Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012

Jeudi / Thursday 11:00 - 13:00 Room: 5393

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Jeudi / Thursday 11:00 - 13:00 Room: 5393

2.8. La circulation des références de la formation professionnelle / The circulation of professional training references

Chair: Luz Elena GALVAN

'Half-a-Day Syndrome': A Mode of Internalization of Vocational and Technical Education by the Youths in the XXth Century Nigeria

Grace AKANBI, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo State, Nigeria; Alice JEKAYINFA, University of Ilorin, Nigeria

The Nigeria National Policy on Education (NPE) first published in 1977, emphasized vocational and technical education which was why 6-5-4 system was dropped for 6-3-3-4 system that became operational in September 1982. Section 29 of the NPE describes Vocational Education as “that form of education which is obtainable at the technical colleges equivalent to the senior secondary education but designed for individual to acquire practical skills, basic and scientific knowledge and attitude required as craftsmen and technicians at sub-professional level”. Vocational education is seen by the document, NPE, (like in the traditional society), as an integral part of general education; a means of preparing for occupational fields for effective participation in the world of work; an aspect of lifelong learning and preparation for responsible citizenship; an instrument of promoting environmentally sound, sustainable development and a method of alleviating poverty. It also declared further that ”a greater proportion of education expenditure shall continue to be devoted to TVE (i.e technical and vocational education) at the federal and state levels”. It should be expected, therefore, that enrollment in technical colleges would be high, but according to Federal Ministry of Education (FME), this expectation have not been met since only 90,038 students were enrolled in the 2000/2001 academic year in the nation’s 117 technical colleges as against 7,351,000 in the over 7,000 public secondary schools; thus, only 1.2% of the total for the secondary level were in technical colleges. The reason for this may not be far fetched; lack of adequate infrastructural facilities being the major one. Most equipment purchased for the technical colleges have broken down due to poor maintenance culture and bureaucratic bottlenecks. The existing technical colleges are also not enough to accommodate the students who are willing to acquire technical skills. Being aware of the above situation and the importance of technical and vocational education in the face of rising unemployment, students have now shifted to acquiring technical skills with local craftsmen after school hours. These youths (apprentices) are referred to as “half-a-day” because they will not spend the whole day with the master craftsmen. The half-a-day apprenticeship has turned out to be complementing the formal technical education and more students are drifting into the system. This study is historical and descriptive hence, social survey methods will be used by exploiting both primary and secondary sources of information. The focus of this paper therefore, is to discuss how the internalization of western education had helped in the ‘polishing’ of the traditional apprenticeship system. It will also examine the origin of ‘half-a-day’ how it is being operated, and what could be done to make it more effective through supervision and by accrediting the centres of skills acquisition. It will also discuss how these apprentices could be given certificates that will be recognized by employers of labour.

British Government and Christian Missionary Involvement in Technical/Vocational Education in Colonial Nigeria 1851 – 1935

Folasade SULAIMON, Tai Solarin University of Education Ijagun-Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria; Adegbenga ONABAMIRO, Tai Solarin University of Education Ijagun-Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria

The world today is experiencing a rapid change in technological advancement as a result of the development of vocational education. Vocational skills development is an important factor in the drive to enhance productivity, stimulate economic competitiveness and raise people out of poverty. Over the world, vocational education is always an integral part of the means for national development. Vocational education is that aspect of education that leads to the acquisitions of practical and applied skills as well basic scientific knowledge. It is essentially that phase of education where in emphasis is laid on occupational preparation. In addition, it aims at providing training to develop skills, abilities, aptitudes, understanding of work and appreciation for craftsmanship, competency in social responsibilities among others. The concept of vocational education is not new to us in Nigeria. It was essentially one of the major focus of the Nigerian Indigenous/traditional education. In pre-colonial times, vocational education was taught by non-formal methods of apprenticeship system. People received training is smithing (iron, silver, gold etc), carving (wood and bronze), sculpturing, painting and decorating, carpentry, dressmaking, boat-making, leather-working. However, as subjects in the western school curriculum, vocational education was introduced to Nigeria by the early Christian missions as well as the British colonial administration towards the middle of the 19th century. As early as 1851, the Church Missionary Society (CMS) sponsored some Nigerian students abroad for technical education. The students were sent out to be trained in brick and tile making, navigation, horticulture and industrial management. In 1853, the CMS founded an industrial institution which taught brick making, carpentry, dying and printing in Abeokuta. Local industrial institutions were also established by the CMS at Onitsha in 1851 and Bonny in 1890. In 1875, the Roman Catholic Mission founded Topo Industrial school. While, in 1895 Hope Waddell Institute was founded by the Presbyterian Mission at Calabar. The first British colonial technical institution in Nigeria was founded in 1901. The institute named the Nigerian Railway Training School was meant for the training of Nigerians in railway technology and engineering. The government survey school Lagos was founded by the colonial government in 1908. Furthermore, the Marine Training Institute was also founded by the colonial government in 1928, while 1935 saw the opening of the Yaba Higher College – an institution that provided a range of advanced vocational courses by the British colonial government. This paper will give a critical historical appraisal to Christian Missionary cum British colonial government involvement in the establishment of technical/vocational educational programmes in colonial Nigeria between 1851 and 1935. It will also examine the nature of Nigerian non-acceptance of vocational institutions and the impact of such in the technological and industrial development of colonial Nigeria.

Europe without Borders. Swiss Citizens in the Educational System of Latvia in the 19th and 20th century

Alida ZIGMUNDE, Riga Technical University, Latvia

If we look at the history of education on the territory which has become Latvia in the 20th century we see that from the beginning of the 13th century until the beginning of the 20th century the Germans had a decisive influence on the educational system even while the provinces were ruled since the 17th century successively by the Poles, Swedes and the Russians, the use of the German language, German self-administration and the protestant religion having been granted by its rulers. Europe in those days had its national borders, but the borders were wide open to people and ideas, Livonia and Courland were frequently visited by home teachers, who resided in feudal households and brought with them the newest teachings they got at their universities.

One of the first Swiss teachers who had influenced education in Livonia and Courland was Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi. His books were bought and read here, pupils have been sent from the Baltic Provinces to his schools in Switzerland. He even got an invitation to open a school in Riga and thought about accepting the invitation. Very important was the influence of another Swiss teacher, Johann Gottlieb Stünzi (1835–1879) who was invited to come to Riga to be the director of a school for the deaf and the dumb. He gave the teachers of his school a specialized education for working with these pupils, he inspected the schools which were founded in other parts of Livonia on his model, he provided them with teachers whom he had formed and who had passed their exams at his school. After his death he was succeeded by another headmaster from Switzerland. In the second half of the 19th century the Polytechnic School in Riga was founded. It was founded on the model of the Karlsruhe and the Zurich Polytechnic Schools. Researching the curricula vitae, the relations of people coming from the same region, the importance of religion for the development of a regional culture it was possible to show that in the Baltic provinces not only the German language but especially religion played an important role. The provinces happened to be in an island like situation surrounded by the Russian Orthodox Church, Polish Catholicism and the Swedish Lutheran State Church, whereas in the Provinces Protestantism existed in a rationalistic and a pietistic orientation supported by the Moravian Brothers (Herrnhuter). So the Protestants in the provinces sought to get into contact with other protestant orientations of their sort and they found them in Switzerland. The influence of pedagogues from Switzerland can still be found in Latvian pedagogical institutions of different levels.

National characteristics and international tendencies in the Hungarian vocational education of metalworking technology at the turn of the 19th and 20th century

