Foundation and the guarantee of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). For the discipline of Mathematics and through a scholarship provided by the National Science Foundation and Pan Amerian Union, the Professor Lafayette was asked to go to the United States of America to attend some courses and to know SMSG´s teaching materials (School Mathematics Study Group). Back in Brazil, Professor Lafayette de Moraes, with the help of teacher Lydia Lamparelli, started a work of translation/adaptation of the SMSG´s books for the brazilian educational curriculum. Besides the translation work, both teachers offered courses to those who were interested in these materials. Due to this background, this article aims to discuss the political context of the coming-education and the use of SMSG´s textbooks in Brazil, by the following guiding questions: What is the context related to the entrance of this material in Brazil? What are the reasons for the acceptance and/or refusal of such educational material for the school culture during that time in Brazil? How was the appropriation process for the translation and adaption work of textbooks in Brazil? We use as theoretical support the appropriation concepts of Roger Chartier (1990), Dominique Julia school culture (2000), as well as studies about the textbooks developed by Alan Choppin (2004). In conclusion, we found that translators/adapters teachers have specific and unique appropriation of such material to do their jobs, selecting and adapting what they considered most important for the senior high school. In this sense, they had a certain degree of autonomy regarding to the choice of the content. This study identified some reasons why there was no acceptance from the current school culture of SMSG´s textbooks published in Brazil.

Educational Transfer as an Act of (Real) Socialist Solidarity – Educational Cooperation between GDR and Mozambique

Jane SCHUCH, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany

In the context of the history of the global decolonisation and in a postcolonial perspective, the GDR’s Africa policies have been discussed primarily in their global dimensions so far. In this perspective, the GDR’s policies are mainly seen as a “site of the German-German system rivalry” (Eckert 2007, p. 7 et sqq.) as well as part of worldwide development policies pursued by countries from the Eastern block and Western countries alike. These policies were characterized by paternalism and an uncritical faith in development and industrialization, especially with regards to Sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to the assumed implications and effects of the so-called Cold War, there were also economic interests that shaped the cooperation between the GDR and Sub-Saharan countries regarding development aid. In the area of educational policies-related development aid, more levels of interaction between the GDR and the “chosen and friendly African states” — the official term for Ethiopia, Angola and Mozambique to which the GDR had intensive foreign political relations, can be detected. The relations to Mozambique were special. They are known to be the closest and most intensive, on the levels of both the national-political and that of personal contacts. On the level of educational cooperation, these two countries worked together the closest. Many Mozambicans studied and were trained in the GDR, to become skilled workers in various professional fields. A specially constructed educational establishment, the “School of Friendship”, was to offer apprenticeship to 900 Mozambican youngsters in the 1980s, to form the new elite of skilled workers of Mozambique. Acc. to the first Education Act, enacted in 1975 after the decolonisation and aimed at as the educational ideal for all Mozambican citizens, they were to become the prototype of the “New Mozambican Man”. The buildup of the Mozambican educational system after 1975 as well as the formulation of the first Education Act was significantly and actively supported by GDR counsellors of education. One can assume, therefore, that an interstate transfer of education has taken place. This paper wants to highlight the above-mentioned transfer of the 1970s and 1980s more closely. First, we will have to clarify in which form the GDR counsellors of education participated were involved. Furthermore, it is of interest to what extent the GDR ideals of education and upbringing diffused and were absorbed. Another point of interest is the areas of possible friction due to the intercultural contacts. How far did the educational ideal of the GDR correspond with the embodiment of the “Homen Novo” in Mozambique? Notably of interest: was the “polydirectionally developed socialist personality” the point of reference for the “New Mozambican Man”? How far did the cooperation on education matters influence the economic and political power divide between the GDR and Mozambique? The source material used is official documents from German and Mozambican archives as well as reports from contemporary witnesses.

Transcending national literary borders between Portugal and Brazil

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