Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012

Christine MAYER, Universität Hamburg, Germany

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Christine MAYER, Universität Hamburg, Germany

The fact that school reform in Hamburg after WWI could be implemented so quickly and intensely was due to three reasons: (1) Hamburg’s public elementary school teachers were politically and socially active by tradition, and the Kunsterziehungsbewegung had also schooled them in cultural critique. The faculty thus had already engaged with, read, debated and embraced democratic demands (such as comprehensive schools, experimental schools and school autonomy) and reform ideas (such as Erziehung vom Kinde aus) before 1918. (2) The school administration itself was supportive of their efforts, with several of its Schulräte (school inspectors) later on recruited from among proponents of the reform movement. (3) The reform movement also found support among social engaged, often working-class parents. Although all four of the experimental and community schools founded in 1919 and 1920 were part of the Hamburger Schulgemeinschaft (the Hamburg school community), their programmes and developments were very different. They shared the goals of coeducation, autonomy in school administration and curriculum development, and the integration of parents, and sought the freedom to implement new forms of school organisation and instruction in order to realise the ideas of the reform movement. The schools were influential among educators both nationally and internationally, as the large number of visitors shows. Leaders of the Hamburg school reform movement frequently appeared at international education congresses such as the congress of the Internationale Vereinigung der Lehrerverbände (international union of teachers’ associations) in Berlin in 1928 or the fifth conference of the New Education Fellowship in Elsinore in 1929. Their experiment also had an influential international advocate in Elisabeth Rotten (1882-1964), founding member of the New Education Fellowship in 1921. This contribution will trace the international connection and relations of the Hamburg Versuchsschulen based on a variety of sources such as meeting minutes, school newspapers, diaries, conference proceedings, and reports of international visitors and educational traveller, following up the pathways through which pedagogical knowledge and practice circulated. At the same time, the question how the pedagogical concepts developed at the Hamburg experimental schools were received and perceived against the background of different cultural contexts and pedagogical experiences will be investigated with a view to understanding the internationalisation of pedagogical knowledge. In this context, a re-reading of the dissertation Le maître-camarade et la pédagogie libertaire (1936) which the Swiss educator Jakob Robert Schmid wrote under the supervision of Pierre Bovet (1878-1965), head of the Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute in Geneva, will also be interesting.

The Myth of the Ideal School: Circulation and Appropriation of the Hamburg School Reform in the Southern Countries

Maria del Mar DEL POZO ANDRES, University of Alcalá, Spain

In some of the Southern European countries the experimental schools of Hamburg were considered the most progressive schools in the world. Several well known teachers were going to visit them, acting not only as pedagogical travellers but also as educational pilgrims. Many articles about them were published in the most prominent professional journals. Although it was little influence in the daily school culture, the Hamburg reform played an important role in the building of the pedagogical knowledge. The Hamburg schools were considered the most advanced experiment in the field of self-government, the best experience of the "school community" and the pioneer model of connecting the family and the school. The fact that all of them were state schools, with many lower class students was an added value to an experiment that was presented as the more radical of the "New Education" experiences. In this paper we will try to detect and analyze the channels by which the knowledge about the Hamburg schools was introduced in the Southern countries – mainly France, Spain and Portugal. Several channels will be explored, like the pedagogical travellers and the educational books and journals. In second term, we will study the theoretical discourses built up around the Hamburg schools, identifying the key concepts that were defining this experience and the different appropriations that from every concept was done in everyone of the said countries. Finally, we will discuss if the influence of the Hamburg schools can be seen in some of the ideas and concepts that were extensively used in the pedagogical language of the twenties of the XXth century.

Alteration through translation: the spreading of a study on the experimental schools in Hamburg (1919 – 1933) in the 1970s

Christian ROITH, Universidad de Almería, Spain

After the revolution in 1918, many reformist teachers were convinced that they could put into practice their dreams of a free and independent school in a democratic republic. Four public schools in Hamburg became anti-authoritarian school communities, in which teachers, parents and students experimented with revolutionary concepts of education. The experiment failed: two schools voluntarily gave up their status as experimental schools in 1925, another school in 1930, and only one school was closed due to the national-socialist seizure of power. Nevertheless, the experimental schools in Hamburg attracted the attention of educationalists worldwide, welcoming a large number of visitors during their existence, and inspiring academic studies. The German-Swiss educationalist Robert Jakob Schmid presented a critical study on the Hamburg school communities with his doctoral thesis published in French during his stay in Geneva in 1936. His work fell into oblivion for more than three decades, until it was reprinted in French and later translated into German and Spanish in the 1970s, among others. The publishers of these editions were not interested in spreading Schmid’s critiques regarding the school communities, and distorted his argumentation by different means, such as partial translations, shortening the most critical aspects or adding long introductions. In this way, they tried to use Schmid’s study as a tool to support their own argumentative interests in the educational discourse of the 1970s.