Katalin VÖRÖS, University of Pécs, Faculty of Humanities, Hungary

My paper gives an outline of Hungary’s secondary vocational education (which emerged in the second half of the 19th century) and its relations to the economic and educational structures of the European developed countries, for example Germany and France. The history of vocational education is inseparable from the history of industry and industrial revolution, both in the 18th and second half of the 19th centuries. The industrial revolution fundamentally reformed the structure of the economy and society. It also created the basis of modern education as it was the period of scientific innovations when science and technology got closer to each other. As a result of this the content and the structure of education had to be revisited. Since Rousseau’s ‘Emile: or, On Education’, the use of practical knowledge and the importance of learning a profession has been very important in Europe. With the development of technology and economy the training of skilful labour force became more and more important during our period. The educational theories as well as other ideas and notions spread and influenced each other from the West to the East in Europe. József Eötvös and Ágoston Trefort, for example, Ministers of Religion and Education founded some schools in order to revive the Hungarian industrial education by making use of some examples from abroad. József Szakkay is an example, who was sent by József Eötvös to France, Germany and Belgium in order to study the organization of industrial education in these countries. After his field trip, Szakkay founded the first school of mechanical engineering in Kassa, in 1872. Hungary’s secondary vocational education of metalworking technology is in the centre of my research. I compare the sources of the archives and the contemporary newspapers with the national tendencies. The demonstration of international relationships cannot only be looked upon by state level but also by particular regions, institutions or even by individuals. The studies of József Szterényi also help the further examinations. His work, ‘Az iparoktatás Magyarországon’(1897), gives a detailed description of the contemporary Hungarian viewpoint. My research is intended to highlight how the given institutions fit into the international trends throughout the specific story of school histories. Moreover it focuses on their national and local characteristics, as well. Beyond the government efforts, the individuals of the local economic life – in many cases representatives of the international trade and business – played a significant role in the life of these institutions. With their support new methods and technologies from the West were introduced in the Hungarian vocational schools. Throughout the examination of these schools we can get a more diversified picture about the interactions of education, social and economic spheres.

Jeudi / Thursday 11:00 - 13:00 Room: 5189

2.9. L'école, la construction de la nation et l'éducation transculturelle / School, Nation building and transcultural education

Chair: Thibaut LAUWERIER

Transcending national borders in education in Slovenia between nationalism and internationalism in the Habsburg Empire and its successor states 1880-1940

Branko SUSTAR, Slovenian School Museum / Slovenski solski muzej, Ljubljana, Slovenia

The development of education in Slovenia prior to 1918 was marked by endeavours for primary school education in the pupils’ mother tongue and by the bilingualism or trilingualism of the Slovene intelligentsia, which was taken for granted. For Slovenians, being in the higher stage of primary education and particularly in secondary education meant learning in German or Italian. How much did pedagogic ideas from German cultural circles outside the Austro-Hungarian Empire influence education in Slovenian lands? How did links appear between the Slovenian teachers’ associations and those in the Austrian half of the monarchy and how did they cooperate with the external world? How much were these links influenced by intellectual affinities and how much by national ones? After the collapse of the Habsburg monarchy in 1918, Slovenians underwent a transition from the old to the new state structures. After the end of World War 1 they began experiencing very different educational systems as they were divided among four states: the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians, i.e. Yugoslavia, in which the Slovenian national state had formed, and those countries where Slovenians were a minority (Italy, Austria, Hungary). What political, linguistic and pedagogic, as well as general cultural shifts between nationalism and internationalism were experienced by Slovenians with regard to education in Yugoslavia, Austria, Italy and Hungary? What was the response of German minority education in the Yugoslav part of Slovenia to educational ideas from the German cultural sphere? In addition to the traditional orientation towards the German cultural space, the development of education in the Yugoslav part of Slovenia was influenced by openness to links with the Slavonic world as well as with France. The educational press often wrote about new developments in other countries, particularly articles by Lovro Sušnik, who between 1935 and 1945 also led the Slovenian educational administration. Which foreign and international educational ideas and practices were influential in Slovenia? How much did the extensive emigration to the USA and Western European industrial countries help transmit educational ideas from those countries? How were international educational influences reflected in individual areas, such as punishment in school and school exercise books? The article draws attention to changes in Slovenian education before and after World War 1 and attempts to analyse these influences.

