Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012


Angela AISENSTEIN, Universidad de San Andrés, Argentina; Jason BBECH, Universidad de San Andrés, Argentina; Jacques GLEYSE, Université de Montpellier, France



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Angela AISENSTEIN, Universidad de San Andrés, Argentina; Jason BBECH, Universidad de San Andrés, Argentina; Jacques GLEYSE, Université de Montpellier, France

This presentation is aimed at comparing the ways in which international traveling discourses about the need to educate the body were adopted and adapted in the development of physical education as a school subject in France and Argentina between 1880 and 1940. The history of physical education during the nineteenth and twentieth century shows that together with laws that made education compulsory, and with scientific-based discourses and processes of modernization, many educational systems created a special subject aimed at educating the body (Gleyse, 1995; Soares, 1994; Kirk, 1998; Aisenstein, 2003; Shagarodsky, 2011). The similarities among different countries in terms of the institutional contexts in which physical education was promoted, of scientific arguments that justified the need for physical education, and the design of similar corporal practices aimed at educating the body, support the claims made by neo-institutional theories about the “world institutionalization of education”: the logic of rationalized modern mass and elite education has always meant that a high degree of international homogenisation was involved. Within the framework of a world society the process of becoming a nation-state and of competing with other nation-states led to the adoption of remarkably similar technologies, such as education. This process has produced pressures towards institutional isomorphism throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (Meyer & Ramirez, 2000). However, even though certain isomorphism can be found in the ways in which physical education was developed in France and Argentina, in order to arrive at a more comprehensive comparison between these two cases it is important to capture processes of indigenization (Schriewer, 2000) or recontextualization (Beech, 2011) through which, in the course of institutional implementation, these trans-nationally disseminated models are “interwoven with previous layers of political behavior, social meanings and culture-specific patterns…[that] change their significance and the way they function” (Schriewer, 2000). Thus, the presentation will start by highlighting some of the common overall trends that can be found in the historical development of physical education as a school subject in Argentina and France. Then, we will centre our analysis on the different political and scientific discourses that justified the development of physical education in each context, the specific institutional and pedagogic design of physical education as a school subject, and the different practical effects that these developments had in Argentina and France. Our overall argument is that even though the international “institutionalization of education” can explain the general trend of including physical education in schools in Argentina and France, it is the specific political, economic and social processes in each context that can account for the specificities of corporal pedagogic practices schools in each of our cases.

L’éducation physique française au carrefour des exemplarités étrangères et des transferts culturels (1945-1981)



Jean SAINT-MARTIN, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble, France; Michaël ATTALI, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble, France; Natalia BAZOGE, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble, France

Au lendemain de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, les acteurs de l’éducation physique et sportive (EPS) ont pour priorité de refonder leur discipline dans l’institution scolaire française. L’analyse des revues professionnelles met en exergue la volonté de s’inspirer, voire de dupliquer les modalités de l’enseignement de l’EPS de plusieurs pays européens. Si ce phénomène existe déjà depuis le XIXe siècle, il prend toutefois une nouvelle ampleur lors du 2nd XXe siècle dans la mesure où les vecteurs de diffusion des méthodes étrangères d’EPS se multiplient. Cette communication cherche ainsi à expliquer les raisons et les enjeux de ces initiatives individuelles et/ou collectives et en préciser la teneur. Qu’il s’agisse d’enseignants français ou étrangers, chacun investit les revues professionnelles françaises comme autant de vitrines pour promouvoir des idées et parfois des mises en œuvre originales qu’il a découvert ou participé à mettre en œuvre au-delà des frontières nationales. Il s’agira ainsi de mesurer le poids des représentations dans l’élaboration de systèmes nationaux ou transnationaux en matière d’éducation corporelle, alors que des enjeux éducatifs et/ou culturels viennent se greffer aux enjeux géopolitiques. Plusieurs questions structureront la réflexion: Pourquoi aller chercher ailleurs ce qui est disponible chez soi? Quels sont les éléments mis en exergue pour s’engager dans les pratiques d’enseignement? Quels sont les effets de ces transferts culturels sur l’identité de la discipline EPS? En interrogeant directement les pratiques scolaires d’éducation physique, nous chercherons aussi à montrer l’importance des obstacles que doivent surmonter les acteurs français dont certains cherchent à importer durant les heures officielles des leçons d’EP des formes d’enseignement conçues de part et d’autre du Rideau de fer. Alors que cette diversité des conceptions constitue une véritable chance pour défendre la place et le statut de l’EPS dans l’enseignement secondaire public, elle révèle aussi le rôle dynamique des nombreux rapports de force et de pouvoir qui s’établissent alors dans le champ de l’éducation physique scolaire. Une attention sera plus particulièrement apportée aux débats engendrés sur les possibles influences étrangères en matière de construction des modèles de masculinités et de féminités. Là encore, le jeu des acteurs individuels et/ou collectifs prendra toute sa signification historique pour mettre en évidence les enjeux idéologiques, professionnels et scientifiques de toute transformation et/ou circulation de savoirs de part et d’autre d’une frontière.