Jeudi / Thursday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 1193

1.13. Symposium [Part 1]. Etudier l’internationalisation sur le terrain de l’éducation: approches couplant histoire et sociologie / Studying internationalisation in the domain of education: approaches combining history and sociology

[Part 2: session 2.16.]

Coordinator(s): Leonora DUGONJIC

Discussant: Leonora DUGONJIC

Selon Daniel Roche, les emprunts entre l’histoire et la sociologie ne constituent pas un risque aujourd’hui comme c’était le cas dans les années 1960. En effet, les recherches sur l’internationalisation s’inspirent souvent d’une approche en termes de transferts culturels (Espagne & Werner), d’une perspective comparée (Schriewer) ou transnationale (Saunier; Heilbron, Guilhot & Jeanpierre) de la théorie des champs (Bourdieu) ou de la théorie des systèmes-monde (Wallerstein, Meyer, De Swaan). Les sociologues emploient les concepts et les méthodes de l’historien (périodisation, prosopographie, travail sur archives, genèse des institutions, connaissance du contexte socio-historique concerné); de même, les historiens emploient les concepts et les méthodes du sociologue (étude des trajectoires, hiérarchie des institutions, offres et demandes scolaires). Quel est l’intérêt des approches couplant ainsi histoire et sociologie, notamment du point de vue des sources et des approches historiographiques? L’objectif du symposium est de débattre de méthodologie à partir de recherches empiriques qui associent les méthodes de l’historien et du sociologue pour étudier les dimensions inter- et trans- nationales de l’éducation et de la culture. Le thème sera abordé sous deux angles: 1) Comment les approches historiques et sociologiques de l’internationalisation peuvent-elles enrichir l’histoire de l’éducation? 2) Qu’est ce que l’histoire de l’éducation, dans sa dimension transnationale, permet-elle de repenser dans les concepts?

Les études de genre après le communisme: sociologie d’une discipline à vocation internationale

Ioana CIRSTOCEA, CNRS, GSPE-PRISME Strasbourg, France

Au titre des réformes postcommunistes, les systèmes universitaires des pays est-européens connaissent depuis le début des années 1990 une série de transformations structurelles qui ont notamment retenu l’attention des chercheurs s’intéressant aux aspects institutionnels, voire à la mise en place de normes et de modèles internationaux d’organisation de l’enseignement supérieur. Pour notre part, nous privilégions une perspective centrée sur les dynamiques sociales proprement dites des transformations systémiques et nous portons notre attention sur les acteurs qui les ont rendues possibles. L’entrée empirique choisie est une nouvelle discipline académique, à savoir les études sur le genre, dont il s’agit de déchiffrer les conditions d’émergence et d’affirmation. Ces études se sont installées dans le paysage académique est-européen pendant la première décennie postcommuniste, elles ont connu, selon les cas nationaux, une fortune plus ou moins heureuse en termes de stabilité et de reconnaissance institutionnelle et sont considérées désormais comme un domaine de production intellectuelle à part entière (Daskalova, 2010; 2011; Zimmermann, 2007; Cîrstocea, 2010). Centrant la focale analytique sur les groupes porteurs des études sur le genre dans l’espace est-européen, nous mettons en évidence l’hétéronomie constitutive de la nouvelle discipline et sa vocation originairement internationale. Nous nous penchons sur les ressources extra-académiques mises à la disposition des pionnières féministes dans le cadre de la promotion internationale de la démocratie et des droits des femmes sur le fond de l’affirmation du genre comme nouvelle norme de gouvernance globale; sur les nouvelles voies de professionnalisation ouvertes par des programmes d’éducation alternatifs au systèmes nationaux en place (par exemple les bourses et les programmes de formation proposés par des acteurs internationaux comme la fondation philanthropique de G. Soros); last but not least, sur des cadres transnationaux de sociabilité militante et de transmission de savoirs féministes constitués dans les conditions spécifiques d’après la fin de la guerre froide (réseaux de solidarité transatlantique, mobilisations internationales autour d’événements comme la Conférence mondiale des femmes de 1995). L’étude des trajectoires et des lieux de socialisation professionnelle des pionnières féministes fait apparaître les «configurations transnationales» (Saunier) auxquelles s’attache la sociogenèse de la nouvelle discipline: elles croisent d’une part des échelles d’action nationale, régionale et internationale et d’autre part des espaces d’action contrastés: programmes académiques, organisations militantes, fondations philanthropiques, institutions internationales. La vocation internationale de la nouvelle discipline n’est pleinement lisible qu’à la lumière d’une approche interdisciplinaire: il s’agit de restituer, d’une part, les conditions structurelles qui ont rendu possible l’innovation intellectuelle après la chute des régimes communistes et, d’autre part, son ancrage symbolique dans une histoire politique partagée par les pays est-européens. Cette histoire définit l’horizon de pensée des porte-paroles des études sur le genre tout en leur offrant à la fois un support de mobilisation identitaire et les moyens symboliques pour affirmer leur différence dans les arènes du féminisme globalisé des dernières décennies.