Public Education as a Nation Project: A Historiographic Narrative of Martim Francisco’s Memória (1816-1823)

Bruno BONTEMPI JR., University of Sao Paulo - Faculty of Education, Brazil; Carlota BOTO, University of Sao Paulo - Faculty of Education, Brazil

This article pertains to Memória sobre a Reforma dos Estudos na Capitania de São Paulo, (Memory on Study Reform in São Paulo Captaincy) written by Martim Francisco Ribeiro de Andrada, published in 1816. Martim Francisco was one of the three Andrada brothers, who had an important role in Brazilian Independence process, and in the early Empire times. The text was delivered to the Education Committee of the first Constituent assembly of independent Brazil (1823-1824). It was originally elaborated to be implanted into São Paulo’s Capital. However, the text was later presented by itself – then in deputy condition – as a proposal for the elaboration of a national education system. The aim is to accomplish historiographical analyses of Martim Francisco’s document, considered in the historical moment of its elaboration, in light of his generation’s mentality, work genre, and dialogue he established with the Enlightenment debate, especially with Condorcet’s pedagogical thought. We notice that the document includes elements which were designated as having been adopted from the pedagogical debate of the French Revolution. Themes, such as the universalization of the elementary stage, the mandatory creation and maintenance of schools throughout the Brazilian territory by the government, were the foundations of a clear political perspective regarding the nation’s progress through education. The idea of an education which could counterbalance society’s wealth inequality was a landmark by the Brazilian political discourse, which, in turn, was availed from an Enlightenment theme which engendered a liberalist birth. There is unequivocal, including a formal, similarity between such Memória (Memoir) by Martim Francisco and Cinq Mémoires sur L'instruction Publique (Five Memoirs on Public Education), written by Condorcet [1791], which provided theoretical support to the National Assembly’s Report (1791-1792) in Revolutionary France. Beyond the similarities, the differences between both documents are strong indications of the historical singularities of each nation’s realities and how they are proven in content and text format. One example is secularism – an emphatic theme in Condorcet’s text – was assuaged here, in light of the Catholic Church’s position in the newly constituted power of the Brazilian Empire (1922). Under the point of view of history of educational thought, this Martim Francisco’s document has a unique importance. Erecting education as public policy was a fundamental device to confer soundness to foundations of our fragile nationality under construction. Belonged to the future the creation of a country willing to matching their references. Such references had been found in the speech. However it may be the speech of education was not addressed to pedagogy field but the political territory. Educating was to transform. From a society of subjects, it was necessary to arise civilized citizens.


Silvia SZTERLING, Faculdade de Educação da Universidade de São Paulo (FEUSP), Brésil

Em 1924, le jeune poète Carlos Drummond de Andrade lut ces mots écrits par un ami: "[...] De quelle manière nous pouvons concourir à la grandeur de l´humanité? C´est en étant français ou allemands? Non, parce que cela est déjà dans la civilisation. Notre contingent doit être brésilien. Le jour où nous serons entièrement brésiliens, et que brésiliens, l´humanité sera riche d´encore une race, riche d´une nouvelle combinaison de qualités humaines" (Andrade, 1982: 15). Quatre ans plus tard, le poète Augusto Meyer lisait du même expéditeur: "[...] mené par le besoin de m´instruire des tendances modernes, j´ai repris l´anglais, l´espagnol, l´italien [...] Je me suis internationalisé. Ce n´est qu´après que conscientement mais sincèrement je me suis "brésilienisé" pour mieux me circonscrire [...]". (Fernandes, 1968: 54). L´écrivain Mário de Andrade, auteur des lignes ci-dessus, s´engagea dans la systématisation érudite de la culture populaire comme voie de consolidation d´une identité véritablement nationale, au point d´altérer l´orthographe de certains mots portugais pour la rendre plus adéquate à la parole et à la psychologie du peuple brésilien. Aujourd´hui ses affirmations restent sans écho dans le monde globalisé, où les médias dictent des règles de plus en plus uniformes de consommation culturelle. Jamais auparavant un adolescent des classes moyenne et haute au Brésil ressembla tant à un adolescent en France ou en Allemagne et on ne peut presque plus parler d´adolescents brésiliens, français ou allemands, vu que dans les grandes métropoles de ces pays, vivent aujourd´hui, côte à côte, autant de natifs que de migrants provenant de partout dans le monde. "United Collors os Benetton": voici le visage contemporain de la vieille utopie universaliste mentionnée par Mário de Andrade dans les années 1920. L´apothéose de l´uniformisation de la société de consommation de masse dans un monde de nations affaiblies, traditions détruites et populations déracinées. D´où la peur de l`aliénation, particulièrement dans cette phase de mutation qui est l´adolescence. La peur de ne plus avoir une existence propre, vu que l´on n´a plus une identité définie (Jeammet, 1990). Que la xénophobie renaisse ne peut donc surprendre: il faut qu´il y ait un groupe de "moins humains" pour protéger les "plus humains" de la menace d´"invasion" géographique et subjective. "[...] que des bons à rien", affirme un descendant d´italien, habitant d´un quartier ouvrier de São Paulo, à propos de la dernière vague de migrants boliviens "clandestins" (Silva, 2005: 43). Aurait-il oublié que son grand-père, fuyant la misère en Italie pour travailler dans les exploitations de café de São Paulo à la fin du XIXe siècle, a dû faire face à des adversités semblables, stigmatisé et contrôlé par le fouet du patron? L´école peut faire de cette diversité culturelle, justement, un motif d´enrichissement réciproque. Car tout sujet, pour se construire, a besoin de s´inscrire sur une descendance. Mais, en même temps, a besoin de s´en éloigner pour savoir qui il est (Charlot, 2005). Une utopie qui ferait sourire Mário de Andrade.