An Austrian Teacher Gerhard Schimidt: his participation in Jornadas Internacionais de Educação Física (Belo Horizonte, 1957 and 1959)

Cássia LIMA, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, Brazil; Gabriela ARANTES, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, Brazil

The consolidation of Physical Education field in Brazil has been consolidated from pedagogic, scientific and methodological contributions from several countries, mainly from Europe. The Physical Education legitimate came from a representation confluence, about this knowledge, coming from institutions, such as military, medical, sports and religious. It is possible to identify traffic knowledge on these various institutions that had been responsible about physical education. The last one was in constant dialogue with the knowledge built and elaborated in Europe. At Minas Gerais, several academic studies have engaged to know deeply its development in the early twentieth century. In the 1950s the influence of foreign knowledge, scientific and pedagogical models, is noted in the various strategies investment for physical education consolidation. As one of those investments the realization of improvement courses, technical and pedagogical, called Jornadas Internacionais de Educação Física. This formation course happened in Belo Horizonte in five editions (1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1962) The main objective of this initiative was to bring the modern concepts and methods produced for Physical Education in order to update the teacher’s and expert’s knowledge. The physical education teachers and students of Physical Education school in Minas Gerais, as well as important international teachers attended those meetings, they gave lectures and classes about specifics themes. In those formation meetings we highlight the unique presence of an Austrian teacher: Gerhard Schimidt, he attended two editions, the first in 1957 and the third in 1959, lecturing classes about General Gymnastics and Austrian Natural Method. In his trajectory was a member of the Austrian Union of Gymnastics, and assessor of the teacher Karl Gaulhofer, the Austrian Gymnastics Natural founder. Because of this relationship with this teacher, Gerhard Schimidt was invited to come to Brazil to participate in the formation courses in the cities of Santos e Belo Horizonte. We mobilize several kinds of sources, as newspaper, photographs, course’s plan and oral testimony. After the documentary corpus review, we can point his significant involvement and the presentation of one more pedagogical model for teaching Physical Education in Belo Horizonte, at the end of 1950’s. We had focused our attention on the ideas disseminated by this subject. We have to think about the transit of people and ideas, which means deliberate about the dynamics process. The pedagogical models can be reinterpreted by those who receive them, according to their interests, needs and demands. It is important to highlight how the changes happened between the subjects and they are impregnated by their own built meanings. We did interviews with three teachers who had participated in the Gerhard Schmidt’s classes. In their reports they reinforced the teaching of games and exercises taught by the Austrian teacher remained in their teaching practices for long time. There is a reference of a device called “German Combined”, which was presented for the Minas Gerais’s teachers by the Austrian. This device was present in several physical education practices in Minas Gerais, inside and outside of the schools.

South Australian Secondary School Gymnastic and the German Influence from 1874 – 1914



Vegneskumar MANIAM, The University of Adelaide, Australia; Grant RODWELL, The University of Adelaide, Australia