Des nouvelles recrues dans les écoles d’élite? Les pensionnaires d’une école privée de Suisse romande dans l’histoire de l’internationalisation de l’éducation

Caroline BERTRON, Ecole Normale Supérieure (Paris), France

Depuis une vingtaine d’années, les pensionnats privés de l’arc lémanique, lieu historique de formation des élites européennes et occidentales, accueillent une part croissante d’élèves en provenance de pays dits émergents. Une partie des élèves sont «envoyés» en Suisse par leurs parents pour recevoir une «éducation internationale». A partir d’une ethnographie d’un pensionnat, notre travail se penche sur les mécanismes de formation et de reproduction des élites, à travers la circulation internationale des enfants et les stratégies éducatives familiales. Nous cherchons à comprendre ce que signifie, pour des élites économiques non-occidentales, investir des lieux historiques de la reproduction des bourgeoisies et aristocraties européennes. A cet égard, il est nécessaire de replacer l’émergence de ces «nouveaux recrutements» dans l’histoire de la pédagogie nouvelle et des recrutements internationaux des écoles. La perspective transnationale, celle de la dispersion géographique des membres d’une même famille et des liens familiaux maintenus à distance, et l’orientation internationale, celle des institutions scolaires et des programmes éducatifs dispensés depuis le début du XXème siècle, sont autant d’éléments pour comprendre les transformations contemporaines des rapports de force globaux. Nos réflexions sur le contexte socio-historique des recrutements de l’école et la fécondité des méthodes historiques pour le sociologue s’ancreront donc sur les questions suivantes: 1) Comment comprendre la «nouvelle» internationalisation, extra-occidentale, des pensionnats privés au regard de ce qui a pu constituer au début du XXème siècle, une «première» internationalisation occidentale? L’évolution des discours de l’école sur les origines nationales des élèves et les changements institutionnels qui ont accompagné cette transition «démographique» des années 1990 seront privilégiés dans l’analyse. 2) Comment l’institution scolaire prend-elle en charge la circulation transnationale des enfants d’élites (à travers, notamment, la négociation des relations à distance entre parents et enfants scolarisés) et en quoi celle-ci s’inscrit-elle dans une histoire longue des rapports de l’institution à l’international? Les sources écrites sur les relations entre les parents et l’institution scolaire (correspondances, archives personnelles) nous permettront de comprendre l’évolution des exigences réciproques entre familles et institution (contrôle social, maintien de la langue maternelle, transferts d’argent, etc.) et d’apporter éventuellement un éclairage, pour l’historien de l’éducation internationale, sur le rôle des familles et de leurs projets éducatifs.

La perspective des transferts culturels en sciences de l'éducation

Alexandre FONTAINE, Universités de Fribourg et de Genève / ENS-Paris, Suisse / France