International trans-cultural education at a grass-root level

Andrés GONZÁLEZ NOVOA, University of La Laguna, Spain; Victor Manuel QUINTERO LEON, Universität Leipzig, Germany

During the 2006-2010 period, almost 5.000 unaccompanied children reached the shores of the Canary Islands in the conditions of illegal immigration, but under the legal coverage of the International Child Protection Act. In this legal limbo, the Canary Islands Government created the Emergency Mechanisms for Unaccompanied Minors, providing shelters where the "Africa project” was developed. Within the context of this project, the education and coexistence of children from more than fifteen different African countries reaching from the Maghreb to the whole sub-Saharian region, was managed. Due to the lack of family support, a second home was created, which was to be also an intercultural laboratory of education where an innovative theoretical and methodological framework was developed at a practical level, the concept of herbartian general interest, extended by Gardner through the perspective of “multiple inteligencies”, allowed us to: 1) Develop interactive processes for language learning, extracted from the principles of Komensky. 2) Apply Pestalozzi’s Anschauungspädagogic for the instrumental training, as a strategy for socio-economic integration.3) Update the “roussonian ludens” for simulating exclusion situations. Convivial structures, schedules, activities, spaces and responsibilities, were used to generate dynamics that allowed the expression of diversity, respecting the only vertex that was understood to be unchangeable, the Universal Human Rights. Those were the basis to create dynamics for the maintenance of the facilities, for the respect for religious practices, the development of hygiene and health habits, the language workshops, the socio-occupational training and the experiences of socio-cultural awareness. What happened inside the shelters transferred to the host society. From day one, it was considered important to show immigrant children as people who came to participate as responsible citizens. Intercultural exchanges, training activities and cooperative social or community actions, progressively brought together the efforts of both parties toward common goals. But this process, both internal and externally, was not without difficulties. History, which is a story of rancor, complicates the process of cross-culture education. The historical memory of the Maghreb people as owners and enslavers of Sub-saharian people generated constant situations of tension and violence. At the same time, the legacy of the European colonization processes in Africa and the memory of slavery, for some time blocked deeper levels of trust between students and teachers, between children and guardians. The approach taken, again, was in line with what is set out in the General Pedagogy of Herbart: The progressive erosion of prejudice by generating positive experiences persistently. To modify historical memory through experiential memory. We took that children were in a neutral context to daily build a sphere of security. That is, the same building that sheltered them was turning, through small actions, into a new shared, collective and committed memory. This project was also involved in the socio-occupational insertion of the children in the Spanish society, which reached 90% success in 2010 for children between 16 and 18 years. To achieve it, interdisciplinary evaluative techniques were used, similar to Howard Gardner’s Project Spectrum and techniques from the Theatre of the Oppressed for conflict resolution.

An education in internationalism and solidarity. Argentinian, Jewish and Progressive children making toys for Uruguayan and Chilean peers (1974–1975)

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