During the mid-and late-nineteenth-century the Australian colony of South Australia experienced large-scale settlement by German immigrants. In 1864, German gymnastics was introduced to South Australian by Prussian immigrant Adolph Leschen, who set up the Deutschen Turnverein (Gymnastic Association) in Flinders Street, Adelaide. In 1874, Sir Samuel Way, a member in one of Leschen’s classes, joined the State Education Board and argued for the inclusion of gymnastics in South Australian schools. Leschen, with the help of Way, introduced gymnastics in various state, independent and Catholic schools in South Australia as part of their physical education program. German gymnastics was also introduced in both girls’ and boys’ secondary schools in South Australia. German gymnastics was continued by his son Hugo Leschen and several other German instructors in different secondary schools in South Australia until the beginning of the World War I. This paper explores the history of German gymnastics in South Australian secondary schools from 1874-1914, until powerful and strident anti-German sentiment and military imperatives ensured the German gymnasium movement was masculinised and militarised in South Australia. This paper addresses issues associated with the transformation and circulation of knowledge; changes in meaning at the time of their transfer from one country/culture to another. It also discusses ideas associated with the channelling and transmission channels of ideas on education to targeted publics – adults, children, youth, people with disability – and to professionals of education. During its halcyon years, the South Australian German gymnastic movement characterised a production of different forms of schooling, and its variation from one period to another, and from one country to another.



Jeudi / Thursday 11:00 - 13:00 Room: 5389

2.7. Les missions chrétiennes et la promotion de modèles éducatifs (19e-20e siècles) / Christian missions and the promotion of educational models (19th - 20th cent.)

Chair: Ines DUSSEL

Une expérience de greffe d’un système d’éducation au Brésil par des femmes missionnaires méthodistes nord-américaines, entre 1870-1960: l’internationalisation d’une culture



Peri MESQUIDA, Université Catholique du Paraná, Brésil; Cesar AMARAL VIEIRA, Université Méthodiste de Piracicaba, Brésil

Les femmes missionnaires méthodistes d’origine nord-américaine avaient un rêve: conquérir l’élite brésilienne et exercer une influence sur la construction de la culture nationale. Ainsi, pour atteindre ce but, elles n’ont pas fait usage de l’église, mais ont fait l’option d’utiliser l’éducation en tant qu’instrument stratégique pour conquérir une position qui leur permettait d’influencer les politiques et même les destins du pays. Dans cette communication, nous soutenons la thèse que le succès de nouvelles idées et d’expériences novatrices exogènes dans une société est étroitement lié d’une part à la vitalité de ces idées et d’autre part à l’accueil offert par le corps sócio-polique de la société qui les reçoit. De ce fait, il importe que non seulement se produise la combinaison de plusieurs éléments d’ordre social, politique, économique et culturel, soit à l’intérieur de la société receptrice, soit à l’extérieur, mais aussi que la greffe exprime des intérêts réciproques. La présence de ces éléments a offert pendant la deuxième moitié du XIXème siècle le terrain favorable à la pénétration de l’éducation d’origine nord-américaine au Brésil. Dans le pays d’accueil, l’éducation d’origine nord-américaine était perçue par une élite favorable à la république comme un facteur du progrès et un élément capable d’aider le pays à suivre le chemin de la démocratie et du développement économique. Ainsi dans la mesure qu’il s’agissait d’une part de montrer aux gens la supériorité du protestantisme méthodiste par rapport au catholicisme, religion officielle, le méthodisme représentant une culture plus élevée et victorieuse, nourrie des principes de la civilisation chrétienne, et d’autre part, de former un “leadership” républicain, les femmes méthodistes d’origine nord-américaine ont fait appel à l’éducation scolaire, en créant des “collèges” pour l’élite et des écoles de paroisse pour le peuple: les collèges formeraient l’élite et les écoles civiliseraient le peuple. Les femmes missionnaires protestantes combattaient le catholicisme et en même temps afirmaient que le protestantisme méthodiste nord-américain est le pouvoir de Dieu capable de régénérer les individus, de sauver et de faire prospérer la nation. De ce fait se réjouit la presse républicaine représentant l’élite brésilienne affirmant que les écoles protestantes méthodistes forment les citoyens qui sortiront le pays de l’immobilisme et qui l’amèneront vers le progrès. Ce qui est certifié par Fernando de Azevedo (1971), chercheur de l’histoire de l’éducation brésilienne, lorsqu’il déclare que les femmes de l’Église méthodiste ont joué un rôle très important dans la pédagogie et dans la culture brésiliennes. Se rejouissant du rôle que les femmes éducatrices protestantes méthodistes d’origine nord-américaine ont joué au Brésil en faveur de la diffusion des idées, des principes et des valeurs nord-américains, le Président Lyndon Johnson a rendu hommage à Miss Layona Glenn et a octroyé un titre d’honneur à la missionnaire méthodiste qui a travaillé pendant un démi-siècle dans l’éducation brésilienne. Notre recherche historiographique et docummentaire a montré que les femmes missionnaires méthodistes d’origine nord-américaine ont contribué par leur action éducative à l’internationalisation des valeurs et de la culture nord-américaines au Brésil.