De manière condensée, on peut présenter la méthode des transferts culturels comme s'efforçant d’examiner de nouvelles possibilités de dépasser le cadre national de l’histoire culturelle, en étudiant de façon quasi micrologique le processus de translation d’un objet de son contexte d’émergence dans un nouveau contexte de réception. Cet examen oblige à mettre en valeur le rôle de diverses instances de médiations (voyageurs, traducteurs, éditeurs, etc.) ainsi que l’incontournable transformation sémantique liée à l’importation (Espagne, 2011). Cette dynamique historiographique, initiée il y a presque trente ans par Michel Espagne et Michael Werner, rassemble aujourd’hui une importante communauté de chercheurs à l’origine d’une large production de travaux multidisciplinaires. Si les spécialistes en sciences de l’éducation s’appliquent également à sonder les circulations, voire les métissages qui ont structuré et continuent à modéliser leur domaine en tant que science – ce congrès le prouve clairement – plutôt rares sont ceux à avoir puisé dans la boîte à outils des transferts culturels. Cette contribution aura donc pour but d’exposer l’utilité que la recherche sur les transferts culturels peut jouer dans une réévaluation des circulations et des échanges pédagogiques de la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. Au travers de quelques usages et réflexions tirés de notre Gesellschaftsbiographie du théoricien de l’éducation Alexandre Daguet (1816-1894), nous exposerons les grands axes de la méthode. Nous insisterons également sur les phénomènes de réappropriation et de resémantisation de concepts pédagogiques et éclairerons quelques racines étrangères de la pensée éducative helvétique dans une perspective de transferts culturels.

Jeudi / Thursday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 5193

1.14. La parole et l'image comme nouvelles approches / Images and orality: new approaches for the history of internationalization in education

Chair: Nadine FINK

Crossing borders in educational innovation. The use of foreign examples in textual and visual framing of Dutch comprehensive education in TV programmes, 1973-1977

Linda GREVELING, University of Groningen, Netherlands; Hilda AMSING, University of Groningen, The Netherlands; Jeroen DEKKER, University of Groningen, The Netherlands

This paper is part of a PhD-project about the representation of Dutch comprehensive education ('Middenschool'/Middle School) in media and politics. Focusing on the portrayal of Middle Schools in the period 1973-1977 in twelve TV programmes that were kept at the Dutch archive for television, this paper discusses the use of textual and visual framing, and the use of foreign examples of comprehensive education in this framing. Comprehensive education was an international phenomenon that aimed on integrating secondary education by uniting different educational tracks into one single comprehensive school curriculum. In the Netherlands, a political debate about comprehensive education took place from the 1970s onwards. As a member of the most left wing coalition cabinet in Dutch political history (Den Uyl, 1973-1977), known for its ambitious plans to change society, the social-democratic Minister of Education, Jos Van Kemenade, wrote two ambitious memoranda presenting an educational system with Middle Schools to postpone school choice, to stimulate equal chances, and to innovate the educational system pedagogically and didactically. Although agreeing on starting school experiments, the various political parties had differing opinions about implementing this school type into the educational system. Eventually, apart from some experimental ones, no comprehensive schools were established, due to the implementation of the so-called 'Basisvorming' in 1993. Some scholars attribute this failure of the introduction of Dutch comprehensive education to political change from a left wing to, in 1977, a centre-right government that was not willing to stimulate comprehensive education. However, the British case shows that this could not be the only explanation. In that specific case, withdrawal of governmental support did not lead to the expected decrease of the number of children visiting comprehensive schools, but, on the contrary, to an increase. Because television started to play a major role in the public and political debate in the period under study, the assumption of this paper is that the way the media portrayed the Middle School was highly important in the rise and failure of this innovation. With television having the capacity to show people visuals that enhance a particular reading of an issue, people can be influenced not only by the text they hear, but also by the images they see. From communication and media studies we know that framing an issue in a particular way can influence the way the public perceives that issue. Framing is a deliberately used device, not only used by politicians and journalists, but also by producers of TV programmes i.e. by setting the scene, portraying actors, using still and moving images. We use this theoretical concept of framing to analyse the twelve TV programmes about the Middle School. In these TV programmes, foreign examples of comprehensive education could be used to frame the Dutch Middle School i.e. as a deterrent or a shining example.

Seal of Approval: Education in the Iconography of the early 18th Century British Atlantic

Benjamin JUSTICE, Rutgers University, U.S.A.