Katsina College and the Expansion of Western or European Education in Nigeria in the 20th Century: the Socio-economic and Political Implication on Nigeria as a Nation



Moses Sunday JAYEOLA-OMOYENI (Ph.D), Dept of Continuing Education, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria; Adegboyega Isaac AJAYI, Dept of History, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria

Katsina town in Nigeria was for more than a thousand years an Islamic Education center. The town had a long historical contacts with the muslims from the north Africa who had come via the Tran-sahara trade route into the Hausaland of the worthern Nigeria, to trade and thus firmly established their religion {Islam}among the hausa people. The coming of the Christian Missionaries to Nigeria and the consequent establishment of schools regarded as European/Western or Formal Education in the southern part of Nigeria from 1842 onwards, led to the conflict and total disaffection that existed between and among the people of the predominant Southern Christains and predominant Northern muslims of the Protectorates. Before 1922, efforts of the Christian Missionaries from the Southern Protectorate to have a place in the Northern Protectorate were always met with stiff resistance by the powerful muslim paramount leaders or rulers. The result of the two religious education in Nigeria brought about a wide educational gap and gulf, and educational imbalance between the north and south. However, establishment of Katsina College in 1922, seemed to be a tool to bridging the wide educational gap and gulf that existed between the two protectorates. Declaring open the college in 1922, Governor Oliver Clifford described the college as the first big Western Education institution in the north. This article analyses the impact of the founding of Katsina college and discusses how the college stimulates the expansion of Western education in the northern Nigeria. In addition, the article discusses the ways the ill-feeling of the powerful Emirs on the conversion of their children into Christianity, was wiped away. The establishment of the college allows the effective participation of the northerners who were hitherto fenced out because of the communication problem with the Colonial masters who could not speak the Arabic and Hausa languages for official transaction of government in the colonial civil service administration of the country. Katsina college might be seen as an educational instrument welding together the northern and southern protectorates of Nigeria and not the Frederick Lugard’s 1914 ceremonious amalgamation of the northern and southern protectorates. The article articulates various impacts of the expansion of Western education in the north and shows its influences in the overall socio-economic and political developments of Nigeria as a nation.

French founders, Irish teachers, global classrooms: cultural transfer at convent schools and novitiates: c. 1840-1940

Deirdre RAFTERY, School of Education, University College Dublin, Ireland

French founders, Irish teachers, global classrooms: cultural transfer at convent schools and novitiates: c. 1840-1940. Prof Deirdre Raftery, University College Dublin This paper examines the migration patterns and work of members of teaching congregations of women (nuns) in parts of the USA, Africa, South East Asia, France and Ireland, between 1840-1940. The paper also looks at how these women both experienced, and contributed to, the exchange of ideas, education practices, languages, culture, and daily routines within convent schools. Drawing on new and original research into four congregations of teaching nuns (Marist, St Louis, Sacred Heart, and Infant Jesus), the paper explores how these French foundations recruited thousands of members in Ireland, and sent them to work at schools around the globe, that were staffed by nuns from many countries. Little is known of the kind of cultural hybridity that this kind of movement formed within teaching congregations, and even less is known about the internal dynamics of these ‘teaching forces’ that were made up of a multiplicity of cultures. How were these women trained to teach diverse groups? How were they received? How did their work impact on individual pupils, on schools, and on society? What evidence exists of the kinds of cultural exchange that took place? These are some of the questions addressed in this paper, and they point us to early examples of cultural transfer that were part of the hidden curriculum of convent schooling for tens of thousands of children world-wide. While the paper draws on archival sources such as annals and letters, it also utilizes oral histories and contemporaneous visual records (photographs), pointing to methodologies that are useful for this kind of scholarship.

Legionaries of the Congregation of Notre Dame in South Hungary

Zsuzsanna Mária TAKACS, University of Pécs Faculty of Humanities, Hungary

In my presentation I hope to trace the initial history of the Congregation of Notre Dame, one of several teaching orders founded in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, in Hungary. My focus will be on the schools founded by the Congregation in the city of Pécs in the mid-nineteenth century under the guardianship of Queen Maria Anna, the wife of Emperor Ferdinand V. It is by introducing this “educational complex” that I hope to characterize the local girls’ school, the pedagogical activities of the foreign sisters, and the international relations cultivated by the institution from the second half of the nineteenth century to the First World War. Over the course of my research I relied mainly on the comparative analysis of archival materials in an effort to map the conditions of the sisters’ arrival, their work in Hungary and the international connections they fostered, which were to leave their mark on the educational practice of the Congregation in Hungary as well as on the life of the city of Pécs. The memoirs of a former student and later teacher allow us to glimpse into the every life of the school. This type of primary source sheds light on hitherto unexplored areas of the life of the Congregation. The Congregation of Notre Dame was founded in 1597. The first sisters came to Pressburg (Bratislava) in 1743 from the Regensburg convent. Over the course of the nineteenth century, a whole series of convents sprang up throughout Western Hungary. The sisters of the Congregation settled in Pécs in 1851, at the invitation of János Scitovszky, then Bishop of Pécs, later the Primate of Esztergom, and founded a school next to their convent. This school was to become, over the course of the next couple of decades, one of the most important educational institutions of the city. It was the Bishop’s hope to found an intermediate-level school for girls and young women in Western Hungary, seeing as there were no such institutions in the mid-nineteenth century. The convent often housed German and French sisters, some of whom remained in Hungary long enough to broaden the students’ knowledge of Western European culture. Some of the foreign sisters stayed on so long and achieved such high mastery of the Hunagrian language that they were able to teach Hungarian literature to Hungarian students and students belonging to various ethnic minorities alike. Based on the sources at our disposal, I can conclude that the Congregation of the Sisters of Notre Dame played a vital role in the development of intermediate-level girls’ education in Hungary. The teaching work of the sisters enabled both Hungarian and ethnic German students living in this particular region of Hungary to attain a level of education on par with that offered in the best French and German institutions of the Congregation.

Knowledge transfer in eighteenth-and nineteenth-century Scandinavia – the cultural gap between Copenhagen and Northern Norway

Liv Helene WILLUMSEN, University of Tromsoe, Norway

This presentation will focus on transformation of knowledge and a change in attitude to knowledge in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Scandinavia. The field of knowledge relates to mission and teacher training in northern Norway. In the capital of Denmark-Norway, Copenhagen, was founded in 1714 an institution aiming at education of missionaries and teachers for northern Norway. This institution, Missionskollegiet, helped financing schools for missionaries and teachers in the north throughout the eighteenth century. In northern Norway there was a special ethnic situation, as two ethnic groups with different languages lived side by side, the Norwegian and the Sami population. The defined intention on the part of Missionskollegiet was to provide missionaries and teachers to work among the Sami population. In 1826 the first official teacher training college in Norway was opened, located in the north. Before this opening, there was a debate in the Norwegian National Assembly related to its ideological and practical foundation. Among those who initiated this college, the need for education and mission in northern Norway was understood in a broader way than the aim of Missionskollegiet. Now the urge for education incorporated both the Norwegian and the Sami population. This change in meaning related to knowledge transfer from the Copenhagen institution to the implementation in Norway that is the core of my paper. The presentation will be structured in three parts. Firstly, I would like to present the intention of Missionskollegiet’s activity in Norway, which from their side was a peripheral field of mission alongside with Trankebar in India and Greenland. Secondly, I would like to examine in which way and to what extent Missionskollegiet participated in the running of the early Norwegian schools for education of missionaries and teachers before 1826. Thirdly, I would like to discuss the argumentation of the initiative-takers to the first public teacher training in Norway; how they used Missionskollegiet’s original argument of the necessity of mission and teaching among the Sami population in a way that included also the Norwegian population. Due to the understanding of a need for spread of Chistianity and education among the population in northern Norway as a whole, we see a change in intended knowledge transfer from one culture to another.




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