This paper examines the ideological origins of education as a colonial project in the British Empire, analyzing the iconography of colonial seals. Before the modern era, colonial seals were a vital technology of imperial power, enabling colonial officials to exert royal authority remotely. Seals were expensive, carefully designed, scrupulously used and jealously guarded. Their imagery articulated the reason, from an imperial standpoint, for the existence of a given colony. As a result, seals tell us much about the variety and evolution of colonies as imperial projects. In many cases, education (in 17th century terms) figured centrally in a colonial seal, usually as a utopian conception. In the British Atlantic of the early 18th century, these seals reflected a hundred years of colonization and fell into three general types: those for uninhabited colonies, those for inhabited colonies, and those for colonies created by colonists. It is the middle group - colonies already inhabited by indigenous people and (less often) European settlers and African slaves - which demonstrate the centrality of the educative mission to the imperial project. From Colonial Massachusetts to Jamaica, New York to Georgia, colonial seals justified expansion into occupied territory as a form of tutelage. This tutelage was at once distinct from the English imagination of Roman Catholic imperialism, but paradoxically reflected long-established international conventions predating the Reformation. In some cases, colonial seals defined education in biblical terms; in others, the colony was a form of economic education. In any case, this paper argues, the idea of education worked to legitimize the legal and moral claims of the empire in the appropriation of new land and resources, rather than function as a fundamental purpose in itself. The iconography of colonial seals was thus utopian in both original meanings of Thomas More’s neologism—as a “true place,” a project in perfecting human happiness, and as a “no-place,” an impossibility. This study sits at the intersection of several bodies of scholarship. Historians have studied the iconography of the Early Republic of the United States, or they have studied the iconography of deputed seals within Scotland and Canada. In other cases (the Massachusetts Bay Colony seal of 1628, for example) historians have viewed a single seal within isolation of seals qua seals or seal scholarship (of which there is precious little). There is no comprehensive look at all the seals of the British Atlantic, never mind one that seeks to understand them as forms of political expression that change over time. Another, obvious body of scholarship, the ideological origins of the British Empire, is well populated and substantive, but still has ample room for studies of iconography (which are few), and education. The paper fits well with the conference theme of internationalization in Education, marking a useful chronological starting point for understanding the role of education in creating, and crossing, imperial boundaries instantiated within colonial governments.

The multicultural nation at school in Australian cinema

Josephine MAY, University of Newcastle, Australia

Because of their numbers, their European cultural backgrounds, and their visibility within urban settings, postwar European migrants to Australia challenged the Anglo-Celtic monoculture which had been achieved through various longstanding cultural, social and political exclusions and suppressions, especially of Australia’s Indigenous peoples. From the 1980s the tensions arising from the presence of large groups of non Anglo-Celtic migrants within Australian society was reflected increasingly in Australian cinema. This paper arises from the author’s research into the history of Australian education on film, specifically investigating cinematic representations of schooling in which the school is metaphorically or metonymically positioned as the ‘nation’. The paper focuses on the representations of secondary schooling in two Australian school films: Moving Out (1982) and Looking for Alibrandi (2000), both of which recount the coming of age experience of Italian-Australian youth. The paper utilises a ‘three generation’ model of cinematic immigrant representation to show how cinema began belatedly to reflect Australia’s multicultural reality. This model positions the first generation, the migrants themselves, as hard working survivors of the migration process, who try as best they can to retain their cultural traditions and language in the new land. This generation desires school success for its children, positioning education as the surest pathway to upward social mobility. The second generation, the children of the migrants, are presentist in orientation: they are bilingual, speaking English as their native tongue; they often resist or reject outright their ethnic traditions; and they desire to integrate fully into the dominant culture. For them the school presents a problematic experience based on binary oppositions of ‘them’ and ‘us’. Finally, the third generation exemplify the hybridity of multicultural society by celebrating their ethnic past, while moving confidently within the dominant culture to which they also belong. While in both Moving Out and Looking for Alibrandi, the school is an ambivalent agent of national exclusion and inclusion, by the end of Looking for Alibrandi, the third generation heroine Josie nevertheless achieves a type of reconciliation of identities, a synthesis encompassing her Italian thesis and Australian antithesis, a synthesis denied to the second generation Gino in Moving Out. In her journey of reconciliation of histories and cultures, Josie looks instrumentally to her exclusive private schooling to achieve the social mobility she herself desires. This third generation narrative arc suggests a new cosmopolitanism, signalling the movement away from ethnic identity as a ‘subnational’ category in earlier cinematic configurations, towards a more ‘transnational’ hybrid mode of being ‘Australian’. The paper shows how increasing internationalisation, most pointedly experienced within the Australian nation through increasing multiculturalism, has paradoxically meant an ongoing conscious re-examination of Australian national identity. In these films, and in many others, the secondary school looms large as an arena for this interrogation of national identity in the era of internationalisation.

International influences on the sudden reversal about gender issues in adult education policy in the second half of the 1960s (France)

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